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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (30)
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Journal of Bacteriology
- European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS
- Forensic Science International
- FEMS Microbiology Reviews
- Trends in Biotechnology
- FEMS Microbiology Ecology
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
- Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
- Biophysical Journal
- Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
Articles by Karin Hammer in JoVE
Isolation and Genetic Manipulation of Adult Cardiac Myocytes for Confocal Imaging
Lars Kaestner, Anke Scholz, Karin Hammer, Anne Vecerdea, Sandra Ruppenthal, Peter Lipp
Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Universty of Saarland
Adult cardiac myocytes are primary cells that can be isolated from animal hearts and cultured for several days. Within this culture period adenoviral gene transfer can be used to express genetically encoded biosensors (GEBs) or fluorescent fusion proteins. Both approaches allow cellular investigations by means of confocal microscopy.
Other articles by Karin Hammer on PubMed
Proteome Analysis of a Lactococcus Lactis Strain Overexpressing GapA Suggests That the Gene Product is an Auxiliary Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase
Proteomics. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12203899
The sequence of the genome from the Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis strain IL1403 shows the presence of two reading frames, gapA and gapB, putatively encoding glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Previous proteomic analysis of the L. lactis subspecies cremoris strain MG1363 has revealed two neighbouring protein spots, GapBI and GapBII, with amino terminal sequences identical to the product of gapA from the L. lactis subspecies cremoris strain LM0230 and that of the two IL1403 sequences. In order to assign the two protein spots to their respective genes we constructed an L. lactis strain that overexpessed the gapA gene derived from MG1363 upon nisin induction. Compared to the wild-type, the overexpressing strain had a 3.4-fold elevated level of specific GAPDH activity when grown in the presence of nisin. In both MG1363 and the gapA overexpressing strain the GAPDH activity was specific for NAD. No NADP dependent activity was detected. Proteome analysis of the gapA overexpressing strain revealed two new protein spots, GapAI and GapAII, not previously detected in proteome analysis of MG1363. Results from mass spectrometry analysis of GapA and GapB and comparison with the deduced protein sequences for the GAPDH isozymes from the genome sequence of strain IL1403 allowed us to assign GapA and GapB to their apparent IL1403 homologues encoded by gapA and gapB, respectively. Furthermore, we suggest that a homologue of a gapB product, represented by GapB, is the main source of GAPDH activity in L. lactis during normal growth.
Two Nucleoside Uptake Systems in Lactococcus Lactis: Competition Between Purine Nucleosides and Cytidine Allows for Modulation of Intracellular Nucleotide Pools
Journal of Bacteriology. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12591866
A method for measuring internal nucleoside triphosphate pools of lactococci was optimized and validated. This method is based on extraction of (33)P-labeled nucleotides with formic acid and evaluation by two-dimensional chromatography with a phosphate buffer system for the first dimension and with an H(3)BO(3)-LiOH buffer for separation in the second dimension. We report here the sizes of the ribo- and deoxyribonucleotide pools in laboratory strain MG1363 during growth in a defined medium. We found that purine- and pyrimidine-requiring strains may be used to establish physiological conditions in batch fermentations with altered nucleotide pools and growth rates by addition of nucleosides in different combinations. Addition of cytidine together with inosine to a purine-requiring strain leads to a reduction in the internal purine nucleotide pools and a decreased growth rate. This effect was not seen if cytidine was replaced by uridine. A similar effect was observed if cytidine and inosine were added to a pyrimidine-requiring strain; the UTP pool size was significantly decreased, and the growth rate was reduced. To explain the observed inhibition, the nucleoside transport systems in Lactococcus lactis were investigated by measuring the uptake of radioactively labeled nucleosides. The K(m) for for inosine, cytidine, and uridine was determined to be in the micromolar range. Furthermore, it was found that cytidine and inosine are competitive inhibitors of each other, whereas no competition was found between uridine and either cytidine or inosine. These findings suggest that there are two different high-affinity nucleoside transporters, one system responsible for uridine uptake and another system responsible for the uptake of all purine nucleosides and cytidine.
