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In JoVE (1)
- Quantitatively Measuring In situ Flows using a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)
Other Publications (6)
Articles by John H. Costello in JoVE
Quantitatively Measuring In situ Flows using a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)
Kakani Katija1, Sean P. Colin2,3, John H. Costello3,4, John O. Dabiri5
1Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2Environmental Science and Marine Biology, Roger Williams University, 3Marine Biology Laboratory, Whitman Center, 4Department of Biology, Providence College, 5Departments of Aeronautics and Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology
This protocol provides instructions on how to use a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus (SCUVA), which is designed for quantification of in situ animal-generated flows. In addition, this protocol addresses challenges posed by field conditions, and includes operator motion, predicting position of animals, and orientation of SCUVA.
Other articles by John H. Costello on PubMed
The Journal of Experimental Biology. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11854379
Jet propulsion, based on examples from the Hydrozoa, has served as a valuable model for swimming by medusae. However, cnidarian medusae span several taxonomic classes (collectively known as the Medusazoa) and represent a diverse array of morphologies and swimming styles. Does one mode of propulsion appropriately describe swimming by all medusae? This study examined a group of co-occurring hydromedusae collected from the waters of Friday Harbor, WA, USA, to investigate relationships between swimming performance and underlying mechanisms of thrust production. The six species examined encompassed a wide range of bell morphologies and swimming habits. Swimming performance (measured as swimming acceleration and velocity) varied widely among the species and was positively correlated with bell streamlining (measured as bell fineness ratio) and velar structure development (measured as velar aperture ratio). Calculated thrust production due to jet propulsion adequately explained acceleration patterns of prolate medusae (Aglantha digitale, Sarsia sp. and Proboscidactyla flavicirrata) possessing well-developed velums. However, acceleration patterns of oblate medusae (Aequorea victoria, Mitrocoma cellularia and Phialidium gregarium) that have less developed velums were poorly described by jet thrust production. An examination of the wakes behind swimming medusae indicated that, in contrast to the clearly defined jet structures produced by prolate species, oblate medusae did not produce defined jets but instead produced prominent vortices at the bell margins. These vortices are consistent with a predominantly drag-based, rowing mode of propulsion by the oblate species. These patterns of propulsive mechanics and swimming performance relate to the role played by swimming in the foraging ecology of each medusa. These patterns appear to extend beyond hydromedusae and thus have important implications for other members of the Medusazoa.
The Journal of Experimental Biology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15781886
Flow patterns generated by medusan swimmers such as jellyfish are known to differ according the morphology of the various animal species. Oblate medusae have been previously observed to generate vortex ring structures during the propulsive cycle. Owing to the inherent physical coupling between locomotor and feeding structures in these animals, the dynamics of vortex ring formation must be robustly tuned to facilitate effective functioning of both systems. To understand how this is achieved, we employed dye visualization techniques on scyphomedusae (Aurelia aurita) observed swimming in their natural marine habitat. The flow created during each propulsive cycle consists of a toroidal starting vortex formed during the power swimming stroke, followed by a stopping vortex of opposite rotational sense generated during the recovery stroke. These two vortices merge in a laterally oriented vortex superstructure that induces flow both toward the subumbrellar feeding surfaces and downstream. The lateral vortex motif discovered here appears to be critical to the dual function of the medusa bell as a flow source for feeding and propulsion. Furthermore, vortices in the animal wake have a greater volume and closer spacing than predicted by prevailing models of medusan swimming. These effects are shown to be advantageous for feeding and swimming performance, and are an important consequence of vortex interactions that have been previously neglected.
