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Articles by Joseph W. Horsman in JoVE
Het creëren van Defined Gasvormige omgevingen om de gevolgen van hypoxie Studie naar
Emily M. Fawcett1,2, Joseph W. Horsman1, Dana L. Miller1
1Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, 2Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington
Dit document beschrijft hoe u continue-stroom hypoxie kamers te gebruiken om atmosferen met bepaalde concentraties van O genereren
Other articles by Joseph W. Horsman on PubMed
A Glutathione S-transferase Catalyzes the Dehalogenation of Inhibitory Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Journal of Bacteriology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16740949
BphK is a glutathione S-transferase of unclear physiological function that occurs in some bacterial biphenyl catabolic (bph) pathways. We demonstrated that BphK of Burkholderia xenovorans strain LB400 catalyzes the dehalogenation of 3-chloro 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenyl-2,4-dienoates (HOPDAs), compounds that are produced by the cometabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the bph pathway and that inhibit the pathway's hydrolase. A one-column protocol was developed to purify heterologously produced BphK. The purified enzyme had the greatest specificity for 3-Cl HOPDA (kcat/Km, approximately 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), which it dechlorinated approximately 3 orders of magnitude more efficiently than 4-chlorobenzoate, a previously proposed substrate of BphK. The enzyme also catalyzed the dechlorination of 5-Cl HOPDA and 3,9,11-triCl HOPDA. By contrast, BphK did not detectably transform HOPDA, 4-Cl HOPDA, or chlorinated 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyls. The BphK-catalyzed dehalogenation proceeded via a ternary-complex mechanism and consumed 2 equivalents of glutathione (GSH) (Km for GSH in the presence of 3-Cl HOPDA, approximately 0.1 mM). A reaction mechanism consistent with the enzyme's specificity is proposed. The ability of BphK to dehalogenate inhibitory PCB metabolites supports the hypothesis that this enzyme was recruited to facilitate PCB degradation by the bph pathway.
Human Genetics. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17051368
Current cytogenetic methods (e.g., G-banding and multicolor chromosomal painting) allow detection of translocation events but lack the resolution to (a) locate the breakpoints precisely at the chromosome band level or (b) discriminate balanced translocations from translocations with copy number alterations not previously reported, or imperfectly balanced translocations. In this study, we demonstrate that cytogenetically balanced translocations are in fact frequently associated with segmental gain or loss of DNA. The recent development of a whole genome tiling path BAC array has enabled tiling resolution analysis of genomic segmental copy number status. Combining tiling resolution BAC array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) with G-Banding analysis and multicolor chromosomal painting approaches such as spectral karyotyping (SKY) facilitates high-resolution mapping of genomic alterations associated with imperfectly balanced translocations. Using a refined version of our CGH array we have deduced the copy number status throughout the genomes of three cytogenetically well-characterized prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, DU145, LNCaP) to determine whether translocations are associated with focal gains and losses of DNA. At 78 kb tiling resolution we identified the boundaries of 170, 80, and 34 known and novel copy number alterations (CNA) in these cell line genomes, respectively. Thirty-three of the 36 known translocations (92%, P < 0.001) in DU145 were associated with segmental CNA. Likewise, 80% (P < 0.001) of the known translocations showed association in LNCaP. Although many translocation breakpoints exhibit segmental alteration in PC3, the pattern of chromosomal rearrangements is too complex for use in comprehensive association with CNA boundaries. Our results reveal that imperfectly balanced translocations in tumor genomes are a phenomenon that occurs at frequencies much higher than previously demonstrated.
American Journal of Human Genetics. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17160897
Segmental copy-number variations (CNVs) in the human genome are associated with developmental disorders and susceptibility to diseases. More importantly, CNVs may represent a major genetic component of our phenotypic diversity. In this study, using a whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization assay, we identified 3,654 autosomal segmental CNVs, 800 of which appeared at a frequency of at least 3%. Of these frequent CNVs, 77% are novel. In the 95 individuals analyzed, the two most diverse genomes differed by at least 9 Mb in size or varied by at least 266 loci in content. Approximately 68% of the 800 polymorphic regions overlap with genes, which may reflect human diversity in senses (smell, hearing, taste, and sight), rhesus phenotype, metabolism, and disease susceptibility. Intriguingly, 14 polymorphic regions harbor 21 of the known human microRNAs, raising the possibility of the contribution of microRNAs to phenotypic diversity in humans. This in-depth survey of CNVs across the human genome provides a valuable baseline for studies involving human genetics.
Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18720523
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent lymphoma with a long median survival. Transformation to a more aggressive histology (TLy) is a major cause of mortality. The critical events leading to TLy are unknown. We assessed the prognostic significance of secondary cytogenetic alterations on overall survival (OS) and transformation from 210 diagnostic FL biopsies. We analyzed serial and transformed karyotypes for recurrent alterations that predict transformation. Over 10 years, 31% of cases developed TLy. The only alteration in diagnostic karyotypes that correlated with an inferior OS was an additional X chromosome in males only (P = 0.005) suggesting that other mechanisms including epigenetic factors and over-expression of genes on the X chromosome may play a role in FL pathogenesis. In transformed karyotypes, 8q24 (MYC) translocations were common (14/37) and resulted in a median survival of 3 months posttransformation (P = 0.01). In serially obtained biopsies (28 pts), 43% of the later biopsies lacked the cytogenetic alterations found in the original FL karyotype, suggesting that karyotypic progression of FL is not strictly linear in all cases. Consequently, studying clonal evolution in FL using serial biopsies may not represent the full complexity of genetic alterations leading to transformation.
High-resolution Whole Genome Tiling Path Array CGH Analysis of CD34+ Cells from Patients with Low-risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes Reveals Cryptic Copy Number Alterations and Predicts Overall and Leukemia-free Survival
Blood. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18663149
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) pose an important diagnostic and treatment challenge because of the genetic heterogeneity and poorly understood biology of the disease. To investigate initiating genomic alterations and the potential prognostic significance of cryptic genomic changes in low-risk MDS, we performed whole genome tiling path array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on CD34(+) cells from 44 patients with an International Prognostic Scoring System score less than or equal to 1.0. Clonal copy number differences were detected in cells from 36 of 44 patients. In contrast, cells from only 16 of the 44 patients displayed karyotypic abnormalities. Although most patients had normal karyotype, aCGH identified 21 recurring copy number alterations. Examples of frequent cryptic alterations included gains at 11q24.2-qter, 17q11.2, and 17q12 and losses at 2q33.1-q33.2, 5q13.1-q13.2, and 10q21.3. Maintenance of genomic integrity defined as less than 3 Mb total disruption of the genome correlated with better overall survival (P = .002) and was less frequently associated with transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (P = .033). This study suggests a potential role for the use of aCGH in the clinical workup of MDS patients.
Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Peripheral Blood Granulocytes of Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome Detects Karyotypic Abnormalities
American Journal of Clinical Pathology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20551276
The diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) relies largely on morphologic and karyotypic abnormalities, present in about 50% of patients with MDS. Array-based genomic platforms have identified copy number alterations in 50% to 70% of bone marrow samples of patients with MDS with a normal karyotype, suggesting a diagnostic role for these platforms. We investigated whether blood granulocytes harbor the same copy number alterations as the marrow of affected patients. Of 11 patients, 4 had cytogenetic abnormalities shown by conventional karyotyping involving chromosomes 5, 8, 11, 20, and X, and these changes were seen in the granulocytes of all 4 patients by using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Cryptic alterations were identified at a significantly higher level in marrow CD34+ cells compared with granulocytes (P < .0001). These data suggest that aCGH analysis of circulating granulocytes may be useful in detecting gross karyotypic alterations in patients with MDS when marrow examination has failed or not been done.
Overexpression of Hns in the Plant Growth-promoting Bacterium Enterobacter Cloacae UW5 Increases Root Colonization
Journal of Applied Microbiology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19951377
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) introduced into soil often do not compete effectively with indigenous micro-organisms for plant colonization. The aim of this study was to identify novel genes that are important for root colonization by the PGPR Enterobacter cloacae UW5.
Nature. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21796119
Follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the two most common non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs). Here we sequenced tumour and matched normal DNA from 13 DLBCL cases and one FL case to identify genes with mutations in B-cell NHL. We analysed RNA-seq data from these and another 113 NHLs to identify genes with candidate mutations, and then re-sequenced tumour and matched normal DNA from these cases to confirm 109 genes with multiple somatic mutations. Genes with roles in histone modification were frequent targets of somatic mutation. For example, 32% of DLBCL and 89% of FL cases had somatic mutations in MLL2, which encodes a histone methyltransferase, and 11.4% and 13.4% of DLBCL and FL cases, respectively, had mutations in MEF2B, a calcium-regulated gene that cooperates with CREBBP and EP300 in acetylating histones. Our analysis suggests a previously unappreciated disruption of chromatin biology in lymphomagenesis.