Proteomics. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12748956
A comparative expression proteome analysis was carried out by analyzing differential expression patterns of pulse-labelled proteins on two-dimensional gels under standard conditions and during purine nucleotide starvation, followed by mass spectrometric identification of regulated proteins. Based upon the expression patterns, three stimulons could be identified in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. The Psu proteins (purine starvation up-regulated) had increased synthesis during purine depletion in a purine auxotroph. Among these proteins were enzymes of the purine biosynthesis pathways (PurE, PurS, PurM, PurL), and enzymes involved in the generation of C1 units (GlyA, Fhs). C1 units are primarily required for purine biosynthesis. Upon analysis of the nucleotide sequence preceding the structural genes for these proteins in the L. lactis IL1403 genome sequence showed that all contained PurBox-Pribnov box structures resembling the PurR activated promoters for the purDEK and purCSQLF operons. Most, and possibly all members of the Psu stimulon are thus members of the PurR regulon. Five Psu proteins could not be identified. The second stimulon, the Psd stimulon (purine starvation decreased), whose members are down-regulated during purine depletion, contained proteins related to protein synthesis (PpsB, EF-TS, trigger factor), or to GTPases (FtsZ, EF-TS); or are involved in energy metabolism (GapB, CcpA). No common regulatory elements could be found for members of this stimulon. Two Psd proteins escaped identification. The last, Dcu (decoynine up-regulated), stimulon contained proteins whose synthesis escaped the severe general depression during inhibition of the GMP synthetase by decoynine. This regulon was comprised of mostly glycolytic enzymes (fructose bisphosphate aldolase, enolase, pyruvate kinase) and translation elongation factors (GTPases: EF-TU, EF-G). Two Dcu proteins could not be identified. Out of 28 proteins subjected to mass spectrometry, 19 could be readily identified despite the fact that only the genome sequence of a strain of L. lactis subsp. lactis was available. The two subspecies share about 85% sequence identity, comparable to the genetic distance between Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. A success rate of 68% indicates that it may be feasible to perform proteomics based upon genomic sequences of relatives outside the genus.
Identification of Operator Sites of the CI Repressor of Phage TP901-1: Evolutionary Link to Other Phages
Virology. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12832212
The repressor encoded by the cI gene of the temperate Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris bacteriophage TP901-1 has been purified. Gel-retardation and footprinting analyses identified three palindromic operator sites (O(R), O(L), and O(D)). The operator site O(R) is located between the two divergent early promoters P(R) and P(L), O(L) overlaps the transcriptional start of the lytic P(L) promoter, and O(D) is located downstream of the mor gene, the first gene in the lytic gene cluster. The function of O(L) was verified by mutational analysis. Binding was found to be specific and cooperative. Multimeric forms of the repressor were observed, thus indicating that the repressor may bind simultaneously to all three operator sites. Inverted repeats with homology to the operator sites of TP901-1 were identified in phage genomes encoding repressors homologous to CI of TP901-1. Interestingly, the locations of these repeats on the phage genomes correspond to those found in TP901-1, indicating that the same system of cooperative repression of early phage promoters has been inherited by modular evolution.
Journal of Bacteriology. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12923084
The heat shock response in bacterial cells is characterized by rapid induction of heat shock protein expression, followed by an adaptation period during which heat shock protein synthesis decreases to a new steady-state level. In this study we found that after a shift to a high temperature the Clp ATPase (ClpE) in Lactococcus lactis is required for such a decrease in expression of a gene negatively regulated by the heat shock regulator (CtsR). Northern blot analysis showed that while a shift to a high temperature in wild-type cells resulted in a temporal increase followed by a decrease in expression of clpP encoding the proteolytic component of the Clp protease complex, this decrease was delayed in the absence of ClpE. Site-directed mutagenesis of the zinc-binding motif conserved in ClpE ATPases interfered with the ability to repress CtsR-dependent expression. Quantification of ClpE by Western blot analysis revealed that at a high temperature ClpE is subjected to ClpP-dependent processing and that disruption of the zinc finger domain renders ClpE more susceptible. Interestingly, this domain resembles the N-terminal region of McsA, which was recently reported to interact with the CtsR homologue in Bacillus subtilis. Thus, our data point to a regulatory role of ClpE in turning off clpP gene expression following temporal heat shock induction, and we propose that this effect is mediated through CtsR.
