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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (42)
- Annals of Neurology
- Journal of Neuro-oncology
- Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Analytical Biochemistry
- Journal of Neurosurgery
- Acta Neuropathologica
- Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
- Journal of Neurosurgery
- Journal of Neurosurgery
- Journal of Neuro-oncology
- Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
- Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
- Acta Neuropathologica
- Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
- Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Progress in Neurological Surgery
- Acta Neuropathologica
- Leukemia & Lymphoma
- Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
- Cancer Research
- The Review of Scientific Instruments
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Journal of Neuro-oncology
- Neurobiology of Disease
- The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Anesthesia and Analgesia
- Genome Research
- Cancer Cell
- The Journal of Endocrinology
- Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Articles by Jung H. Kim in JoVE
Preparation of Artificial Bilayers for Electrophysiology Experiments
Ruchi Kapoor, Jung H. Kim, Helgi Ingolfson, Olaf Sparre Andersen
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University
Planar lipid bilayers, also called artificial lipid bilayers, allow you to study ion-conducting channels in a well-defined environment. Here, we demonstrate the individual steps needed to prepare the bilayer chamber, the electrodes and how to test that the bilayer is suitable for single-channel measurements.
Other articles by Jung H. Kim on PubMed
Epilepsia. Jul, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12102672
Several findings suggest that energy metabolism and the glutamate-glutamine cycle may be impaired in epilepsy. Positron emission tomography often shows interictal hypometabolism of the epileptogenic hippocampus. In vivo microdialysis studies show that seizure-associated glutamate release is doubled, and clearance is slowed. We hypothesized that the glutamate-glutamine cycle between neurons and glia may be decreased in the epileptic human hippocampus.
Annals of Neurology. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12402262
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by hippocampal atrophy, hypometabolism, and decreased N-acetylaspartate, often attributed to neuron loss and gliosis. Twenty hippocampal specimens were obtained during temporal lobectomy and frozen quickly. Perchloric acid extracts of the small metabolites were analyzed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There were no significant associations between hippocampal neuron loss and the cellular content of N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, GABA, glutamine, or aspartate. The mean metabolite content of hippocampi with less than 30% of neurons remaining was the same as those with greater than 65% of neurons surviving. Mean N-acetylaspartate levels were below those reported by in vivo studies of control subjects. The highest and the lowest glutamate concentrations were seen in specimens with the worst neuron loss. A highly significant association between hippocampal N-acetylaspartate and glutamate content was seen with weak associations between N-acetylaspartate and aspartate and glutamate and aspartate. The hippocampal content of N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, GABA, glutamine, and aspartate is altered minimally by severe neuron loss in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. The epileptic human hippocampus has increased intracellular glutamate content that may contribute to the epileptogenic nature of hippocampal sclerosis.
Journal of Neuro-oncology. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12587791
Masson's vegetant intravascular hemangioendothelioma has only been reported intracranially in 12 patients. The pathological diagnosis is important given its benign natural history. We report the 13th case in a woman who presented with headaches and dysphasia. A thorough literature review is presented and an appropriate management strategy is proposed.
N-glycan Structures of Human Transferrin Produced by Lymantria Dispar (gypsy Moth) Cells Using the LdMNPV Expression System
Glycobiology. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12672704
N-glycan structures of recombinant human serum transferrin (hTf) expressed by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) 652Y cells were determined. The gene encoding hTf was incorporated into a Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. This virus was then used to infect Ld652Y cells, and the recombinant protein was harvested at 120 h postinfection. N-glycans were released from the purified recombinant human serum transferrin and derivatized with 2-aminopyridine; the glycan structures were analyzed by a two-dimensional HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS. Structures of 11 glycans (88.8% of total N-glycans) were elucidated. The glycan analysis revealed that the most abundant glycans were Man1-3(+/-Fucalpha6)GlcNAc2 (75.5%) and GlcNAcMan3(+/-Fucalpha6)GlcNAc2 (7.4%). There was only approximately 6% of high-mannose type glycans identified. Nearly half (49.8%) of the total N-glycans contained alpha(1,6)-fucosylation on the Asn-linked GlcNAc residue. However alpha(1,3)-fucosylation on the same GlcNAc, often found in N-glycans produced by other insects and insect cells, was not detected. Inclusion of fetal bovine serum in culture media had little effect on the N-glycan structures of the recombinant human serum transferrin obtained.
A Retrospective Analysis of Hippocampal Pathology in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Evidence for Distinctive Patient Subcategories
Epilepsia. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12752467
This study is a retrospective analysis of the pathology of the hippocampus from patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. We attempted to relate neuronal density, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiologic data, and surgical outcome.
Brainstem Involvement by Mycosis Fungoides in a Patient with Large-cell Transformation: a Case Report and Review of Literature
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12753174
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by mycosis fungoides (MF) is rare. As compared to meningeal involvement, intraparenchymal spread is especially rare. It is usually seen in advanced disease in conjunction with lymph node or visceral involvement. However, CNS involvement in the absence of progressive skin lesions or other extracutaneous involvement has been reported rarely in patients with transformed MF.
