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In JoVE (1)
- الاعتراف ناقلة الغلوتامين البشرة بواسطة الأجسام المضادة IgA و 2 ناقلة الغلوتامين الأنسجة في حالة نادرة من القرد الجلد
Other Publications (17)
- The American Journal of Pathology
- Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Muscle & Nerve
- PloS One
- The American Journal of Pathology
- The American Journal of Pathology
- The American Journal of Pathology
- PloS One
- The American Journal of Pathology
- The American Journal of Pathology
- Journal of Neuroinflammation
- PloS One
- The American Journal of Pathology
- PloS One
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Articles by Juan T. Borda in JoVE
الاعتراف ناقلة الغلوتامين البشرة بواسطة الأجسام المضادة IgA و 2 ناقلة الغلوتامين الأنسجة في حالة نادرة من القرد الجلد
Karol Sestak1, Kaushiki Mazumdar1, Cecily C. Midkiff2, Jason Dufour3, Juan T. Borda2, Xavier Alvarez2
1Division of Microbiology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, 2Division of Comparative Pathology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, 3Division of Veterinary Medicine, Tulane National Primate Research Center
التهاب الجلد الحلئي (DH) هو مرض مزمن التهابات يتميز رد فعل المناعة الذاتية بين ايغا والبشرة ناقلة الغلوتامين (ETG). DH يتطور على جزء صغير جدا من المرضى الذين يعانون من الغلوتين الحساسة و / أو الاضطرابات الهضمية. نتائج هذه الدراسة تشير إلى أن درهم ويمكن أيضا أن تضع في مضيف قرد هندي صغير مع اعراض التهاب idiopatic.
Other articles by Juan T. Borda on PubMed
Medicina. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15338974
Acute renal failure is one of the systemic complications that can be found in bothropic accidents. In this study the effects on male Wistar rats induced by the venom of Bothrops neuwiedii diporus were evaluated. The histopathology revealed acute tubular necrosis, lesions firstly were observed 3 hours post inoculation of 700 microg of venom. Cortical kidney congestion and granulohialin degeneration of tubular epithelial cells were observed, these lesions achieved a maximum at 24 hours after inoculation. Tubular epithelial hidropic degeneration and dilatation of tubular lumen with hyalin casts were present inclusive up to 4 weeks after inoculation. Biochemical parameter values associated with kidney renal failure were increased 6 hours after venom inoculation (urea: 1.10+/-0.22 g/dl; creatinine: 19.60+/-1.51 mg/dl), but at the end of the first week they decreased till normal values. The urinary density was lower than normal value: 1.005+/-0.001 (p<0.001) and at the end of the first month they oscillated between 1.005 and 1.060 (p<0.001). Renal injury induced by B. neuwiedii diporus could be better appreciated by histopathology than by the routine laboratory assays.
Cell Tropism of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Culture is Not Predictive of in Vivo Tropism or Pathogenesis
The American Journal of Pathology. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15579453
SIVmac239/316 is a molecular clone derived from SIVmac239 that differs from the parental virus by nine amino acids in env. This virus, unlike the parental SIVmac239, is able to replicate well in alveolar macrophages in culture. We have not however, observed macrophage-associated inflammatory disease in any animal infected with SIVmac239/316. Therefore, we sought to examine the cell tropism of this virus in vivo in multiple tissues using in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry and multilabel confocal microscopy for viral nucleic acid and multiple cell-type-specific markers for macrophages and T lymphocytes. Tissues examined included brain, heart, lung, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and small and large intestine. Matched tissues from macaques infected with the parental SIVmac239 and uninfected macaques were also examined. Many infected cells were detected in the tissues of animals infected with SIVmac239 and SIVmac239/316 although there appeared to be fewer positive cells in animals infected with SIVmac239/316. Surprisingly, in light of the cell culture observations, nearly every simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cell in animals inoculated with SIVmac239/316 was a T lymphocyte rather than a macrophage. This was true both during early infection (first 2 months) and in terminal disease. In contrast, as previously described, SIVmac239 was found in both T cells and macrophages in tissues as early as 21 days after infection. These studies indicate that during both acute and chronic SIVmac239/316 infection T lymphocytes rather than macrophages are the principal targets in vivo. These data combined with the absence of macrophage-associated lesions in SIVmac239/316-infected animals indicate that in vitro cell tropism is not predictive of in vivo tropism or disease pathogenesis.