Journal of Bacteriology. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14594829
CTP synthase is encoded by the pyrG gene and catalyzes the conversion of UTP to CTP. A Lactococcus lactis pyrG mutant with a cytidine requirement was constructed, in which beta-galactosidase activity in a pyrG-lacLM transcriptional fusion was used to monitor gene expression of pyrG. A 10-fold decrease in the CTP pool induced by cytidine limitation was found to immediately increase expression of the L. lactis pyrG gene. The final level of expression of pyrG is 37-fold higher than the uninduced level. CTP limitation has pronounced effects on central cellular metabolism, and both RNA and protein syntheses are inhibited. Expression of pyrG responds only to the cellular level of CTP, since expression of pyrG has no correlation to alterations in UTP, GTP, and ATP pool sizes. In the untranslated pyrG leader sequence a potential terminator structure can be identified, and this structure is required for regulation of the pyrG gene. It is possible to fold the pyrG leader in an alternative structure that would prevent the formation of the terminator. We suggest a model for pyrG regulation in L. lactis, and probably in other gram-positive bacteria as well, in which pyrG expression is directly dependent on the CTP concentration through an attenuator mechanism. At normal CTP concentrations a terminator is preferentially formed in the pyrG leader, thereby reducing expression of CTP synthase. At low CTP concentrations the RNA polymerase pauses at a stretch of C residues in the pyrG leader, thereby allowing an antiterminator to form and transcription to proceed. This model therefore does not include any trans-acting protein for sensing the CTP concentration as previously proposed for Bacillus subtilis.
European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15182359
The pyrG gene from Lactococcus lactis encodes CTP synthase (EC 126.96.36.199), an enzyme converting UTP to CTP. A series of strains were constructed with different levels of pyrG expression by insertion of synthetic constitutive promoters with different strengths in front of pyrG. These strains expressed pyrG levels in a range from 3 to 665% relative to the wild-type expression level. Decreasing the level of CTP synthase to 43% had no effect on the growth rate, showing that the capacity of CTP synthase in the cell is in excess in a wild-type strain. We then studied how pyrG expression affected the intracellular pool sizes of nucleotides and the correlation between pyrG expression and nucleotide pool sizes was quantified using metabolic control analysis in terms of inherent control coefficients. At the wild-type expression level, CTP synthase had full control of the CTP concentration with a concentration control coefficient close to one and a negative concentration control coefficient of -0.28 for the UTP concentration. Additionally, a concentration control coefficient of 0.49 was calculated for the dCTP concentration. Implications for the homeostasis of nucleotide pools are discussed.
Forensic Science International. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15240041
Poppy seeds contain morphine in different amounts. Reported concentrations are up to 294 mg morphine/kg poppy seeds. Since penalties based on Street Traffic Law (parapgraph 24a StVG) in Germany (administrative offence) require definitive proof of morphine in blood samples, and the "Grenzwertkommission" in consultation with the Ministry of Transportation recommended a threshold of free morphine of 10 ng/mL, the question arose whether the consumption of poppy seeds can lead to a blood concentrations equal or higher than 10 ng/mL of free morphine. Therefore, five volunteers ate poppy seed products (50 mg morphine/kg poppy seeds). In urine, all on-site tests were enzyme immunologically positive for opiates and were positive to morphine by GC/MS. All the blood samples were negative to morphine by EIA and to free morphine by GC/MS. However, after hydrolysis, morphine was detected by GC/MS in all cases. Accordingly, in Germany, penalties based on parapgraph 24a StVG are not likely to cause road users any concerns should they have consumed poppy seeds. Driver Licensing Authorities, however, should be advised of this problem to avoid unjustified legal measures.
FEMS Microbiology Reviews. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15935511
Most metabolic reactions are connected through either their utilization of nucleotides or their utilization of nucleotides or their regulation by these metabolites. In this review the biosynthetic pathways for pyrimidine and purine metabolism in lactic acid bacteria are described including the interconversion pathways, the formation of deoxyribonucleotides and the salvage pathways for use of exogenous precursors. The data for the enzymatic and the genetic regulation of these pathways are reviewed, as well as the gene organizations in different lactic acid bacteria. Mutant phenotypes and methods for manipulation of nucleotide pools are also discussed. Our aim is to provide an overview of the physiology and genetics of nucleotide metabolism and its regulation that will facilitate the interpretation of data arising from genetics, metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics in lactic acid bacteria.