Neurology. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12771256
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is characterized by hippocampal atrophy, decreased N-acetyl-aspartate, and a low N-acetyl-aspartate/total creatine ratio, often attributed to neuron loss and gliosis. Qualitative studies reported that N-acetyl-aspartate content was significantly lower in hippocampal sclerosis.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12928402
West Nile (WN) virus causes fatal meningoencephalitis in laboratory mice, thereby partially mimicking human disease. Using this model, we have demonstrated that mice deficient in gammadelta T cells are more susceptible to WN virus infection. TCRdelta(-/-) mice have elevated viral loads and greater dissemination of the pathogen to the CNS. In wild-type mice, gammadelta T cells expanded significantly during WN virus infection, produced IFN-gamma in ex vivo assays, and enhanced perforin expression by splenic T cells. Adoptive transfer of gammadelta T cells to TCRdelta(-/-) mice reduced the susceptibility of these mice to WN virus, and this effect was primarily due to IFN-gamma-producing gammadelta T cells. These data demonstrate a distinct role for gammadelta T cells in the control of and prevention of mortality from murine WN virus infection.
Epilepsia. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15281952
Although MRS measurements are useful in assessing the biochemical alterations underlying human epilepsy, to date their use has been limited primarily by three factors: (a) the lack of widespread methods and appropriate hardware for acquiring high-resolution spectroscopic imaging data, (b) difficulties in spectral interpretation associated with metabolic heterogeneity, and (c) difficulties in biological interpretation due to a lack of correlative histologic studies. In this work, we (a) describe approaches to overcome these hurdles, and (b) discuss the biological interpretation of the spectroscopic findings in TLE.
Analytical Biochemistry. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15450799
Cycling probe technology (CPT), which utilizes a chimeric DNA-RNA-DNA probe and RNase H, is a rapid, isothermal probe amplification system for the detection of target DNA. Upon hybridization of the probe to its target DNA, RNase H cleaves the RNA portion of the DNA/RNA hybrid. Utilizing CPT, we designed a catalytically cleavable fluorescence probe (CataCleave probe) containing two internal fluorophores. Fluorescence intensity of the probe itself was weak due to Förster resonance energy transfer. Cleavage of the probe by RNase H in the presence of its target DNA caused enhancement of donor fluorescence, but this was not observed with nonspecific target DNA. Further, RNase H reactions with CataCleave probe exhibit a catalytic dose-dependent response to target DNA. This confirms the capability for the direct detection of specific target DNA through a signal amplification process. Moreover, CataCleave probe is also ideal for detecting DNA amplification processes, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal rolling circle amplification (RCA). In fact, we observed signal enhancement proportional to the amount of RCA product formed. We were also able to monitor real-time PCR by measuring enhancement of donor fluorescence. Hence, CataCleave probe is useful for real-time monitoring of both isothermal and temperature-cycling nucleic acid amplification methods.
Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: a Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study and a Histopathological Analysis
Journal of Neurosurgery. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15481715
Proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy imaging of the ratio of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) to creatine (Cr) has proved efficacious as a localizing tool in demonstrating the metabolic changes associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. To analyze the significance of these MR spectroscopy findings further, the authors explored the relationship between regional alterations in the NAA/Cr ratio in hippocampi measured preoperatively and histopathological findings in hippocampi resected in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).
Acta Neuropathologica. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15517312
The hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is often hardened and shrunken, a condition known as sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals an increase in the T2-weighted signal, while diffusion weighted imaging shows a higher apparent diffusion coefficient in sclerotic hippocampi, indicating increased water content. As water transport appears to be coupled to K+ clearance and neuronal excitability , the molecular basis of the perturbed water homeostasis in the sclerotic hippocampus was explored. The expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), the predominant water channel in the brain, was studied with quantitative real time PCR analysis, light microscopic immunohistochemistry and high-resolution immunogold labeling. A significant increase in AQP-4 was observed in sclerotic, but not in non-sclerotic, hippocampi obtained from patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. This increase was positively correlated with an increase in the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. AQP-4 was localized to the plasma membranes of astrocytes including the perivascular end-feet. Gene expression associated with increased AQP-4 was evaluated by high throughput gene expression analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip U133A and related gene networks were investigated with Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. AQP-4 expression was associated with a decrease in expression of the dystrophin gene, a protein implicated in the anchoring of AQP-4 in perivascular endfeet. The decreased expression of dystrophin may indicate a loss of polarity in the distribution of AQP-4 in astrocytes. We conclude that the perturbed expression of AQP-4 and dystrophin may be one factor underlying the loss of ion and water homeostasis in the sclerotic hippocampus and hypothesize that the reported changes may contribute to the epileptogenic properties of the sclerotic tissue.
