JoVE   
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Biology

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Neuroscience

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Bioengineering

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Applied Physics

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Chemistry

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Behavior

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Environment

|   

JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Model Organisms I

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Model Organisms II

You have trial access to videos in this collection until May 31, 2014.

In JoVE (2)

Other Publications (184)

Articles by Ki Ho Park in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Ex Vivo Assessment of Contractility, Fatigability and Alternans in Isolated Skeletal Muscles

1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Muscle Biology Research Group, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 3Pharmacology division, College of Pharmacy, DHLRI, Ohio State University


JoVE 4198

We describe a method to directly measure muscle force, muscle power, contractile kinetics and fatigability of isolated skeletal muscles in an in vitro system using field stimulation. Valuable information on Ca2+ handling properties and contractile machinery of the muscle can be obtained using different stimulating protocols.

 JoVE Biology

Assessment of Calcium Sparks in Intact Skeletal Muscle Fibers

1Department of Surgery, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center


JoVE 50898

Described here is a method to directly measure calcium sparks, the elementary units of Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in intact skeletal muscle fibers. This method utilizes osmotic-stress-mediated triggering of Ca2+ release from ryanodine receptor in isolated muscle fibers. The dynamics and homeostatic capacity of intracellular Ca2+ signaling can be employed to assess muscle function in health and disease.

Other articles by Ki Ho Park on PubMed

Morphometric Change Analysis of the Optic Nerve Head in Unilateral Disk Hemorrhage Cases

To measure the changes in optic disk morphology after unilateral disk hemorrhage and to compare the changes between eyes.

Development of a Novel Reference Plane for the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph with Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements

To develop an ideal reference plane for the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) with the assistance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of the mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness.

Effects of a Time Varying Strong Magnetic Field on Release of Cytosolic Free Ca2+ from Intracellular Stores in Cultured Bovine Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

This study was made to explain the mechanisms for the effects of exposure to a time varying 1.51 T magnetic field on the intracellular Ca(2+) signaling pathway. The exposure inhibited an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in bovine chromaffin cells induced by addition of bradykinin (BK) to a Ca(2+) free medium. The exposure did not change BK induced production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)). [Ca(2+)](i) was markedly increased in IP(3) loaded cells, and this increase was inhibited by the magnetic field exposure. A similar increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by other drugs, which stimulated Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, was again inhibited by the same exposure. However, transmembrane Ca(2+) fluxes caused in the presence of thapsigargin were not inhibited by the magnetic field exposure in a Ca(2+) containing medium. Inhibition of the BK induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by the exposure for 30 min was mostly recovered 1 h after exposure ended. Our results reveal that the magnetic field exposure inhibits Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, but that BK bindings to BK receptors of the cell membrane and intracellular inositol IP(3) production are not influenced.

Neuroprotective Effect of Memantine in a Rabbit Model of Optic Nerve Ischemia

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of memantine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, in an experimental optic nerve ischemia. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) in a dosage of 0.1 microg/day was delivered to the perineural region of the anterior optic nerve by osmotically driven minipumps for 8 weeks in 10 rabbits. In 5 rabbits, 1 mg/kg memantine was administered concurrently by intramuscular injection once a daily. Morphologic optic nerve head changes were monitored with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant change in topometric parameters (cup area, cup depth and rim volume), indicating an increase in optic nerve head cupping and a decrease of neural rim volume in the ET-1 administered eyes (P < 0.0001). In rabbits where memantine was given concurrently with ET-1, no significant change in topometric parameters was observed after ET-1 administration (P = 0.78). The current results suggest that memantine has a neuroprotective effect in optic nerve ischemia. Memantine may potentially be useful in the management of various ischemic disorders of the optic nerve, including glaucoma.

Characteristics of Glucose Metabolism in the Visual Cortex of Amblyopes Using Positron-emission Tomography and Statistical Parametric Mapping

The effects of amblyopia on the glucose metabolism in the visual cortex in the resting state are evaluated, the asymmetry of glucose metabolism in the ipsilateral and the contralateral occipital lobes was examined by comparing the number of hypometabolic pixels in both occipital lobes, and the correlation between this asymmetry and the results of the ophthalmologic tests was evaluated.