Identification of DNA-binding Sites for the Activator Involved in Late Transcription of the Temperate Lactococcal Phage TP901-1
Virology. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16297953
Alt, encoded by the lactococcal phage TP901-1, is needed for late transcription. We identify Alt as a DNA-binding protein, and footprint analysis shows that Alt binds to a region containing four imperfect direct repeats (ALT boxes) located -76 to -32 relative to the P(late) transcriptional start site. The importance of the ALT boxes was confirmed by deletion of one or two ALT boxes and by introducing mutations in ALT boxes 1 and 4. Alt is proposed to act as a tetramer or higher multimer activating transcription of TP901-1 late genes by binding to the four ALT boxes, and bending of the DNA may be important for transcriptional activation of P(late). Furthermore, our results suggest that DNA replication may be required for late transcription in TP901-1. Additionally, we identify gp28 of the related lactococcal phage Tuc2009 as an activator and show that the activators required for late transcription in TP901-1 and Tuc2009 are interchangeable.
Trends in Biotechnology. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16406119
The study of gene function often requires changing the expression of a gene and evaluating the consequences. In principle, the expression of any given gene can be modulated in a quasi-continuum of discrete expression levels but the traditional approaches are usually limited to two extremes: gene knockout and strong overexpression. However, applications such as metabolic optimization and control analysis necessitate a continuous set of expression levels with only slight increments in strength to cover a specific window around the wild-type expression level of the studied gene; this requirement can be met by using promoter libraries. This approach generally consists of inserting a library of promoters in front of the gene to be studied, whereby the individual promoters might deviate either in their spacer sequences or bear slight deviations from the consensus sequence of a vegetative promoter. Here, we describe the two different methods for obtaining promoter libraries and compare their applicability.
Horizontal Transfer of Tet(M) and Erm(B) Resistance Plasmids from Food Strains of Lactobacillus Plantarum to Enterococcus Faecalis JH2-2 in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Gnotobiotic Rats
FEMS Microbiology Ecology. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17014680
Two wild-type strains of Lactobacillus plantarum previously isolated from fermented dry sausages were analysed for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance plasmids in the gastrointestinal tract. For this purpose, we used gnotobiotic rats as an in vivo model. Rats were initially inoculated with the recipient Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 at a concentration of 10(10) CFU mL(-1). After a week, either of the two donors L. plantarum DG 522 (harbouring a tet(M)-containing plasmid of c. 40 kb) or L. plantarum DG 507 [harbouring a tet(M)-containing plasmid of c. 10 kb and an erm(B)-containing plasmid of c. 8.5 kb] was introduced at concentrations in the range of 10(8)-10(10) CFU mL(-1). Two days after donor introduction, the first transconjugants (TCs) were detected in faecal samples. The detected numbers of tet(M)-TCs were comparable for the two donors. In both cases, this number increased to c. 5 x 10(2) CFU g(-1) faeces towards the end of the experiment. For erm(B)-TCs, the number was significantly higher and increased to c. 10(3) CFU g(-1) faeces. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing in vivo transfer of wild-type antibiotic resistance plasmids from L. plantarum to E. faecalis.
Identification of Quaternary Structure and Functional Domains of the CI Repressor from Bacteriophage TP901-1
Journal of Molecular Biology. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18191944
The bacteriophage-encoded repressor protein plays a key role in determining the life cycle of a temperate phage following infection of a sensitive host. The repressor protein CI, which is encoded by the temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1, represses transcription from both the lytic promoter P(L) and the lysogenic promoter P(R) by binding to multiple operator sites on the DNA. In this study, we used a small bistable genetic switch element from phage TP901-1 to study the effect of cI deletions in vivo and showed that 43 amino acids could be removed from the C-terminal end of CI without destroying the ability of CI to repress transcription from the P(L) or the bistable switch properties. We showed that a helix-turn-helix motif located in the N-terminal part of CI is involved in DNA binding by introducing specific point mutations. Purification of CI and truncated forms of CI followed by analytical gel filtration and chemical cross-linking demonstrated that the C-terminal end of CI was required for oligomerization and that CI may exist as a hexamer in solution. Furthermore, expression and purification of the C-terminal part of CI (amino acids 92-180) showed that this part of the protein contained all the amino acids required to form an oligomer with an apparent molecular weight corresponding to a hexamer. We found that the C-terminal end of CI was required for de-repression of the P(L) following SOS induction, suggesting that the hexameric form of CI is needed for this or that this part of the protein is involved in the interaction with host proteins. By using small-angle X-ray scattering, we show for the first time the overall solution structure of a full-length wild-type bacteriophage repressor at low resolution revealing that the TP901-1 repressor forms a flat oligomer, most probably a trimer of dimers.