Increased Expression of Erythropoietin Receptor on Blood Vessels in the Human Epileptogenic Hippocampus with Sclerosis
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14748563
Microvascular (capillary) proliferation is a readily observed, but largely ignored phenomenon of the mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) hippocampus. Here, we report that the proliferated capillaries in surgically resected MTLE hippocampi were strongly immunoreactive for erythropoietin receptor (EPO-r). Further, we found that these capillaries were most prominent in areas of the MTLE hippocampus with extensive neuronal loss and gliosis, i.e. the CA3, CA1, and dentate hilus. High-resolution immunogold electron microscopy revealed that the capillary EPO-r was localized to the luminal and abluminal plasma membrane of endothelial cells, to endosome-like structures of these cells, and to pericapillary astrocytic end-feet. Previous studies have shown that systemically administered EPO appears in the cerebrospinal fluid in experimental animals, and the present results are consistent with the idea that EPO enters the brain via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The enrichment of EPO-r shown here suggests a highly efficient uptake of plasma EPO into the MTLE hippocampus and a possible role for this cytokine in epileptogenesis. Moreover, the presence of EPO-r in the MTLE hippocampus may provide a new vehicle for highly efficient delivery of hitherto impermeable drugs into the epileptic brain.
Journal of Neurosurgery. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15255252
Reports of outcomes for surgical treatment of cortical dysplasia associated with epilepsy are conflicting due to the inclusion of patients with a wide range of malformations of cortical development. The authors report their experience and the long-term outcome for a subgroup of patients with the histopathological diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia of Taylor.
Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma: Cytologic Findings and Differential Diagnosis on Aspiration Material
CytoJournal. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15644137
BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) is a rare WHO Grade I tumor of infancy that is characterized by large volume, superficial location, invariable supratentoriality, fronto-parietal lobe predilection and morphologically, by an admixture of astroglial and neuroepithelial elements in a desmoplastic milieu. With over 50 cases described, the histologic and radiographic spectrum of DIG has been well-characterized. The superficial location of DIGs may render them greatly amenable to preoperative assessment utilizing aspiration cytology; however, the cytologic features of this rare tumor have only been reported once previously. CASE PRESENTATION: We present herein cytomorphologic findings from the intraoperative aspiration of a typical case of DIG diagnosed in a 1-year-old male. As evaluated on a single liquid-based preparation, the specimen showed low cellularity and was comprised predominantly of a population of dispersed (occasionally clustered) large neuronal cells with eccentrically located hyperchromatic nuclei (which were occasionally binucleated) and abundant unipolar cytoplasm. Rare smaller astroglial cells were intermixed. Despite the tumor's characteristic desmoplastic histologic appearance, no stromal fragments were identified on the aspiration material. CONCLUSIONS: A differential diagnosis is presented and analyzed in detail and it is concluded that when these large neuronal cells are encountered in an aspirate of a brain mass in a child, a combination of clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical parameters can eliminate most of the differential possibilities.
Normal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: the Clinical Syndrome of Paradoxical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Journal of Neurosurgery. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15926717
The syndrome of medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) may occur in patients in whom magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrate normal findings. In these patients, there is no evidence of hippocampal sclerosis on neuroimaging, and histopathological examination of the resected hippocampus does not reveal significant neuron loss. In this paper the authors describe the distinct clinical features of this MTLE subtype, referred to as paradoxical temporal lobe epilepsy (PTLE).
Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor in a Pregnant Adult Female: Literature Review of Central Nervous System Rhabdoid Tumors
Journal of Neuro-oncology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16132523
Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are uncommon, aggressive childhood malignancies. The 13 described adult cases comprise both primary CNS tumors and malignant transformation of previously existing gliomas, meningiomas, and astrocytomas. Central nervous system rhabdoid lesions of adults have been diagnosed as primary malignant rhabdoid tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and more recently, rhabdoid glioblastomas. We report a case of a 20-year-old woman in her 30th week of pregnancy who presented with headache, nausea and blurry vision. MRI revealed a large rim-enhancing mass of the right occipital lobe. Gross total resection was achieved via a right parietal-occipital craniotomy. Pathologic evaluation revealed histology, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry consistent with the diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumor. FISH studies were negative for the INI-1 genetic mutations and chromosome 22q deletion associated with childhood atypical rhabdoid/rhabdoid tumor in 75% of cases. The patient delivered her infant via caesarian section prior to initiating further therapy. We briefly describe the characteristics and current understanding of rhabdoid tumors, and review the literature comparing the 12 other cases of central nervous system rhabdoid tumors in adults. Furthermore, we consider and discuss the implications of this case being the second presentation of MRT during pregnancy in only six adult female patients.
Monomorphous Angiocentric Glioma: a Distinctive Epileptogenic Neoplasm with Features of Infiltrating Astrocytoma and Ependymoma
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16215459
We present 8 examples of a neoplasm with features of both astrocytoma and ependymoma that may represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity. The cerebral hemispheric tumors occurred in patients that were 3, 4, 12, 14, 15, 26, 30, and 37 years of age. All presented with seizures that, with the exception of 2, began in childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed ill-defined, T2-hyperintense, generally noncontrast-enhancing lesions that, although centered on the cortex or amygdala, extended into the underlying white matter for a short distance. Histologically, the variably infiltrative tumors were distinctively angiocentric with well-developed perivascular pseudorosettes in some cases. Longitudinal and/or circumferential orientations of perivascular cells were common also. The cells were uniform in their cytologic features from case to case and were bipolar in all but one case. A glial nature was inferred from immunoreactivity for GFAP, and ependymal differentiation was suggested by positivity for EMA in three cases and ultrastructural features in one. Overall, the tumors were biologically indolent except for one that recurred and ultimately proved fatal.
Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16400620
It was reported that gastric motility was delayed and gastric acid secretion was reduced in vagotomized dogs which mimics a low gastric acidity in humans. A delay in gastric motility causes long residence of amlodipine in the stomach. More unionized fractions of amlodipine could exist in less acidic conditions of gastrointestinal fluids, since amlodipine is a weak basic drug with pKa of 8.7. Hence, gastrointestinal absorption of amlodipine is expected to be enhanced and the time to reach a peak plasma concentration of amlodipine (Tmax) is faster in vagotomized dogs. This was proven after oral administration of an amlodipine orotate tablet at a dose of 5 mg as amlodipine in vagotomized dogs. For example, in vagotomized dogs, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measured time, 48 h, in plasma (AUC(0-48 h)) was significantly greater (725 versus 348 ng h/ml) and Tmax was significantly shorter (1.50 versus 5.00 h) than those in dogs without vagotomy.
Acta Neuropathologica. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16456667
The gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3 were localized by immunohistochemistry in hippocampi removed for the control of medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The study aimed to determine the relationship of GABA transporter expression to known patterns of hippocampal hyperexcitability and extracellular GABA levels. GAT-1 was localized in axon terminals and small neuronal cell bodies, and in non-sclerotic hippocampi was strongly expressed throughout all regions of the hippocampal formation. In the epileptogenic hippocampus exhibiting Ammon's horn sclerosis, immunoreactivity was reduced in the sclerotic regions CA3 and CA1, and around the cell bodies of dentate granule cells, but was increased along granule cell dendrites. GAT-3 was weakly expressed, if at all, in non-sclerotic hippocampi, but more prominently expressed in sclerotic hippocampi. GAT-3 expression was confined to cells resembling protoplasmic astrocytes, which were located in regions of relative neuronal sparing such as the dentate gyrus and hilus of the sclerotic hippocampus. The reduction in GAT-1 around granule cells in the sclerotic hippocampus could explain the prolonged GABA responses in this region. The loss of GAT-1 (a marker of GABAergic terminals) would also suggest a reduced GABAergic input to the granule cells, thus facilitating hyperexcitability. The increased GAT-3 expression in astrocytes in regions of relative neuronal sparing in the sclerotic hippocampus may be related to the overall low levels of extracellular GABA observed in the sclerotic hippocampus and their increased excitability.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16683696
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16890238
A monolayer of Co-Pt alloy nanoparticles in the nanometer-size regime was fabricated using a nanotemplate approach. 1.7-nm-thick Co46Pt54 film was deposited onto a preexisting array of Ni seed particles embedded in a polyimide film. During subsequent annealing, the deposited Co46Pt54 film coalesced onto the seed particles to produce a monolayer of Co-Pt alloy particles. Deposition and annealing were repeated to increase both average particle size and volume fraction of the alloy particles. It was also shown that the annealing temperature was critical in controlling the particle size distribution and the final composition of the nanoparticles. This method of forming a single layer of vertically aligned nanoparticles can be easily extended to a large area as well as to produce a different combination of alloy particles on a polymer film.
Epilepsia. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16922873
Pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are still poorly understood. One major hypothesis links alterations in energy metabolism to glutamate excitotoxicity associated with seizures in TLE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in the activities of enzymes critical in energy and neurotransmitter metabolism contributed to the alterations in metabolic status leading to the excitotoxic effects of glutamate.
SHP-2 Activates Signaling of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells to Promote Skeletal Muscle Growth
The Journal of Cell Biology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17015617
The formation of multinucleated myofibers is essential for the growth of skeletal muscle. The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promotes skeletal muscle growth. How NFAT responds to changes in extracellular cues to regulate skeletal muscle growth remains to be fully defined. In this study, we demonstrate that mice containing a skeletal muscle-specific deletion of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 (muscle creatine kinase [MCK]-SHP-2 null) exhibited a reduction in both myofiber size and type I slow myofiber number. We found that interleukin-4, an NFAT-regulated cytokine known to stimulate myofiber growth, was reduced in its expression in skeletal muscles of MCK-SHP-2-null mice. When SHP-2 was deleted during the differentiation of primary myoblasts, NFAT transcriptional activity and myotube multinucleation were impaired. Finally, SHP-2 coupled myotube multinucleation to an integrin-dependent pathway and activated NFAT by stimulating c-Src. Thus, SHP-2 transduces extracellular matrix stimuli to intracellular signaling pathways to promote skeletal muscle growth.
Progress in Neurological Surgery. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17317996
Radiosurgery is being investigated as an alternative to open surgical resection for patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Additionally, the biological effects of mesial temporal radiosurgery are being evaluated using several animal models. The mechanisms through which radiosurgery exerts antiepileptic effects have not yet been proven, but time and dose dependency have been repeatedly demonstrated. Thus, there is a need to carefully examine the histological changes in patients who have undergone radiosurgical treatment of epilepsy.