[Expression of MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC6 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Gallbladder Epithelium According to Gallstone Composition]

Gallbladder (GB) mucin is one of the key factors in the gallstone formation. However, there is little information about the diversity of mucin secretion according to the stone composition. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) functions in proliferation including mucin secreting goblet cell hyperplasia. We compared the expressions of MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC6 and EGFR in the GB epithelium with cholesterol gallstones (GB-chol) group and pigment gallstones (GB-pig group).

N-Glycosylation-dependent Block is a Novel Mechanism for Drug-induced Cardiac Arrhythmia

Voltage-gated potassium channels formed with the cardiac subunit HERG and a polymorphic variant of MinK-related peptide 1 (MiRP1) exhibit increased susceptibility to the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) compared with channels formed with wild-type (WT) subunits. Here the molecular bases for SMX high-affinity block are investigated. The polymorphism causes a benign T to A amino acid mutation at position 8 (T8A) that destroys an N-glycosylation site of MiRP1. In vitro disruption of glycosylation by mutagenesis or in vivo by treatment with neuraminidase is associated with increased susceptibility to SMX and to other elementary agents such as divalent cations. Defective glycosylation does not affect the ability of T8A to form stable complexes with HERG, but rather it increases drug susceptibility through structural modifications in the channel complex. We conclude that N-glycosylation may play a key role in the etiology of life-threatening arrhythmia.

Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Are a New Class of Ion Channel Blockers

Here we identify a novel class of biological membrane ion channel blockers called single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNTs with diameter distributions peaked at approximately 0.9 and 1.3 nm, C60 fullerenes, multi wall nanotubes (MWNTs), and hyperfullerenes (nano-"onions") were synthesized by several techniques and applied to diverse channel types heterologously expressed in mammalian cells. External as-fabricated and purified SWNTs blocked K+ channel subunits in a dose-dependent manner. Blockage was dependent on the shape and dimensions of the nanoparticles used and did not require any electrochemical interaction. SWNTs were more effective than the spherical fullerenes and, for both, diameter was the determining factor. These findings postulate new uses for SWNTs in biological applications and provide unexpected insights into the current view of mechanisms governing the interaction of ion channels with blocking molecules.

Up-regulation of Cytoskeletal-associated Protein 2 in Primary Human Gastric Adenocarcinomas

We performed differential-display polymerase chain reaction to find up-regulated sequences in primary human gastric cancers, and cloned one up-regulated sequence, which was expressed in all the gastric cancer cells that we examined. The cloned sequence was identified as cytoskeletal-associated protein 2 (CKAP2). We also cloned a shorter splice variant, CKAP2-s. The CKAP2 or CKAP2-s protein in HeLa cells was localized to microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) and microtubules. This co-localization pattern was disrupted by nocodazole, a microtubule-destabilizing agent.

Five Subtypes of Muscarinic Receptors Are Expressed in Gastric Smooth Muscles of Guinea Pig

Muscarinic receptors play key roles in the control of gastrointestinal smooth muscle activity. However, specific physiological functions of each subtype remain to be determined. In this study, the nonselective cation channel activated by carbachol (I(CCh)) was examined in circular smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig gastric antrum using patch-clamp technique. 4-DAMP inhibited I(CCh) dose-dependently with IC(50) of 1.1 0.1 nM (n = 6). GTPgS-induced current, however, was not inhibited by 10 nM 4-DAMP. I(CCh) was not recorded in pertussis-toxin (PTX)-pretreated smooth muscle cells of gastric antrum. I(CCh) values in response to 10 mM CCh at a holding potential of 60 mV were -330 32 pA (n=4) and -15 3 pA (n = 6) in the control and PTX-treated cells, respectively (P 0.01). Sensitivities to nanomolar 4-DAMP and PTX suggest the possible involvement of m4 subtype. Using sequence information obtained from cloned guinea pig muscarinic receptor genes, it is possible to amplify the cDNAs encoding m1-m5 from guinea pig brain tissue. Single cell RT-PCR experiments showed that all five subtypes of muscarinic receptor were present in circular smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig gastric antrum. Together with our previous results showing that G(o) protein is important for activation of ACh-activated NSC channels, our results suggest that I(CCh) might be activated by acetylcholine through m4 subtype as well as m2 and m3 subtypes in guinea-pig stomach.