Selective Pressure Affects Transfer and Establishment of a Lactobacillus Plantarum Resistance Plasmid in the Gastrointestinal Environment
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18238887
A Lactobacillus plantarum strain recently isolated from French raw-milk cheese was tested for its ability to transfer a small plasmid pLFE1 harbouring the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B) to Enterococcus faecalis. Mating was studied in vitro and in different gastrointestinal environments using gnotobiotic rats as a simple in vivo model and streptomycin-treated mice as a more complex model. Transfer and establishment of transconjugants in the intestine were investigated with and without selective pressure.
AbiV, a Novel Antiphage Abortive Infection Mechanism on the Chromosome of Lactococcus Lactis Subsp. Cremoris MG1363
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18776030
Insertional mutagenesis with pGhost9::ISS1 resulted in independent insertions in a 350-bp region of the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 that conferred phage resistance to the integrants. The orientation and location of the insertions suggested that the phage resistance phenotype was caused by a chromosomal gene turned on by a promoter from the inserted construct. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis confirmed that there were higher levels of transcription of a downstream open reading frame (ORF) in the phage-resistant integrants than in the phage-sensitive strain L. lactis MG1363. This gene was also found to confer phage resistance to L. lactis MG1363 when it was cloned into an expression vector. A subsequent frameshift mutation in the ORF completely eliminated the phage resistance phenotype, confirming that the ORF was necessary for phage resistance. This ORF provided resistance against virulent lactococcal phages belonging to the 936 and c2 species with an efficiency of plaquing of 10(-4), but it did not protect against members of the P335 species. A high level of expression of the ORF did not affect the cellular growth rate. Assays for phage adsorption, DNA ejection, restriction/modification activity, plaque size, phage DNA replication, and cell survival showed that the ORF encoded an abortive infection (Abi) mechanism. Sequence analysis revealed a deduced protein consisting of 201 amino acids which, in its native state, probably forms a dimer in the cytosol. Similarity searches revealed no homology to other phage resistance mechanisms, and thus, this novel Abi mechanism was designated AbiV. The mode of action of AbiV is unknown, but the activity of AbiV prevented cleavage of the replicated phage DNA of 936-like phages.
The Role of MOR and the CI Operator Sites on the Genetic Switch of the Temperate Bacteriophage TP901-1
Journal of Molecular Biology. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18930065
A genetic switch controls whether the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1 will enter a lytic or a lysogenic life cycle after infection of its host, Lactococcus lactis. We studied this bistable switch encoded in a small DNA fragment of 979 bp by fusing it to a reporter gene on a low-copy-number plasmid. The cloned DNA fragment contained the two divergently oriented promoters, P(R) and P(L), transcribing the lysogenic and lytic gene clusters; the two promoter-proximal genes, cI and mor; and the three CI operator sites, O(R), O(L) and O(D). We show that mor encodes a protein and that this protein in concert with CI is required for the bistability. Furthermore, interaction of CI at O(R) represses transcription from the lysogenic promoter, P(R). Thus, CI regulates its own transcription. Interaction of CI at O(L) represses transcription from the lytic promoter, P(L). The presence of only O(L) (absence of O(R) and O(D)) is enough to maintain a bistable system. The distantly located operator site, O(D), functions as a helper site by increasing binding of CI at O(R) and O(L). In the immune state, O(D) increases repression of the lytic promoter, P(L). Our results strongly support the model that a hexameric form of CI binds cooperatively to the three operator sites in the immune state forming a CI-DNA loop structure. Finally, we show that in the anti-immune state, repression of the lysogenic promoter is independent of the known CI operator sites but requires the presence of both CI and MOR.