Visualizing Cytokine-secreting Cells in Situ in the Rhesus Macaque Model of Chronic Gut Inflammation
Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15643006
Cytokine-producing cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of rhesus macaques with chronic enterocolitis were studied. The confocal microscopy technique that we developed enables simultaneous in situ visualization of multiple extra- and/or intracellular antigens at a resolution higher than that allowed by light or epifluorescence microscopy. The presence of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-, and IL-1-alpha-producing cells was focally intense in the colon lamina propria of the affected animals. The IL-1-alpha-producing cells were T lymphocytes (CD3+), while the TNF-alpha-producing cells were both macrophages (CD68+/HAM56+/LN5+) and T lymphocytes (CD3+). The IL-6-producing cells within the colon consisted of T lymphocytes and macrophages. The amount of IL-6-producing cells seen in macaques with enterocolitis was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that seen in the healthy control animal, while TNF-alpha- and IL-1-alpha-producing cells were seen only in macaques with enterocolitis. Most of the T lymphocytes that produced cytokines were detected in the lamina propria, while the macrophages were most prominent in highly inflamed regions of the lamina propria. Taken together, our findings indicate that there might be immunological similarity between chronic enterocolitis of rhesus macaques and humans, suggesting the potential use of the nonhuman primate model for the validation of novel therapies.
Characterization of Cytolethal Distending Toxin of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Captive Macaque Monkeys
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15695658
An association between certain Campylobacter species and enterocolitis in humans and nonhuman primates is well established, but the association between cytolethal distending toxin and disease is incompletely understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine Campylobacter species isolated from captive conventionally raised macaque monkeys for the presence of the cdtB gene and for cytolethal distending toxin activity. The identity of each isolate was confirmed on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic analyses. The presence of cytolethal distending toxin was confirmed on the basis of characteristic morphological changes in HeLa cells incubated with filter-sterilized whole-cell lysates of reference and monkey Campylobacter isolates and examinations by light microscopy, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry. Although cdtB gene sequences were found in both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the production of cytolethal distending toxin correlated positively (P < 0.0001) only with C. jejuni. We concluded that cytolethal distending toxin activity is a characteristic of C. jejuni. Our C. jejuni cdtB gene-specific PCR assay might be of assistance for differentiating toxigenic C. jejuni from C. coli in clinical laboratories.
Muscle & Nerve. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15937878
Krabbe disease is a progressive leukodystrophy that results in demyelination in the central and peripheral nervous systems in humans. It has been described in a number of mammalian species including the rhesus monkey. We performed serial nerve conduction studies beginning within the first 2 months of life in four homozygous, two heterozygous, and two normal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to characterize the peripheral neuropathy. Mean conduction velocities of the median, ulnar, and tibial nerves were significantly slower in the affected than unaffected monkeys at all ages (P < 0.0001). The conduction velocity differences became more apparent between the affected and unaffected as the monkeys aged. When compared to the unaffected monkeys, the serial conduction velocities suggested occurrence of dysmyelination followed by demyelination in the affected monkeys. These observations provide further insight into the disease process and suggest an early window of opportunity for treating Krabbe disease.
A Decline in CCL3-5 Chemokine Gene Expression During Primary Simian-human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17684570
The CC-chemokines CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 have been found to block the entry of CCR5-tropic HIV into host cells and to suppress the viral replication in vitro, but the in vivo role of endogenous CC-chemokines in HIV-1 infection is still incompletely understood.