Analysis of Optic Disc Change Using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph in an Acquired Pit of the Optic Nerve

A 51-year-old woman diagnosed as having normal-tension glaucoma developed an acquired pit of the optic nerve. The optic disc was viewed by the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) before and after development of an acquired pit of the optic nerve. HRT parameters and cross-sectional images of the optic disc were compared. Maximum cup depth at the site of the acquired pit of the optic nerve increased after development of the acquired pit of the optic nerve (from 1.200 to 2.432 mm). The neuroretinal rim area and volume in the inferotemporal octant were reduced (rim area from 0.070 to 0.010 mm2, rim volume from 0.009 to 0.001 mm3). The morphologic changes in the optic disc were also detected topographically and reflectively.

Reduced Expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-alpha May Have an Important Role in the Development of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Although the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains poorly understood, metabolic syndrome associated with insulin resistance is the most reproducible factor in the development of NAFLD. Fat accumulation in hepatocytes results from an imbalance in the input, output and oxidation of fatty acid. Peroxisomes contain a battery of fatty acid oxidizing enzymes, the first of which, acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), initiates the beta-oxidation spiral. One of the mammalian peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPAR-alpha, regulates the transcriptional expression of the enzymes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation. The aim of the present study was to define the role of PPAR-alpha and AOX in the development of NAFLD using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat model.

Four Cases of Normal-tension Glaucoma with Disk Hemorrhage Combined with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion in the Contralateral Eye

To report four cases of normal-tension glaucoma with disk hemorrhage in one eye and branch retinal vein occlusion in the contralateral eye.

Correlation Between a Disc Hemorrhage and Peripapillary Atrophy in Glaucoma Patients with a Unilateral Disc Hemorrhage

To investigate the correlation between a disc hemorrhage and peripapillary atrophy in glaucoma patients with a unilateral disc hemorrhage.

The Effect of Latanoprost on Intraocular Pressure During 12 Months of Treatment for Normal-tension Glaucoma

To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of latanoprost in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG).

Dominant Negative N-cadherin Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Interfering with Beta-catenin Regulation of RANKL, Independent of Cell-cell Adhesion

We studied the effects of dominant negative N-cadherin (NCadDeltaC) expression in ST2 cells on their ability to support osteoclastogenesis. Expression of NCadDeltaC in ST2 cells did not decrease cell-to-cell adhesion but significantly reduced osteoclast formation when co-cultured with BMMs. NCadDeltaC inhibited beta-catenin/TCF signaling, resulting in decreased RANKL expression, which could contribute to the reduced osteoclast formation.

Diagnostic Ability of Optical Coherence Tomography with a Normative Database to Detect Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects

To evaluate the diagnostic ability of third-generation optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT) with a normative database to detect localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects.

MPS-1 is a K+ Channel Beta-subunit and a Serine/threonine Kinase

We report the first example of a K+ channel beta-subunit that is also a serine/threonine kinase. MPS-1 is a single-transmembrane domain protein that coassembles with voltage-gated K+ channel KVS-1 in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Biochemical analysis shows that MPS-1 can phosphorylate KVS-1 and other substrates. Electrophysiological analysis in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells demonstrates that MPS-1 activity leads to a significant decrease in the macroscopic current. Single-channel analysis and biotinylation assays indicate that MPS-1 reduces the macroscopic current by lowering the open probability of the channel. These data are consistent with a model that predicts that the MPS-1-dependent phosphorylation of KVS-1 sustains cell excitability by controlling K+ flux.