Identification and Characterization of the Phage Gene Sav, Involved in Sensitivity to the Lactococcal Abortive Infection Mechanism AbiV
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19270128
Lactococcus lactis phage mutants that are insensitive to the recently characterized abortive infection mechanism AbiV were isolated and analyzed in an effort to elucidate factors involved in the sensitivity to AbiV. Whole-genome sequencing of the phage mutants p2.1 and p2.2 revealed mutations in an orf that is transcribed early, indicating that this orf was responsible for AbiV sensitivity. Sequencing of the homologous regions in the genomes of other AbiV-insensitive mutants derived from p2 and six other lactococcal wild-type phages revealed point mutations in the homologous orf sequences. The orf was named sav (for sensitivity to AbiV), and the encoded polypeptide was named SaV. The purification of a His-tagged SaV polypeptide by gel filtration suggested that the polypeptide formed a dimer in its native form. The overexpression of SaV in L. lactis and Escherichia coli led to a rapid toxic effect. Conserved, evolutionarily related regions in SaV polypeptides of different phage groups are likely to be responsible for the AbiV-sensitive phenotype and the toxicity.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19286782
AbiV is a chromosomally encoded phage resistance mechanism that is silent in the wild-type phage-sensitive strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363. Spontaneous phage-resistant mutants of L. lactis MG1363 were analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR and shown to express AbiV. This expression was related to a reorganization in the upstream region of abiV. Transfer of abiV between two lactococcal strains, most likely by conjugation, was also demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural transfer of a chromosomally encoded phage resistance mechanism.
Characterization of a Small Erythromycin Resistance Plasmid PLFE1 from the Food-isolate Lactobacillus Plantarum M345
Plasmid. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19399991
This paper reports the complete 4031 bp nucleotide sequence of the small erythromycin resistance plasmid pLFE1 isolated from the raw-milk cheese isolate Lactobacillus plantarum M345. Analysis of the sequence revealed the coding regions for the erythromycin resistance determinant Erm(B). A replication initiation protein RepB was identified belonging to the RepB proteins of the pMV158 family of rolling-circle replicating plasmids. The transcriptional repressor protein CopG and a small counter transcribed RNA, two elements typically involved in replication control within this family were also found. A putative replication initiation site including a single-strand origin (sso) -like region succeeded by a characteristic pMV158 family double-strand origin (dso) was located upstream of the replication region. An open reading frame following a typical origin of transfer (oriT) site and coding for a putative truncated mobilization (Mob) protein with a size of 83 aa was detected. The product of the putative mob gene showed large similarity to the N-terminal region of the pMV158 family of Pre/Mob proteins, but was much smaller than other proteins of this family. We therefore suggest that the Mob function in pLFE1 is supplied in trans from another plasmid present in L. plantarum M345.Filter-mating experiments showed that pLFE1 has a broad host-range with transconjugants obtained from Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Listeria innocua, the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis and the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.
Relationship Between Oral Fluid and Blood Concentrations of Drugs of Abuse in Drivers Suspected of Driving Under the Influence of Drugs
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19571773
In recent years, the interest in the use of oral fluid as a biological matrix has increased significantly, particularly for detecting driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). In this study, the relationship between the oral fluid and the blood concentrations of drugs of abuse in drivers suspected of DUID is discussed. Blood and oral fluid samples were collected from drivers suspected of DUID or stopped during random controls by the police in Belgium, Germany, Finland, and Norway for the ROSITA-2 project. The blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), sometimes preceded by immunoassay screening of blood or urine samples. The oral fluid samples were analyzed by GC-MS or LC-MS(/MS). Scatter plots and trend lines of the blood and oral fluid concentrations and the median, mean, range, and SD of the oral fluid to blood (OF:B) ratios were calculated for amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and Delta(9)-2 tetrahydrocannabinol. The ratios found in this study were comparable with those that were published previously, but the range was wider. The OF:B ratios of basic drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates were >1 [amphetamine: median (range) 13 (0.5-182), methylenedioxyamphetamine: 4 (1-15), methylenedioxymethamphetamine: 6 (0.9-88), methamphetamine: 5 (2-23), cocaine: 22 (4-119), benzoylecgonine: 1 (0.2-11), morphine: 2 (0.8-6), and codeine: 10 (0.8-39)]. The ratios for benzodiazepines were very low, as could be expected as they are highly protein bound and weakly acidic, leading to low oral fluid concentrations [diazepam: 0.02 (0.01-0.15), nordiazepam: 0.04 (0.01-0.23), oxazepam: 0.05 (0.03-0.14), and temazepam: 0.1 (0.06-0.54)]. For tetrahydrocannabinol, an OF:B ratio of 15 was found (range 0.01-569). In this study, the time of last administration, the dose, and the route of administration were unknown. Nevertheless, the data reflect the variability of the OF:B ratios in drivers thought to be under the influence of drugs. The wide range of the ratios, however, does not allow reliable calculation of the blood concentrations from oral fluid concentrations.
