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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (17)

Articles by Khanh Bui in JoVE

 JoVE Applied Physics

Bringing the Visible Universe into Focus with Robo-AO

1Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, 2Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 3Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 4Inter-University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, 5Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 6Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science


JoVE 50021

Light from astronomical objects must travel through the earth's turbulent atmosphere before it can be imaged by ground-based telescopes. To enable direct imaging at maximum theoretical angular resolution, advanced techniques such as those employed by the Robo-AO adaptive-optics system must be used.

Other articles by Khanh Bui on PubMed

Secondary Dengue Virus Type 4 Infections in Vietnam

This study was designated to describe clinical and biological features of patients with a suspected diagnosis of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Central Vietnam. One hundred and twenty-five consecutive patients hospitalized at Khanh Hoa and Binh Thuan Provincial hospitals between November 2001 and January 2002 with a diagnosis of suspected dengue infection were included in the present study. Viruses were isolated in C6/36 and VERO E6 cell cultures or detected by RT-PCR. A hemagglutination-inhibition test (HI) was done on each paired sera using dengue antigens type 1-4, Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus antigen, Chickungunya virus antigen and Sindbis virus antigen. Anti-dengue and anti-JE virus IgM were measured by a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Anti-dengue and anti-JE virus IgG were measured by an ELISA test. Dengue viruses were isolated in cell culture and/or detected by RT-PCR in 20.8% of blood samples. DEN-4 and DEN-2 serotypes were found in 18.4% and 2.4% of the patients, respectively. A total of 86.4% of individuals had a diagnosis of acute dengue fever by using the HI test and/or dengue virus-specific IgM capture-ELISA and/or virus isolation and/or RT-PCR. The prevalence of primary and secondary acute dengue infection was 4% and 78.4%, respectively. Anti-dengue IgG ELISA test was positive in 88.8% of the patients. In 5 cases (4%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection was positive by serology but the cell culture was negative. No Chickungunya virus or Sindbis virus infection was detected by the HI test. In patients with acute dengue virus infection, the most common presenting symptom was headache, followed by conjunctivitis, petechial rash, muscle and joint pain, nausea and abdominal pain. Four percent of hospitalized patients were classified as dengue hemorrhagic fever. The clinical presentation and blood cell counts were similar between patients hospitalized with acute dengue fever and patients with other febrile illnesses.

Molecular Architecture of Inner Dynein Arms in Situ in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Flagella

The inner dynein arm regulates axonemal bending motion in eukaryotes. We used cryo-electron tomography to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of inner dynein arms from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. All the eight different heavy chains were identified in one 96-nm periodic repeat, as expected from previous biochemical studies. Based on mutants, we identified the positions of the AAA rings and the N-terminal tails of all the eight heavy chains. The dynein f dimer is located close to the surface of the A-microtubule, whereas the other six heavy chain rings are roughly colinear at a larger distance to form three dyads. Each dyad consists of two heavy chains and has a corresponding radial spoke or a similar feature. In each of the six heavy chains (dynein a, b, c, d, e, and g), the N-terminal tail extends from the distal side of the ring. To interact with the B-microtubule through stalks, the inner-arm dyneins must have either different handedness or, more probably, the opposite orientation of the AAA rings compared with the outer-arm dyneins.

Asymmetry of Inner Dynein Arms and Inter-doublet Links in Chlamydomonas Flagella

Although the widely shared "9 + 2" structure of axonemes is thought to be highly symmetrical, axonemes show asymmetrical bending during planar and conical motion. In this study, using electron cryotomography and single particle averaging, we demonstrate an asymmetrical molecular arrangement of proteins binding to the nine microtubule doublets in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella. The eight inner arm dynein heavy chains regulate and determine flagellar waveform. Among these, one heavy chain (dynein c) is missing on one microtubule doublet (this doublet also lacks the outer dynein arm), and another dynein heavy chain (dynein b or g) is missing on the adjacent doublet. Some dynein heavy chains either show an abnormal conformation or were replaced by other proteins, possibly minor dyneins. In addition to nexin, there are two additional linkages between specific pairs of doublets. Interestingly, all these exceptional arrangements take place on doublets on opposite sides of the axoneme, suggesting that the transverse functional asymmetry of the axoneme causes an in-plane bending motion.