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in the Fellow Eyes of Normal-tension Glaucoma Patients with Unilateral Visual Field Defect

To quantitatively evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in the fellow eyes of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients with unilateral visual field defect.

Effects of a Time-varying Strong Magnetic Field on Transient Increase in Ca2+ Release Induced by Cytosolic Ca2+ in Cultured Pheochromocytoma Cells

Exposure of pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells to a time-varying 1.51 T magnetic field inhibited an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by addition of caffeine to Ca(2+)-free medium. This inhibition occurred after a 15-min exposure and was maintained for at least 2 h. [Ca2+]i sharply increased in cells loaded with cyclic ADP-ribose, and 2-h exposure significantly suppressed the increase. Addition of ATP induced a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ release mediated by IP3 receptor, and this increase was strongly inhibited by the exposure. Results indicated that the magnetic field exposure strongly inhibited Ca2+ release mediated by both IP3 and ryanodine receptors in PC 12 cells. However, thapsigargin-induced Ca2+ influx (capacitative Ca2+ entry) across the cell membrane was unaffected. The ATP content was maintained at the normal level during the 2-h exposure, suggesting that ATP hydrolysis was unchanged. Therefore, Mg2+ which is known to be released by ATP hydrolysis and inhibit intracellular Ca2+ release may not relate the exposure-caused inhibition. Eddy currents induced in culture medium appear to change cell membrane properties and indirectly inhibit Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum and other Ca2+ stores in PC 12 cells.

A Family of K+ Channel Ancillary Subunits Regulate Taste Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis Elegans

We have identified a family of ancillary subunits of K(+) channels in Caenorhabditis elegans. MPS-1 and its related members MPS-2, MPS-3, and MPS-4 are detected in the nervous system of the nematode. Electrophysiological analysis in ASE neurons and mammalian cells and epigenetic inactivation by double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) in vivo show that each MPS can associate with and functionally endow the voltage-gated K(+) channel KVS-1. In the chemosensory neuron ADF, three different MPS subunits combine with KVS-1 to form both binary (MPS-1.KVS-1) and ternary (MPS-2.MPS-3.KVS-1) complexes. RNAi of mps-2, mps-3, or both, enhance the taste of the animal for sodium without altering the susceptibility to other attractants. When sodium is introduced in the test plate as background or as antagonist attractant, the nematode loses the ability to recognize a second attractant. Thus, it appears that the chemosensory apparatus of C. elegans uses sensory thresholds and that a voltage-gated K(+) channel is specifically required for this mechanism.

Thermal Injury Induces Heat Shock Protein in the Optic Nerve Head in Vivo

To investigate the induction of heat shock protein (Hsp)70 in the optic nerve head by localized laser application in transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT).

Phacotrabeculectomy with Mitomycin C in Patients with Uveitis

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and trabeculectomy with mitomycin C for the management of uveitic complications.

An Evolutionarily Conserved Family of Accessory Subunits of K+ Channels

Accessory subunits are an essential feature of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. They determine trafficking to the plasma membrane, surface expression, gating, permeation, and pharmacology. At least three distinct classes of accessory subunits including the KCNE family can regulate Kv channel function. KCNE genes encode integral membrane proteins with a single transmembrane domain. KCNE genes span the eukaryotic kingdom and, in mutated form, can cause acquired and congenital disease. Here we review genetic, physiological, and biophysical aspects of KCNE proteins with particular emphasis on the Caenorhabditis elegans subfamily.

Correlation Between Topographic Profiles of Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects As Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography and Red-free Fundus Photography

To evaluate the topographic relationship of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and by red-free fundus photography.

The Relationship Between Recurrent Optic Disc Hemorrhage and Glaucoma Progression

To compare the clinical characteristics and progression rates of glaucoma in patients with recurrent and single disc hemorrhages (DHs).