Characterisation of a Small Erythromycin Resistance Plasmid PLFE1 from the Food-isolate Lactobacillus Plantarum M345
Plasmid. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19640422
This paper reports the complete 4031 bp nucleotide sequence of the small erythromycin resistance plasmid pLFE1 isolated from the raw-milk cheese isolate Lactobacillus plantarum M345. Analysis of the sequence revealed the coding regions for the erythromycin resistance determinant Erm(B). A replication initiation protein RepB was identified belonging to the RepB proteins of the pMV158 family of rolling-circle replicating plasmids. The transcriptional repressor protein CopG and a small counter transcribed RNA, two elements typically involved in replication control within this family were also found. A putative replication initiation site including a single-strand origin (sso) -like region succeeded by a characteristic pMV158 family double-strand origin (dso) was located upstream of the replication region. An open reading frame following a typical origin of transfer (oriT) site and coding for a putative truncated mobilisation (Mob) protein with a size of 83 aa was detected. The product of the putative mob gene showed large similarity to the N-terminal region of the pMV158 family of Pre/Mob proteins, but was much smaller than other proteins of this family. We therefore suggest that the Mob function in pLFE1 is supplied in trans from another plasmid present in L. plantarum M345. Filter mating experiments showed that pLFE1 has a broad host-range with transconjugants obtained from Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Listeria innocua, the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis and the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.
Stool Polymerase Chain Reaction for Helicobacter Pylori Detection and Clarithromycin Susceptibility Testing in Children
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20005978
This study was undertaken in a pediatric gastroenterology clinic to retrospectively evaluate a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and clarithromycin susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori using stool specimens.
Journal of Bacteriology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20118255
The gene regulatory mechanism determining the developmental pathway of the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1 is regulated by two phage-encoded proteins, CI and MOR. Functional domains of the CI repressor were investigated by introducing linkers of 15 bp at various positions in cI and by limited proteolysis of purified CI protein. We show that insertions of five amino acids at positions in the N-terminal half of CI resulted in mutant proteins that could no longer repress transcription from the lytic promoter, P(L). We confirmed that the N-terminal domain of CI contains the DNA binding site, and we showed that this part of the protein is tightly folded, whereas the central part and the C-terminal part of CI seem to contain more flexible structures. Furthermore, insertions at several different positions in the central part of the CI protein reduced the cooperative binding of CI to the operator sites and possibly altered the interaction with MOR.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20540947
It is well known that for cardiomyocytes, isolation and culturing induce largely unknown remodelling processes. We analysed changes in the structure of cell compartments with optical techniques such as confocal microscopy and fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching employing adenoviral-mediated transduction of targeted fluorescent proteins and small molecule dyes. We identified characteristic remodelling processes: the T-tubular membrane system was gradually lost by a process referred to as "sequential pinching off", in an outward direction. Mitochondria fell in one of three classes, very small (0.9 microm length), medium long (1.8 microm) or extended shape (3.6 microm) organelles. Over the culturing time mitochondria gradually fused. Bleaching of individual mitochondria revealed association between apparently separated mitochondria by "tunnelling" via sub-resolution organelle-tubes. This tunnelling process was increasing over the culturing time. A gradual loss of the cross-striation arrangement in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum was visualised. Analysis of large populations of Ca(2+) sparks by video-rate confocal 2D-scanning revealed significant albeit small changes of these elementary SR-Ca(2+) release events in adult cardiomyocytes that could be related to changes in SR-Ca(2+) content rather than resting Ca(2+) concentration. In conclusion, primary isolated cardiomyocytes from adult hearts undergo a well-defined, but reproducible subcellular remodelling during optimised long term culture.
Helicobacter. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20557363
Increase of antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem. Within the 4 years before the turn of the millennium Helicobacter pylori strains isolated in children living in Vienna, Austria, showed a primary clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance of 20% and 16%, respectively. The aim of this retrospective follow-up survey was to assess the further development and current antimicrobial resistance status.