Increased Expression of Phosphate-activated Glutaminase in Hippocampal Neurons in Human Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Acta Neuropathologica. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17115168
Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) have increased basal concentrations of extracellular glutamate in the epileptogenic versus the non-epileptogenic hippocampus. Such elevated glutamate levels have been proposed to underlie the initiation and maintenance of recurrent seizures, and a key question is what causes the elevation of glutamate in MTLE. Here, we explore the possibility that neurons in the hippocampal formation contain higher levels of the glutamate synthesizing enzyme phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) in patients with MTLE versus patients with other forms of temporal lobe epilepsy (non-MTLE). Increased PAG immunoreactivity was recorded in subpopulations of surviving neurons in the MTLE hippocampal formation, particularly in CA1 and CA3 and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. Immunogold analysis revealed that PAG was concentrated in mitochondria. Double-labeling experiments indicated a positive correlation between the mitochondrial contents of PAG protein and glutamate, as well as between PAG enzyme activity and PAG protein as determined by Western blots. These data suggest that the antibodies recognize an enzymatically active pool of PAG. Western blots and enzyme activity assays of hippocampal homogenates revealed no change in PAG between MTLE and non-MTLE, despite a greatly (>50%) reduced number of neurons in the MTLE hippocampal formation compared to non-MTLE. Thus, the MTLE hippocampal formation contains an increased concentration and activity of PAG per neuron compared to non-MTLE. This increase suggests an enhanced capacity for glutamate synthesis-a finding that might contribute to the disrupted glutamate homeostasis in MTLE.
N-3 Fatty Acids Preserve Insulin Sensitivity in Vivo in a Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-alpha-dependent Manner
Diabetes. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17251275
Recent studies have suggested that n-3 fatty acids, abundant in fish oil, protect against high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activation and a subsequent decrease in intracellular lipid abundance. To directly test this hypothesis, we fed PPAR-alpha null and wild-type mice for 2 weeks with isocaloric high-fat diets containing 27% fat from either safflower oil or safflower oil with an 8% fish oil replacement (fish oil diet). In both genotypes the safflower oil diet blunted insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (P < 0.02 vs. genotype control) and PEPCK gene expression. Feeding wild-type mice a fish oil diet restored hepatic insulin sensitivity (hepatic glucose production [HGP], P < 0.002 vs. wild-type mice fed safflower oil), whereas in contrast, in PPAR-alpha null mice failed to counteract hepatic insulin resistance (HGP, P = NS vs. PPAR-alpha null safflower oil-fed mice). In PPAR-alpha null mice fed the fish oil diet, safflower oil plus fish oil, hepatic insulin resistance was dissociated from increases in hepatic triacylglycerol and acyl-CoA but accompanied by a more than threefold increase in hepatic diacylglycerol concentration (P < 0.0001 vs. genotype control). These data support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids protect from high-fat diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance in a PPAR-alpha-and diacylglycerol-dependent manner.
Leukemia & Lymphoma. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17454629
The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate clinical features and treatment outcomes in patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), data of which were collected over a 15-year period. Sixty-five patients diagnosed with AITL were included in the study. About half of the patients (46.2%) presented with poor performance status (ECOG > or = 2); 72.3% of patients belonged to high intermediate or high-risk of IPI and same proportion belonged to Class 2 of PIT (Prognostic index for PTCL-U), and most patients (95.4%) were diagnosed at an advanced stage. At diagnosis, 27 patients (41.5%) presented with malignant pleural effusion, and 22 patients (33.8%) had skin involvement. Most of the initial chemotherapy regimens were anthracycline-based (88.2%). Overall response rate to initial chemotherapy was 86.2% (64.7% of complete response, 21.5% of partial response). The median progression-free survival and overall survival of all patients was 7.1 months (95% CI, 2.8 - 11.4) and 15.1 months (95% CI, 6.7 - 23.5), respectively. Age, performance status, and PIT scores were predictive prognostic factors for survival. In conclusion, although AITLs showed a good response to the initial chemotherapy, their response durations were short; therefore, chemotherapy for AITL should be modified or intensified as in high-dose chemotherapy.
Gene Expression in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy is Consistent with Increased Release of Glutamate by Astrocytes
Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). Jan-Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17515952
Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often have a shrunken hippocampus that is known to be the location in which seizures originate. The role of the sclerotic hippocampus in the causation and maintenance of seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has remained incompletely understood despite extensive neuropathological investigations of this substrate. To gain new insights and develop new testable hypotheses on the role of sclerosis in the pathophysiology of TLE, the differential gene expression profile was studied. To this end, DNA microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression profiles in sclerotic and non-sclerotic hippocampi surgically removed from TLE patients. Sclerotic hippocampi had transcriptional signatures that were different from non-sclerotic hippocampi. The differentially expressed gene set in sclerotic hippocampi revealed changes in several molecular signaling pathways, which included the increased expression of genes associated with astrocyte structure (glial fibrillary acidic protein, ezrin-moesin-radixin, palladin), calcium regulation (S100 calcium binding protein beta, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4) and blood-brain barrier function (Aquaaporin 4, Chemokine (C-C- motif) ligand 2, Chemokine (C-C- motif) ligand 3, Plectin 1, intermediate filament binding protein 55kDa) and inflammatory responses. Immunohistochemical localization studies show that there is altered distribution of the gene-associated proteins in astrocytes from sclerotic foci compared with non-sclerotic foci. It is hypothesized that the astrocytes in sclerotic tissue have activated molecular pathways that could lead to enhanced release of glutamate by these cells. Such glutamate release may excite surrounding neurons and elicit seizure activity.