The Journal of Experimental Biology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16709905
Fast-swimming hydromedusan jellyfish possess a characteristic funnel-shaped velum at the exit of their oral cavity that interacts with the pulsed jets of water ejected during swimming motions. It has been previously assumed that the velum primarily serves to augment swimming thrust by constricting the ejected flow in order to produce higher jet velocities. This paper presents high-speed video and dye-flow visualizations of free-swimming Nemopsis bachei hydromedusae, which instead indicate that the time-dependent velar kinematics observed during the swimming cycle primarily serve to optimize vortices formed by the ejected water rather than to affect the speed of the ejected flow. Optimal vortex formation is favorable in fast-swimming jellyfish because, unlike the jet funnelling mechanism, it allows for the minimization of energy costs while maximizing thrust forces. However, the vortex ;formation number' corresponding to optimality in N. bachei is substantially greater than the value of 4 found in previous engineering studies of pulsed jets from rigid tubes. The increased optimal vortex formation number is attributable to the transient velar kinematics exhibited by the animals. A recently developed model for instantaneous forces generated during swimming motions is implemented to demonstrate that transient velar kinematics are required in order to achieve the measured swimming trajectories. The presence of velar structures in fast-swimming jellyfish and the occurrence of similar jet-regulating mechanisms in other jet-propelled swimmers (e.g. the funnel of squid) appear to be a primary factor contributing to success of fast-swimming jetters, despite their primitive body plans.
The Journal of Experimental Biology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17515413
Cnidarian medusae, commonly known as jellyfish, represent the earliest known animal taxa to achieve locomotion using muscle power. Propulsion by medusae requires the force of bell contraction to generate forward thrust. However, thrust production is limited in medusae by the primitive structure of their epitheliomuscular cells. This paper demonstrates that constraints in available locomotor muscular force result in a trade-off between high-thrust swimming via jet propulsion and high-efficiency swimming via a combined jet-paddling propulsion. This trade-off is reflected in the morphological diversity of medusae, which exhibit a range of fineness ratios (i.e. the ratio between bell height and diameter) and small body size in the high-thrust regime, and low fineness ratios and large body size in the high-efficiency regime. A quantitative model of the animal-fluid interactions that dictate this trade-off is developed and validated by comparison with morphological data collected from 660 extant medusan species ranging in size from 300 microm to over 2 m. These results demonstrate a biomechanical basis linking fluid dynamics and the evolution of medusan bell morphology. We believe these to be the organising principles for muscle-driven motility in Cnidaria.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20855619
In contrast to higher metazoans such as copepods and fish, ctenophores are a basal metazoan lineage possessing a relatively narrow set of sensory-motor capabilities. Yet lobate ctenophores can capture prey at rates comparable to sophisticated predatory copepods and fish, and they are capable of altering the composition of coastal planktonic communities. Here, we demonstrate that the predatory success of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi lies in its use of cilia to generate a feeding current that continuously entrains large volumes of fluid, yet is virtually undetectable to its prey. This form of stealth predation enables M. leidyi to feed as a generalist predator capturing prey, including microplankton (approximately 50 μm), copepods (approximately 1 mm), and fish larvae (>3 mm). The efficacy and versatility of this stealth feeding mechanism has enabled M. leidyi to be notoriously destructive as a predator and successful as an invasive species.
Ontogenetic Changes in the Bell Morphology and Kinematics and Swimming Behavior of Rowing Medusae: the Special Case of the Limnomedusa Liriope Tetraphylla
The Biological Bulletin. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21385952
Swimming animals may experience significant changes in the Reynolds number (Re) of their surrounding fluid flows throughout ontogeny. Many medusae experience Re environments with significant viscous forces as small juveniles but inertially dominated Re environments as adults. These different environments may affect their propulsive strategies. In particular, rowing, a propulsive strategy with ecological advantages for large adults, may be constrained by viscosity for small juvenile medusae. We examined changes in the bell morphology and swimming kinematics of the limnomedusa Liriope tetraphylla at different stages of development. L. tetraphylla maintained an oblate bell (fineness ratio ≈ 0.5-0.6), large velar aperture ratio (R(v) ≈ 0.5-0.8), and rapid bell kinematics throughout development. These traits enabled it to use rowing propulsion at all stages except the very smallest sizes observed (diameter = 0.14 cm). During the juvenile stage, very rapid bell kinematics served to increase Re sufficiently for rowing propulsion. Other taxa that use rowing propulsion as adults, such as leptomedusae and scyphomedusae, typically utilize different propulsive strategies as small juveniles to function in low Re environments. We compared the performance values of the different propulsive modes observed among juvenile medusae.