Lactococcal Abortive Infection Protein AbiV Interacts Directly with the Phage Protein SaV and Prevents Translation of Phage Proteins
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20851990
AbiV is an abortive infection protein that inhibits the lytic cycle of several virulent phages infecting Lactococcus lactis, while a mutation in the phage gene sav confers insensitivity to AbiV. In this study, we have further characterized the effects of the bacterial AbiV and its interaction with the phage p2 protein SaV. First, we showed that during phage infection of lactococcal AbiV(+) cells, AbiV rapidly inhibited protein synthesis. Among early phage transcripts, sav gene transcription was slightly inhibited while the SaV protein could not be detected. Analyses of other phage p2 mRNAs and proteins suggested that AbiV blocks the activation of late gene transcription, probably by a general inhibition of translation. Using size exclusion chromatography coupled with on-line static light scattering and refractometry, as well as fluorescence quenching experiments, we also demonstrated that both AbiV and SaV formed homodimers and that they strongly and specifically interact with each other to form a stable protein complex.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21073375
Helicobacter pylori is a definite risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, especially in the context of corpus-predominant gastritis. The infection is usually acquired in early childhood, implying lifelong exposure to this carcinogen if untreated. Our objective was to analyze the prevalence of H. pylori induced corpus-predominant gastritis in children.
Biophysical Journal. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21244827
After infection of a sensitive host temperate phages may enter either a lytic or a lysogenic pathway leading to new phage assembly or silencing as a prophage, respectively. The decision about which pathway to enter is centered in the genetic switch of the phage. In this work, we explore the bistable genetic switch of bacteriophage TP901-1 through experiments and statistical mechanical modeling. We examine the activity of the lysogenic promoter P(R) at different concentrations of the phage repressor, CI, and compare the effect of CI on P(R) in the presence or absence of the phage-encoded MOR protein expressed from the lytic promoter P(L). We find that the presence of large amounts of MOR prevents repression of the P(R) promoter, verifying that MOR works as an antirepressor. We compare our experimental data with simulations based on previous mathematical formulations of this switch. Good agreement between data and simulations verify the model of CI repression of P(R). By including MOR in the simulations, we are able to discard a model that assumes that CI and MOR do not interact before binding together at the DNA to repress P(R). The second model of Pr repression assumes the formation of a CI:MOR complex in the cytoplasm. We suggest that a CI:MOR complex may exist in different forms that either prevent or invoke P(R) repression, introducing a new twist on mixed feedback systems.
Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Rates in Children Upon Susceptibility Testing Based on Noninvasive Stool Polymerase Chain Reaction Versus Gastric Tissue Culture
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21694538
In children with clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori, clarithromycin-containing therapies often fail. The present study aimed to assess the outcome of tailored therapy upon noninvasive versus invasive H pylori susceptibility testing.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22133878
Antagonists of L-type Ca²⁺ channels (LTCCs) have been used to treat human cardiovascular diseases for decades. However, these inhibitors can have untoward effects in patients with heart failure, and their overall therapeutic profile remains nebulous given differential effects in the vasculature when compared with those in cardiomyocytes. To investigate this issue, we examined mice heterozygous for the gene encoding the pore-forming subunit of LTCC (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, α1C subunit [Cacna1c mice; referred to herein as α1C⁻/⁺ mice]) and mice in which this gene was loxP targeted to achieve graded heart-specific gene deletion (termed herein α1C-loxP mice). Adult cardiomyocytes from the hearts of α1C⁻/⁺ mice at 10 weeks of age showed a decrease in LTCC current and a modest decrease in cardiac function, which we initially hypothesized would be cardioprotective. However, α1C⁻/⁺ mice subjected to pressure overload stimulation, isoproterenol infusion, and swimming showed greater cardiac hypertrophy, greater reductions in ventricular performance, and greater ventricular dilation than α1C⁺/⁺ controls. The same detrimental effects were observed in α1C-loxP animals with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of one allele. More severe reductions in α1C protein levels with combinatorial deleted alleles produced spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy before 3 months of age, with early adulthood lethality. Mechanistically, our data suggest that a reduction in LTCC current leads to neuroendocrine stress, with sensitized and leaky sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ release as a compensatory mechanism to preserve contractility. This state results in calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling that promotes hypertrophy and disease.