Cancer Research. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17804737
Integrative analysis of genomic aberrations in the context of trancriptomic alterations will lead to a more comprehensive perspective on prostate cancer progression. Genome-wide copy number changes were monitored using array comparative genomic hybridization of laser-capture microdissected prostate cancer samples spanning stages of prostate cancer progression, including precursor lesions, clinically localized disease, and metastatic disease. A total of 62 specific cell populations from 38 patients were profiled. Minimal common regions (MCR) of alterations were defined for each sample type, and metastatic samples displayed the most number of alterations. Clinically localized prostate cancer samples with high Gleason grade resembled metastatic samples with respect to the size of altered regions and number of affected genes. A total of 9 out of 13 MCRs in the putative precursor lesion, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), showed an overlap with prostate cancer cases (amplifications in 3q29, 5q31.3-q32, 6q27, and 8q24.3 and deletions in 6q22.31, 16p12.2, 17q21.2, and 17q21.31), whereas postatrophic hyperplasia (PAH) did not exhibit this overlap. Interestingly, prostate cancers that do not overexpress ETS family members (i.e., gene fusion-negative prostate cancers) harbor differential aberrations in 1q23, 6q16, 6q21, 10q23, and 10q24. Integrative analysis with matched mRNA profiles identified genetic alterations in several proposed candidate genes implicated in prostate cancer progression.
The Review of Scientific Instruments. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18315327
This paper presents the development of a new compact six-axis compliant stage employing piezoelectric actuators to achieve six-axis actuation with nanometer resolution. The integration of direct metrology in the object space, based on real-time visual feedback, enables high-precision motion control. In order to achieve greater motion range, the simple and compact decoupled mechanical structure utilizes two-tap displacement amplifiers for in-plane motion and semibridge amplifiers for out-of-plane motion. The kinematic analysis of the stage is presented. Laterally sampled white light interferometry was implemented to measure the out-of-plane motion of the stage, and a measurement model associated with the designed target patterns is developed to estimate the in-plane motion in real time. Together, they form a visual tracking system and are integrated with the six-axis compliant stage to realize precision six-axis real-time visual servo-control. Experimental results demonstrate that the six-axis compliant stage has the motion range of 77.42 microm, 67.45 microm, 24.56 microm, 0.93 mrad, 0.95 mrad, and 3.10 mrad, and the resolution of +/-5 nm, +/-8 nm, +/-10 nm, +/-10 murad, +/-10 murad, and +/-20 murad for x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis translation and rotation, respectively.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19008416
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a mammalian histone methyltransferase that contributes to the epigenetic silencing of target genes and regulates the survival and metastasis of cancer cells. EZH2 is overexpressed in aggressive solid tumors by mechanisms that remain unclear. Here we show that the expression and function of EZH2 in cancer cell lines are inhibited by microRNA-101 (miR-101). Analysis of human prostate tumors revealed that miR-101 expression decreases during cancer progression, paralleling an increase in EZH2 expression. One or both of the two genomic loci encoding miR-101 were somatically lost in 37.5% of clinically localized prostate cancer cells (6 of 16) and 66.7% of metastatic disease cells (22 of 33). We propose that the genomic loss of miR-101 in cancer leads to overexpression of EZH2 and concomitant dysregulation of epigenetic pathways, resulting in cancer progression.
Journal of Neuro-oncology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19030779
Fibrous histiocytomas are rare lesions, more commonly encountered in soft tissues and bones. They are uncommon as an intracranial lesion. Although there have been several reports about malignant fibrous histiocytomas, less is known about the benign variant of these intracranial tumors as they are often misclassified as other types of tumors. We describe a child who presented with seizure and was subsequently found to have a large temporal lesion. Pathology revealed benign fibrous histiocytoma. We also review other cases reported in the literature in an effort to provide further insight into the diagnosis and management of this rare tumor.