Gastrointestinal Disease in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Rhesus Macaques is Characterized by Proinflammatory Dysregulation of the Interleukin-6-Janus Kinase/signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription3 Pathway
The American Journal of Pathology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18055558
Gastrointestinal disease and inflammation are common sequelae of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that lead to gastrointestinal dysfunction remain unclear. We investigated regulation of the interleukin (IL)-6-JAK-STAT3 pathway in jejunum and colon, collected at necropsy, from 10 SIV-infected macaques with diarrhea (group 1), 10 non-SIV-infected macaques with diarrhea (group 2), and 7 control uninfected macaques (group 3). All group 1 and 2 macaques had chronic diarrhea, wasting, and colitis, but group 1 animals had more frequent and severe lesions in the jejunum. A significant increase in IL-6 and SOCS-3 gene expression along with constitutive STAT3 activation was observed in the colon of all group 1 and 2 macaques and in the jejunum of only group 1 macaques compared to controls. Further, in colon, histopathology severity scores correlated significantly with IL-6 (groups 1 and 2) and SOCS-3 (group 2) gene expression. In jejunum, a similar correlation was observed only in group 1 animals. Phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) was localized to lymphocytes (CD3+) and macrophages (CD68+), with fewer CD3+ lymphocytes expressing p-STAT3 in group 1 macaques. Despite high SOCS-3 expression, STAT3 remained constitutively active, providing a possible explanation for persistent intestinal inflammation and immune activation that may favor viral replication and disease pro-gression.
Clinical and Immunopathologic Alterations in Rhesus Macaques Affected with Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy
The American Journal of Pathology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18165263
Globoid cell leukodystrophy, or Krabbe's disease, is a severe disorder of the central and peripheral nervous system caused by the absence of galactocerebrosidase (GALC) activity. Herein, we describe the clinical, neuropathological, histochemical, and immunohistological features observed in rhesus macaques affected with Krabbe's disease. Clinical signs included pronounced muscle tremors of head and limbs, difficulty ambulating, ataxia, hypermetria, proprioceptive deficits, and respiratory abnormalities. Histopathologically, all animals presented with evidence of demyelination in the peripheral and central nervous systems and accumulation of mononuclear and multinuclear globoid cells in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter associated with severe gliosis. Using immunohistochemistry and multi-label confocal microscopy, it was determined that globoid cells were CD68+, HAM56+, LN5+, CD163+, IBA-1+, and Glut-5+, suggesting that both peripheral blood-derived monocytes/macrophages and resident parenchymal microglia gave rise to globoid cells. Interestingly, many of the globoid cells and parenchymal microglia with a more ameboid morphology expressed HLA-DR, indicating immune activation. Increased expression of iNOS, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta were observed in the affected white matter, colocalizing with globoid cells, activated microglia, and astrocytes. Cytokine mRNA levels revealed markedly increased gene expression of CCL2 in the brain of affected macaques. CCL2-expressing cells were detected throughout the affected white matter, colocalizing with GFAP+ cells and astrocytes. Collectively, these data suggest that dysregulation of monocyte/macrophage/microglia and up-regulation of certain cytokines may contribute to the pathogenesis of Krabbe's disease.
CD163, a Marker of Perivascular Macrophages, is Up-regulated by Microglia in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis After Haptoglobin-hemoglobin Complex Stimulation and is Suggestive of Breakdown of the Blood-brain Barrier
The American Journal of Pathology. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18276779
Macrophages and microglia are the major cell types infected by human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the central nervous system. Microglia are likely infected in vivo, but evidence of widespread productive infection (ie, presence of viral RNA and protein) is lacking. This conclusion is controversial because, unlike lymphocytes, macrophages and microglia cannot be discreetly immunophenotyped. Of particular interest in the search for additional monocyte/macrophage-lineage cell markers is CD163; this receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complex, which forms in plasma following erythrolysis, is expressed exclusively on cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. We examined CD163 expression in vitro and in vivo by multiple techniques and at varying times after SIV infection in macaques with or without encephalitis. In normal and acutely SIV-infected animals, and in SIV-infected animals without encephalitis, CD163 expression was detected in cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage, including perivascular macrophages, but not in parenchymal microglia. However, in chronically infected animals with encephalitis, CD163 expression was detected in activated microglia surrounding SIV encephalitis lesions in the presence of Hp-Hb complex, suggesting leakage of the blood-brain barrier. CD163 expression was also induced on microglia in vitro after stimulation with Hp-Hb complex. We conclude that CD163 is a selective marker of perivascular macrophages in normal macaques and during the early phases of SIV infection; however, later in infection in animals with encephalitis, CD163 is also expressed by microglia, which are probably activated as a result of vascular compromise.
