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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Jordi L. Tremoleda in JoVE
The Use of Pharmacological-challenge fMRI in Pre-clinical Research: Application to the 5-HT System
Anne Klomp1, Jordi L. Tremoleda2, Anouk Schrantee1, Willy Gsell2, Liesbeth Reneman1
1Department of Radiology, Brain Imaging Center, Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, 2Biological Imaging Centre, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London
The goal of this technique is to assess serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter function in the live and free-breathing animal with pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) and an intravenous challenge with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine.
Other articles by Jordi L. Tremoleda on PubMed
Cytoskeleton and Chromatin Reorganization in Horse Oocytes Following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: Patterns Associated with Normal and Defective Fertilization
Biology of Reproduction. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12646492
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the method of choice for fertilizing horse oocytes in vitro. Nevertheless, for reasons that are not yet clear, embryo development rates are low. The aims of this study were to examine cytoskeletal and chromatin reorganization in horse oocytes fertilized by ICSI or activated parthenogenetically. Additional oocytes were injected with a sperm labeled with a mitochondrion-specific vital dye to help identify the contribution of the sperm to zygotic structures, in particular the centrosome. Oocytes were fixed at set intervals after sperm injection and examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In unfertilized oocytes, microtubules were present only in the metaphase-arrested second meiotic spindle and the first polar body. After sperm injection, an aster of microtubules formed adjacent to the sperm head and subsequently enlarged such that at the time of pronucleus migration and apposition it filled the entire cytoplasm. During syngamy, the microtubule matrix reorganized to form a mitotic spindle on which the chromatin of both parents aligned. Finally, after nuclear and cellular cleavage were complete, the microtubule asters dispersed into the interphase daughter cells. Sham injection induced parthenogenetic activation of 76% of oocytes, marked by the formation of multiple cytoplasmic microtubular foci that later developed into a dense microtubule network surrounding the female pronucleus. The finding that a parthenote alone can produce a microtubule aster, whereas the aster invariably forms at the base of the sperm head during normal fertilization, indicates that both gametes contribute to the formation of the zygotic centrosome in the horse. Finally, 25% of sperm-injected oocytes failed to complete fertilization, mostly due to absence of oocyte activation (65%), which was often accompanied by failure of sperm decondensation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that union of the parental genomes in horse zygotes is accompanied by a series of integrated cytoskeleton-mediated events, failure of which results in developmental arrest.
Effects of in Vitro Production on Horse Embryo Morphology, Cytoskeletal Characteristics, and Blastocyst Capsule Formation
Biology of Reproduction. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12904313
Blastocyst formation rates during horse embryo in vitro production (IVP) are disappointing, and embryos that blastulate in culture fail to produce the characteristic and vital glycoprotein capsule. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of IVP on horse embryo development and capsule formation. IVP embryos were produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection of in vitro matured oocytes and either culture in synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) or temporary transfer to the oviduct of a ewe. Control embryos were flushed from the uterus of mares 6-9 days after ovulation. Embryo morphology was evaluated with light microscopy, and multiphoton scanning confocal microscopy was used to examine the distribution of microfilaments (AlexaFluor-Phalloidin stained) and the rate of apoptosis (cells with fragmented or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-positive nuclei). To examine the influence of culture on capsule formation, conceptuses were stained with a monoclonal antibody specific for capsular glycoproteins (OC-1). The blastocyst rate was higher for zygotes transferred to a sheep's oviduct (16%) than for those cultured in SOF (6.3%). Day 7 IVP embryos were small and compact with relatively few cells, little or no blastocoele, and an indistinct inner cell mass. IVP embryos had high percentages of apoptotic cells (10% versus 0.3% for in vivo embryos) and irregularly distributed microfilaments. Although they secreted capsular glycoproteins, the latter did not form a normal capsule but instead permeated into the zona pellucida or remained in patches on the trophectodermal surface. These results demonstrate that the initial layer of capsule is composed of OC-1-reactive glycoproteins and that embryo development ex vivo is retarded and aberrant, with capsule formation failing as a result of failed glycoprotein aggregation.