Polar Groups in Membrane Channels: Consequences of Replacing Alanines with Serines in Membrane-spanning Gramicidin Channels
Biochemistry. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20695525
To explore the consequences of burying polar, hydrogen-bonding hydroxyl groups within the hydrocarbon core of lipid bilayer membranes, we examined the structural and functional effects of alanine-to-serine substitutions in bilayer-spanning gramicidin channels. A native Ala was replaced by Ser at position 3 or 5 in the gramicidin A (gA) sequence: formyl-VG(2)A(3)LA(5)VVVWLWLWLW-ethanolamide (d-residues underlined). In the head-to-head dimers that form the conducting, membrane-spanning gA channels, these sequence positions are located near the lipid bilayer center (and subunit interface). The sequence substitutions at positions 3 and 5 were tested within the context of having either Gly or d-Ala at position 2, because d-Ala(2) causes the channel lifetimes to increase 3-fold relative to Gly(2) [Mattice et al. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 6827]. Size-exclusion chromatograms and circular dichroism spectra show that the Ala --> Ser replacements are well tolerated and have little effect on channel structure. In planar bilayers, the Ser-substituted gramicidins form well-defined channels, with cation conductances that are approximately 60% of those of the reference channels. The Ser-substituted channels are structurally equivalent to native gramicidin channels, as demonstrated by the formation of heterodimeric channels between a Ser-containing subunit and a native gramicidin subunit. These hybrid channels exhibit rectification, attributable to asymmetric placement of the single Ser hydroxyl group with respect to the bilayer center. Compared to the corresponding Ala-containing reference channels, the polar Ser residues decrease the analogues' channel-forming potency by 3 orders of magnitude, indicating a substantial energetic penalty ( approximately 15 kJ/mol) for burying the polar Ser side chain in the bilayer hydrophobic core.
Neurobiology of Disease. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21081165
Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) facilitates the transport of important metabolic fuels (lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies) and possibly also acidic drugs such as valproic acid across the blood-brain barrier. Because an impaired brain energy metabolism and resistance to antiepileptic drugs are common features of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we sought to study the expression of MCT1 in the brain of patients with this disease. Immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy were used to assess the distribution of MCT1 in brain specimens from patients with TLE and concomitant hippocampal sclerosis (referred to as mesial TLE or MTLE (n=15)), patients with TLE and no hippocampal sclerosis (non-MTLE, n=13) and neurologically normal autopsy subjects (n=8). MCT1 was present on an extensive network of microvessels throughout the hippocampal formation in autopsy controls and to a lesser degree in non-MTLE. Patients with MTLE were markedly deficient in MCT1 on microvessels in several areas of the hippocampal formation, especially CA1, which exhibited a 37% to 48% loss of MCT1 on the plasma membrane of endothelial cells when compared with non-MTLE. These findings suggest that the uptake of blood-derived monocarboxylate fuels and possibly also acidic drugs, such as valproic acid, is perturbed in the epileptogenic hippocampus, particularly in MTLE. We hypothesize that the loss of MCT1 on brain microvessels is mechanistically involved in the pathophysiology of drug-resistant TLE, and propose that re-expression of MCT1 may represent a novel therapeutic approach for this disease.
Serum Adipocyte Fatty Acid-binding Protein, Retinol-binding Protein 4, and Adiponectin Concentrations in Relation to the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Boys: a 3-y Prospective Cohort Study
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21106915
Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and adiponectin have been associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in adults.
A Low Approach to Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block Results in More Distal Spread of Sensory-motor Coverage Compared to the Conventional Approach
Anesthesia and Analgesia. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21288970
A low approach to the interscalene block (LISB) deposits local anesthetic farther caudad on the brachial plexus compared with the conventional interscalene block (ISB). We compared the efficacy of LISB and ISB in achieving anesthesia of the distal extremity in 254 patients having upper extremity surgery. The most frequent elicited motor response was the deltoid for ISB and wrist for LISB. There was significantly greater sensory-motor block of regions below the elbow with the LISB compared with ISB (P < 0.001 for both sensory and motor coverage). Our data indicate that LISB results in a higher incidence of distal elicited motor response and greater sensory-motor blockage of the wrist and hand.
The Membrane Interface Dictates Different Anchor Roles for "inner Pair" and "outer Pair" Tryptophan Indole Rings in Gramicidin A Channels
Biochemistry. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21539360
We investigated the effects of substituting two of the four tryptophans (the "inner pair" Trp(9) and Trp(11) or the "outer pair" Trp(13) and Trp(15)) in gramicidin A (gA) channels. The conformational preferences of the doubly substituted gA analogues were assessed using circular dichroism spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography, which show that the inner tryptophans 9 and 11 are critical for the gA's conformational preference in lipid bilayer membranes. [Phe(13,15)]gA largely retains the single-stranded helical channel structure, whereas [Phe(9,11)]gA exists primarily as double-stranded conformers. Within this context, the (2)H NMR spectra from labeled tryptophans were used to examine the changes in average indole ring orientations, induced by the Phe substitutions and by the shift in conformational preference. Using a method for deuterium labeling of already synthesized gAs, we introduced deuterium selectively onto positions C2 and C5 of the remaining tryptophan indole rings in the substituted gA analogues for solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy. The (least possible) changes in orientation and overall motion of each indole ring were estimated from the experimental spectra. Regardless of the mixture of backbone folds, the indole ring orientations observed in the analogues are similar to those found previously for gA channels. Both Phe-substituted analogues form single-stranded channels, as judged from the formation of heterodimeric channels with the native gA. [Phe(13,15)]gA channels have Na(+) currents that are ~50% and lifetimes that are ~80% of those of native gA channels. The double-stranded conformer(s) of [Phe(9,11)]gA do not form detectable channels. The minor single-stranded population of [Phe(9,11)]gA forms channels with Na(+) currents that are ~25% and single-channel lifetimes that are ~300% of those of native gA channels. Our results suggest that Trp(9) and Trp(11), when "reaching" for the interface, tend to drive both monomer folding (to "open" a channel) and dimer dissociation (to "close" a channel). Furthermore, the dipoles of Trp(9) and Trp(11) are relatively more important for the single-channel conductance than are the dipoles of Trp(13) and Trp(15).