Short- and Long-term Cardiac Troponin I Analyte Stability in Plasma and Serum from Healthy Volunteers by Use of an Ultrasensitive, Single-molecule Counting Assay

Nucleotide-induced Global Conformational Changes of Flagellar Dynein Arms Revealed by in Situ Analysis

Outer and inner dynein arms generate force for the flagellar/ciliary bending motion. Although nucleotide-induced structural change of dynein heavy chains (the ATP-driven motor) was proven in vitro, our lack of knowledge in situ has precluded an understanding of the bending mechanism. Here we reveal nucleotide-induced global structural changes of the outer and inner dynein arms of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella in situ using electron cryotomography. The ATPase domains of the dynein heavy chains move toward the distal end, and the N-terminal tail bends sharply during product release. This motion could drive the adjacent microtubule to cause a sliding motion. In contrast to in vitro results, in the presence of nucleotides, outer dynein arms coexist as clusters of apo or nucleotide-bound forms in situ. This implies a cooperative switching, which may be related to the mechanism of bending.

Combining Radio Telemetry and Automated Blood Sampling: a Novel Approach for Integrative Pharmacology and Toxicology Studies

A novel automated blood sampling and telemetry (ABST) system was developed to integrate pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD) and toxicology studies. The goals of this investigation were to determine: 1) optimal feeding conditions and minimal acclimation times for recording PD parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature) after animals arrived on-site; 2) stress hormone levels in ABST-housed rats; 3) the feasibility of simultaneously recording cardiovascular parameters with electroencephalogram (EEG); 4) the equivalence of renal endpoints from ABST-housed rats with those in the metabolic cage, and 5) the cardiovascular responses to baclofen.

Experimental Solubility Profiling of Marketed CNS Drugs, Exploring Solubility Limit of CNS Discovery Candidate

We determined the experimental solubility of CNS marketed drugs. Of the 98 drugs measured, greater than 90% had solubility >10 μM in pH 7.4 buffer. Only seven drugs had solubility <10 μM. Using these data, we established a solubility criterion to support CNS discovery. The implication of poor solubility with potential safety concerns and undesirable side effects are discussed.

Three-dimensional Structural Analysis of Eukaryotic Flagella/cilia by Electron Cryo-tomography

Electron cryo-tomography is a potential approach to analyzing the three-dimensional conformation of frozen hydrated biological macromolecules using electron microscopy. Since projections of each individual object illuminated from different orientations are merged, electron tomography is capable of structural analysis of such heterogeneous environments as in vivo or with polymorphism, although radiation damage and the missing wedge are severe problems. Here, recent results on the structure of eukaryotic flagella, which is an ATP-driven bending organelle, from green algae Chlamydomonas are presented. Tomographic analysis reveals asymmetric molecular arrangements, especially that of the dynein motor proteins, in flagella, giving insight into the mechanism of planar asymmetric bending motion. Methodological challenges to obtaining higher-resolution structures from this technique are also discussed.