Expression and Localization of the Mu-opioid Receptor (MOR) in the Equine Cumulus-oocyte Complex and Its Involvement in the Seasonal Regulation of Oocyte Meiotic Competence
Molecular Reproduction and Development. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18213645
The micro-opioid receptor (MOR) was identified in equine oocytes, cumulus and granulosa cells. By RT-PCR, a 441bp fragment was observed. By immunoblotting, a 65 kDa band was detected in samples of winter anestrous whereas in cells recovered in breeding season, two bands, 65 and 50 kDa, were found. The 65 kDa band was significantly more intense in winter anestrous specimens. In samples recovered in the breeding season, this band significantly decreased with the raise of follicle size and was heavier in compact oocytes and cumulus cells. The protein was localized on the oolemma and within the cytoplasm of oocytes and cumulus cells. In vitro oocyte maturation rate (MR), analyzed by confocal microscopy for nuclear chromatin, microfilaments and microtubules, was reduced after the addition of 3 x 10(-8) M beta-endorphin in medium without additional hormones. Inhibitory effects of 10(-3) M Naloxone in oocytes collected in anestrous and spring transition were observed, both in presence and absence of hormones added to culture medium. Increased MRs were observed in oocytes collected in anestrous and cultured in presence of 10(-8) M Naloxone. The exposure to 10(-3) M Naloxone induced significant intracellular calcium increases in cumulus cells recovered all over the year. beta-Endorphin 3 x 10(-8) M induced significant calcium increases only in cumulus cells recovered in fall transition and anestrous. Naloxone 10(-8) M did not induce intracellular calcium modifications. We conclude that the MOR is differentially expressed in equine cumulus-oocyte complexes in the different seasons of the year and plays a role in the seasonal regulation of meiotic competence of equine oocytes.
Disturbed Blood Flow Induces RelA Expression Via C-Jun N-terminal Kinase 1: a Novel Mode of NF-κB Regulation That Promotes Arterial Inflammation
Circulation Research. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21350211
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway is involved in arterial inflammation. Although the signaling pathways that regulate transcriptional activation of NF-κB are defined, the mechanisms that regulate the expression levels of NF-κB transcription factors are uncertain.
International Journal of Molecular Imaging. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21603240
Molecular imaging has witnessed a tremendous change over the last decade. Growing interest and emphasis are placed on this specialized technology represented by developing new scanners, pharmaceutical drugs, diagnostic agents, new therapeutic regimens, and ultimately, significant improvement of patient health care. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) have their signature on paving the way to molecular diagnostics and personalized medicine. The former will be the topic of the current paper where the authors address the current position of the molecular SPECT imaging among other imaging techniques, describing strengths and weaknesses, differences between SPECT and PET, and focusing on different SPECT designs and detection systems. Radiopharmaceutical compounds of clinical as well-preclinical interest have also been reviewed. Moreover, the last section covers several application, of μSPECT imaging in many areas of disease detection and diagnosis.
EJNMMI Research. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22214535
ABSTRACT: Preclinical models for musculoskeletal disorders are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of bone and joint disorders in humans and the development of effective therapies. The assessment of these models primarily relies on morphological analysis which remains time consuming and costly, requiring large numbers of animals to be tested through different stages of the disease. The implementation of preclinical imaging represents a keystone in the refinement of animal models allowing longitudinal studies and enabling a powerful, non-invasive and clinically translatable way for monitoring disease progression in real time. Our aim is to highlight examples that demonstrate the advantages and limitations of different imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and optical imaging. All of which are in current use in preclinical skeletal research. MRI can provide high resolution of soft tissue structures, but imaging requires comparatively long acquisition times; hence, animals require long-term anaesthesia. CT is extensively used in bone and joint disorders providing excellent spatial resolution and good contrast for bone imaging. Despite its excellent structural assessment of mineralized structures, CT does not provide in vivo functional information of ongoing biological processes. Nuclear medicine is a very promising tool for investigating functional and molecular processes in vivo with new tracers becoming available as biomarkers. The combined use of imaging modalities also holds significant potential for the assessment of disease pathogenesis in animal models of musculoskeletal disorders, minimising the use of conventional invasive methods and animal redundancy.