Genome Research. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21724842
Beginning with precursor lesions, aberrant DNA methylation marks the entire spectrum of prostate cancer progression. We mapped the global DNA methylation patterns in select prostate tissues and cell lines using MethylPlex-next-generation sequencing (M-NGS). Hidden Markov model-based next-generation sequence analysis identified ∼68,000 methylated regions per sample. While global CpG island (CGI) methylation was not differential between benign adjacent and cancer samples, overall promoter CGI methylation significantly increased from ~12.6% in benign samples to 19.3% and 21.8% in localized and metastatic cancer tissues, respectively (P-value < 2 × 10(-16)). We found distinct patterns of promoter methylation around transcription start sites, where methylation occurred not only on the CGIs, but also on flanking regions and CGI sparse promoters. Among the 6691 methylated promoters in prostate tissues, 2481 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are cancer-specific, including numerous novel DMRs. A novel cancer-specific DMR in the WFDC2 promoter showed frequent methylation in cancer (17/22 tissues, 6/6 cell lines), but not in the benign tissues (0/10) and normal PrEC cells. Integration of LNCaP DNA methylation and H3K4me3 data suggested an epigenetic mechanism for alternate transcription start site utilization, and these modifications segregated into distinct regions when present on the same promoter. Finally, we observed differences in repeat element methylation, particularly LINE-1, between ERG gene fusion-positive and -negative cancers, and we confirmed this observation using pyrosequencing on a tissue panel. This comprehensive methylome map will further our understanding of epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer progression.
Cancer Cell. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21840484
Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRC1 and PRC2)-mediated epigenetic regulation is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Members of Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins including EZH2, a PRC2 component, are upregulated in various cancer types, implicating their role in tumorigenesis. Here, we have identified several microRNAs (miRNAs) that are repressed by EZH2. These miRNAs, in turn, regulate the expression of PRC1 proteins BMI1 and RING2. We found that ectopic overexpression of EZH2-regulated miRNAs attenuated cancer cell growth and invasiveness, and abrogated cancer stem cell properties. Importantly, expression analysis revealed an inverse correlation between miRNA and PRC protein levels in cell culture and prostate cancer tissues. Taken together, our data have uncovered a coordinate regulation of PRC1 and PRC2 activities that is mediated by miRNAs.
Cortisol, Estradiol-17β, and Progesterone Secretion Within the First Hour After Awakening in Women with Regular Menstrual Cycles
The Journal of Endocrinology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21965547
Cortisol concentration in both serum and saliva sharply increases and reaches a peak within the first hour after waking in the morning. This phenomenon is known as the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and is used as an index of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. We examined whether ovarian steroid concentrations increased after awakening as with the CAR in the HPA axis. To do this, cortisol, estradiol-17β (E(2)), and progesterone (P(4)) concentrations were determined in saliva samples collected immediately upon awakening and 30 and 60 min after awakening in women with regular menstrual cycles and postmenopausal women. We found that both E(2) and P(4) concentrations increased during the post-awakening period in women with regular menstrual cycles, but these phenomena were not seen in any postmenopausal women. The area under the E(2) and P(4) curve from the time interval immediately after awakening to 60 min after awakening (i.e. E(2)auc and P(4)auc) in women with regular menstrual cycles were greater than those in the postmenopausal women. E(2) and P(4) secretory activity during the post-awakening period was influenced by the phase of the menstrual cycle. E(2)auc in the peri-ovulatory phase and P(4)auc in the early to mid-luteal phase were greater than in the menstrual phase. Meanwhile, cortisol secretory activity during the post-awakening period was not influenced by menstrual status or the phase of menstrual cycle. These findings indicate that, as with the CAR in the HPA axis function, ovarian steroidogenic activity increased after awakening and is closely associated with menstrual status and phase of menstrual cycle.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22002430
Mild traumatic brain injury resulting from exposure to an explosive blast is associated with significant neurobehavioral outcomes in soldiers. Little is known about the neuropathologic consequences of such an insult to the human brain. This study is an attempt to understand the effects of an explosive blast in a large animal gyrencephalic brain blast injury model. Anesthetized Yorkshire swine were exposed to measured explosive blast levels in 3 operationally relevant scenarios: simulated free field (blast tube), high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle surrogate, and building (4-walled structure). Histologic changes in exposed animals up to 2 weeks after blast were compared to a group of naive and sham controls. The overall pathologic changes in all 3 blast scenarios were limited, with very little neuronal injury, fiber tract demyelination, or intracranial hemorrhage observed. However, there were 2 distinct neuropathologic changes observed: increased astrocyte activation and proliferation and periventricular axonal injury detected with β-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. We postulate that the increased astrogliosis observed may have a longer-term potential for the exacerbation of brain injury and that the pattern of periventricular axonal injury may be related to a potential for cognitive and mood disorders.