PloS One. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18286171
Gluten sensitivity is widespread among humans. For example, in celiac disease patients, an inflammatory response to dietary gluten leads to enteropathy, malabsorption, circulating antibodies against gluten and transglutaminase 2, and clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. There is a growing need in fundamental and translational research for animal models that exhibit aspects of human gluten sensitivity.
CCAAT/enhancer Binding Protein Beta is a Major Mediator of Inflammation and Viral Replication in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Rhesus Macaques
The American Journal of Pathology. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18535173
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a major target of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Chronic GIT disease and inflammation are common sequelae to HIV/SIV infection. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms that cause and maintain GIT dysfunction remain unclear. We investigated the contribution of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) to GIT disease and viral replication in jejunum and colon collected at necropsy from 12 SIV-infected (group 1), or 10 uninfected macaques with chronic diarrhea (group 2), and 9 uninfected control macaques (group 3). All group 1 and 2 macaques had chronic diarrhea, wasting, and colitis, but group 1 animals had more severe lesions in the jejunum. C/EBPbeta gene expression increased significantly in colon of groups 1 and 2 and in jejunum of only group 1 macaques compared with controls. In group 1 animals, CEBPbeta expression was localized predominantly to macrophages and occasionally lymphocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the binding of C/EBPbeta and p65 to the SIV long terminal repeat region in colonic lamina propria cells, suggesting a mechanistic link between inflammation and activation of viral replication in vivo. This is the first in vivo study describing the transcriptional changes and immunophenotypic localization of C/EBPbeta in the GIT of SIV-infected macaques. More importantly, these data provide a molecular mechanism for persistent inflammation and immune activation leading to increased SIV burden and GIT pathology in SIV-infected macaques and perhaps HIV-infected individuals.
Interaction of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia Burgdorferi with Brain Parenchyma Elicits Inflammatory Mediators from Glial Cells As Well As Glial and Neuronal Apoptosis
The American Journal of Pathology. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18832582
Lyme neuroborreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, often manifests by causing neurocognitive deficits. As a possible mechanism for Lyme neuroborreliosis, we hypothesized that B. burgdorferi induces the production of inflammatory mediators in the central nervous system with concomitant neuronal and/or glial apoptosis. To test our hypothesis, we constructed an ex vivo model that consisted of freshly collected slices from brain cortex of a rhesus macaque and allowed live B. burgdorferi to penetrate the tissue. Numerous transcripts of genes that regulate inflammation as well as oligodendrocyte and neuronal apoptosis were significantly altered as assessed by DNA microarray analysis. Transcription level increases of 7.43-fold (P = 0.005) for the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha and 2.31-fold (P = 0.016) for the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 were also detected by real-time-polymerase chain reaction array analysis. The immune mediators IL-6, IL-8, IL-1beta, COX-2, and CXCL13 were visualized in glial cells in situ by immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. Concomitantly, significant proportions of both oligodendrocytes and neurons undergoing apoptosis were present in spirochete-stimulated tissues. IL-6 production by astrocytes in addition to oligodendrocyte apoptosis were also detected, albeit at lower levels, in rhesus macaques that had received in vivo intraparenchymal stereotaxic inoculations of live B. burgdorferi. These results provide proof of concept for our hypothesis that B. burgdorferi produces inflammatory mediators in the central nervous system, accompanied by glial and neuronal apoptosis.