In Vitro and in Vivo Metabolism of a Selective δ-opioid Receptor

4-({4-[(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-methyl-carbamoyl]-phenyl}-quinolin-8-yl-methylene)-1-thiazol-4-ylmethyl-piperidinium (compound I) is a selective agonist of δ-opioid receptor developed for the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. The in vitro biotransformation studies using rat, dog, and human hepatocytes showed that the metabolites detected in human hepatocytes were also found in either rat or dog hepatocytes. M1 (N-dealkylation), M2 (N-demethylation), and M4 (carboxylic acid metabolite) were major phase I metabolites observed in all three species. Human CYP3A4/5 isoenzymes were identified to be the primary enzymes responsible for the formation of M1 and M2 in human liver microsomes. After single oral administration of [¹⁴C]compound I, the major elimination route for [(¹⁴C]compound I and its metabolites in rat was through feces with 92.9% recovery. The results from the bile duct-cannulated study revealed that a minimum of 51% of administered dose was absorbed in rats. The pharmacokinetic analysis using unlabeled parent drug showed that compound I was rapidly absorbed and exhibited a mean apparent terminal half-life of approximately 2.7 h. A total of 15 metabolites of compound I were detected and profiled in rat urine, bile, and feces. In rat bile, compound I accounted for <1.5% of the excreted dose, suggesting that compound I underwent extensive metabolism before elimination. The structures of metabolites were elucidated by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. M1, M4, and M6 were the most abundant metabolites observed in rat bile. Only a low level of parent [¹⁴C]compound I was observed in rat plasma.

Cryoelectron Tomography of Radial Spokes in Cilia and Flagella

Radial spokes (RSs) are ubiquitous components in the 9 + 2 axoneme thought to be mechanochemical transducers involved in local control of dynein-driven microtubule sliding. They are composed of >23 polypeptides, whose interactions and placement must be deciphered to understand RS function. In this paper, we show the detailed three-dimensional (3D) structure of RS in situ in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella and Tetrahymena thermophila cilia that we obtained using cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET). We clarify similarities and differences between the three spoke species, RS1, RS2, and RS3, in T. thermophila and in C. reinhardtii and show that part of RS3 is conserved in C. reinhardtii, which only has two species of complete RSs. By analyzing C. reinhardtii mutants, we identified the specific location of subsets of RS proteins (RSPs). Our 3D reconstructions show a twofold symmetry, suggesting that fully assembled RSs are produced by dimerization. Based on our cryo-ET data, we propose models of subdomain organization within the RS as well as interactions between RSPs and with other axonemal components.

4-Piperidin-4-ylidenemethyl-benzamides As δ-opioid Receptor Agonists for CNS Indications: Identifying Clinical Candidates

A series of 4-piperidin-4-ylidenemethyl-benzamide δ-opioid receptor agonists is described with an emphasis on balancing the potency, subtype selectivity and in vitro ADME and safety properties. The three sites impacting SAR are substitutions on the aryl group (R(1)), the piperidine nitrogen (R(2)), and the amide (R(3)). Each region contributes to the balance of properties for δ opioid activity and a desirable CNS profile, and two clinical candidates (20 and 24) were advanced.

Multiparameter Exploration of Piperazine Derivatives As δ-opioid Receptor Agonists for CNS Indications

A novel series of piperazine derivatives exhibits sub-nanomolar binding and enhanced subtype selectivity as δ-opioid agonists. The synthesis and SAR are described as well as the application of computational models to improve in vitro ADME and safety properties suitable for CNS indications, specifically microsomal clearance, permeability, and hERG channel inhibition.

Mouse Respiratory Cilia with the Asymmetric Axonemal Structure on Sparsely Distributed Ciliary Cells Can Generate Overall Directional Flow

Mucociliary clearance on the surface of the tracheal lumen is an important component of lung defense against dust mites and viruses. However, the axonemal structure that achieves effective ciliary motion, and the mechanisms by which discretely distributed ciliary cells generate directional flow are unknown. In this study, we examined individual ciliary motion with 7- to 9-nm spatial precision by labeling the ciliary tip with quantum dots and detected an asymmetric beating pattern. Cryo-electron tomography revealed that the densities of two inner dynein arms were missing from at least 2 doublet microtubules in the axonemal structure. Although the flow directions generated by individual ciliated cells were unsteady and diverse, the time- and space-averaged velocity field was found to be directional. These results indicate that the asymmetric ciliary motion is driven by the asymmetric axonemal structure, and it generates overall directional flow from the lungs to the oropharynx on sparsely distributed ciliated cells. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: The authors of this study utilized quantum dots in determining the kinetics of ciliary motion in mouse respiratory cilia with 7- to 9-nm spatial precision.