Blood. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19383966
It is widely accepted that destruction of CD4(+) T cells and viral load are the primary markers for immunodeficiency in HIV-1-infected humans and in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques. However, monocyte/macrophages are also important targets of HIV/SIV infection and a critical link between innate and adaptive immunity. We therefore examined whether changes in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage could be linked to the pathogenesis of AIDS in the rhesus macaque model. Here, we show that massive turnover of peripheral monocytes associated with death of tissue macrophages correlates with AIDS progression in macaques. More importantly, the level of monocyte turnover was not linked to the CD4(+) T-cell count and was a better predictive marker for AIDS progression than was viral load or lymphocyte activation. Our results show the importance of monocyte/macrophages in the pathogenesis of AIDS and suggest the dynamic changes of the monocyte/macrophages as a new marker for AIDS progression.
Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19706181
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) may present as meningitis, cranial neuropathy, acute radiculoneuropathy or, rarely, as encephalomyelitis. We hypothesized that glia, upon exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, produce inflammatory mediators that promote the acute cellular infiltration of early LNB. This inflammatory context could potentiate glial and neuronal apoptosis.
Visualization of Transepithelial Passage of the Immunogenic 33-residue Peptide from Alpha-2 Gliadin in Gluten-sensitive Macaques
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20419103
Based on clinical, histopathological and serological similarities to human celiac disease (CD), we recently established the rhesus macaque model of gluten sensitivity. In this study, we further characterized this condition based on presence of anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) antibodies, increased intestinal permeability and transepithelial transport of a proteolytically resistant, immunotoxic, 33-residue peptide from alpha(2)-gliadin in the distal duodenum of gluten-sensitive macaques.
Neurokinin-1 Receptor (NK1-R) Expression in the Brains of SIV-infected Rhesus Macaques: Implications for Substance P in NK1-R Immune Cell Trafficking into the CNS
The American Journal of Pathology. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20671267
Recent studies suggest a link between neuropsychiatric disorders and HIV/SIV infection. Most evidence indicates that monocytes/macrophages are the primary cell type infected within the CNS and that they contribute to CNS inflammation and neurological disease. Substance P (SP), a pleotropic neuropeptide implicated in inflammation, depression, and immune modulation via interaction with its cognate receptor, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-R), is produced by monocyte/macrophages. While the presence of NK1-R on neurons is well known, its role on cells of the immune system such as monocyte/macrophages is just beginning to emerge. Therefore, we have examined the expression of SP and NK1-R and their relationship to SIV/HIV encephalitis (SIVE/HIVE) lesions and SIV-infected cells. These studies demonstrated intense expression of SP and NK1-R in SIVE lesions, with macrophages being the principal cell expressing NK1-R. Interestingly, all of the SIV-infected macrophages expressed NK1-R. Additionally, we examined the functional role of SP as a proinflammatory mediator of monocyte activation and chemotaxis. These studies demonstrated that treatment of monocytes with SP elicited changes in cell-surface expression for CCR5 and NK1-R in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, pretreatment with SP enhanced both SP- and CCL5-mediated chemotaxis. All of these findings suggest that SP and NK1-R are important in SIV infection of macrophages and the development of SIVE lesions.
Persistence of Borrelia Burgdorferi in Rhesus Macaques Following Antibiotic Treatment of Disseminated Infection
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22253822
The persistence of symptoms in Lyme disease patients following antibiotic therapy, and their causes, continue to be a matter of intense controversy. The studies presented here explore antibiotic efficacy using nonhuman primates. Rhesus macaques were infected with B. burgdorferi and a portion received aggressive antibiotic therapy 4-6 months later. Multiple methods were utilized for detection of residual organisms, including the feeding of lab-reared ticks on monkeys (xenodiagnosis), culture, immunofluorescence and PCR. Antibody responses to the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 diagnostic peptide were measured longitudinally and declined in all treated animals. B. burgdorferi antigen, DNA and RNA were detected in the tissues of treated animals. Finally, small numbers of intact spirochetes were recovered by xenodiagnosis from treated monkeys. These results demonstrate that B. burgdorferi can withstand antibiotic treatment, administered post-dissemination, in a primate host. Though B. burgdorferi is not known to possess resistance mechanisms and is susceptible to the standard antibiotics (doxycycline, ceftriaxone) in vitro, it appears to become tolerant post-dissemination in the primate host. This finding raises important questions about the pathogenicity of antibiotic-tolerant persisters and whether or not they can contribute to symptoms post-treatment.