Comparative Structural Analysis of Eukaryotic Flagella and Cilia from Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena, and Sea Urchins

Although eukaryotic flagella and cilia all share the basic 9+2 microtubule-organization of their internal axonemes, and are capable of generating bending-motion, the waveforms, amplitudes, and velocities of the bending-motions are quite diverse. To explore the structural basis of this functional diversity of flagella and cilia, we here compare the axonemal structure of three different organisms with widely divergent bending-motions by electron cryo-tomography. We reconstruct the 3D structure of the axoneme of Tetrahymena cilia, and compare it with the axoneme of the flagellum of sea urchin sperm, as well as with the axoneme of Chlamydomonas flagella, which we analyzed previously. This comparative structural analysis defines the diversity of molecular architectures in these organisms, and forms the basis for future correlation with their different bending-motions.

The Right Compound in the Right Assay at the Right Time: an Integrated Discovery DMPK Strategy

The high rate of attrition during drug development and its associated high research and development (R&D) cost have put pressure on pharmaceutical companies to ensure that candidate drugs going to clinical testing have the appropriate quality such that the biological hypothesis could be evaluated. To help achieve this ambition, drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) science and increasing investment have been deployed earlier in the R&D process. To gain maximum return on investment, it is essential that DMPK concepts are both appropriately integrated into the compound design process and that compound selection is focused on accurate prediction of likely outcomes in patients. This article describes key principles that underpin the contribution of DMPK science for small-molecule research based on 15 years of discovery support in a major pharmaceutical company. It does not aim to describe the breadth and depth of DMPK science, but more the practical application for decision making in real-world situations.

Revisiting the Supramolecular Organization of Photosystem II in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

Photosystem II (PSII) is a multiprotein complex that splits water and initiates electron transfer in photosynthesis. The central part of PSII, the PSII core, is surrounded by light-harvesting complex II proteins (LHCIIs). In higher plants, two or three LHCII trimers are seen on each side of the PSII core whereas only one is seen in the corresponding positions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, probably due to the absence of CP24, a minor monomeric LHCII. Here, we re-examined the supramolecular organization of the C. reinhardtii PSII-LHCII supercomplex by determining the effect of different solubilizing detergents. When we solubilized the thylakoid membranes with n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (β-DM) or n-dodecyl-α-D-maltoside (α-DM) and subjected them to gel filtration, we observed a clear difference in molecular mass. The α-DM-solubilized PSII-LHCII supercomplex bound twice more LHCII than the β-DM-solubilized supercomplex and retained higher oxygen-evolving activity. Single-particle image analysis from electron micrographs of the α-DM-solubilized and negatively stained supercomplex revealed that the PSII-LHCII supercomplex had a novel supramolecular organization, with three LHCII trimers attached to each side of the core.

Polarity and Asymmetry in the Arrangement of Dynein and Related Structures in the Chlamydomonas Axoneme

Understanding the molecular architecture of the flagellum is crucial to elucidate the bending mechanism produced by this complex organelle. The current known structure of the flagellum has not yet been fully correlated with the complex composition and localization of flagellar components. Using cryoelectron tomography and subtomogram averaging while distinguishing each one of the nine outer doublet microtubules, we systematically collected and reconstructed the three-dimensional structures in different regions of the Chlamydomonas flagellum. We visualized the radial and longitudinal differences in the flagellum. One doublet showed a distinct structure, whereas the other eight were similar but not identical to each other. In the proximal region, some dyneins were missing or replaced by minor dyneins, and outer-inner arm dynein links were variable among different microtubule doublets. These findings shed light on the intricate organization of Chlamydomonas flagella, provide clues to the mechanism that produces asymmetric flagellar beating, and pose a new challenge for the functional study of the flagella.

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