[Significances of Serum Level and Immunohistochemical Stain of CA19-9 in Simple Hepatic Cysts and Intrahepatic Biliary Cystic Neoplasms]

In spite of various diagnostic modalities, biliary cystic neoplasms (biliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma) remain to be difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Recently, there are some reports that elevated CA19-9 level in serum and/or cystic fluid could be a useful finding in the differential diagnosis of biliary cystic neoplasm. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CA19-9 and to elucidate its significances in intrahepatic biliary cystic neoplasms and simple hepatic cysts.

Genetic Heterogeneity of the Hexon Gene of Adenovirus Type 3 over a 9-year Period in Korea

Hexon sequences were analyzed in 29 epidemiologically unrelated adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) isolates from the 7 genome types to understand the molecular basis of the genome-type diversity of Ad3 associated with childhood pneumonia in Korea during the period 1991-1999. Nine nucleotide substitutions were observed among the 29 Ad3 strains. Five of the 9 involved amino acid changes in loops 1 (Gly to Val at codon 205 and Thr to Ile at 211) and loop 2 (His to Asn at 417, Thr to Ala at 429, and Ala to Asp at 439). The predicted hydropathic characteristics of this region have been affected by these amino acid changes. The region surrounding codons from 417 to 439 of Ad3a16 and Ad3a18 manifested greater hydrophobicity than the region of other genome types (Ad3a, Ad3a13, Ad3a14, Ad3a15, and Ad3a17). In particular, three amino acid changes in loop 2 were associated with two new genome types, namely, Ad3a16 and Ad3a18, which were recognized during later epidemics in 1998-1999. Phylogenetic relatedness revealed that these two genome types clustered into distinct lineages in the phylogenetic tree. This result suggests that the genetic heterogeneity of Ad3 hexon could play a potential role in the appearance of new genome types and that it could affect the antigenic characteristics of Ad3.

Resistin is Secreted from Macrophages in Atheromas and Promotes Atherosclerosis

Resistin belongs to a family of cysteine-rich secreted polypeptides that are mainly produced by monocytes/macrophages in humans. Recently, high concentrations of resistin were shown to induce vascular endothelial dysfunction and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. We examined if resistin was secreted from macrophages locally in atheromas and if it affected vascular cell function in human.

The Efficacy of a Modified ACTSEB (anterior Chamber Tube Shunt to an Encircling Band) Procedure

To evaluate the efficacy of a modified anterior chamber tube shunt to an encircling band (ACTSEB) procedure for treating intractable glaucoma after scleral buckling procedure.

Disc Hemorrhages in Patients with Both Normal Tension Glaucoma and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion in Different Eyes

To document the clinical features of disc hemorrhage in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and normal tension glaucoma (NTG), and to evaluate the relationship between BRVO and NTG with disc hemorrhages.

Segmentation of Optic Nerve Head Using Warping and RANSAC

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness, and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect is the early sign of the glaucomatous optic nerve damage. To evaluate the RNFL, segmentation of the optic nerve head on the RNFL photograph should be the first step. This paper presents segmentation of optic nerve head using warping and random sample consensus (RANSAC). Sensitivity and positive predictability of the proposed method were 91% and 78% respectively.

Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in Geriatric Wards: Two Faces of a Coin?

Dark-room Prone-position Test for Intermittent Angle Closure

To determine the efficacy and safety of the dark-room prone-position test (DRPT) for intermittent angle closure (IAC) and to investigate the correlation between A-scan ultrasound biometric measurements and the results of DRPT.

Lithium Down-regulates the Expression of CXCR4 in Human Neutrophils

The CXC chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its unique ligand SDF-1 (stromal-derived factor-1) play critical roles for the retention of hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow (BM) and for their mobilization into the circulation. Lithium often produces neutrophilia in psychiatric patients, but the mechanism of mobilization related to neutrophilia has not been fully clarified. We showed here that lithium dose-dependently reduces the levels of surface CXCR4 protein and mRNA in neutrophils, but not in lymphocytes. The chemotactic migration of neutrophils in response to SDF-1 was reduced after a pre-incubation with lithium. We provide evidence that lithium down-regulates the CXCR4 expression of neutrophils and it attenuates their responsiveness to SDF-1. Our studies support the concept that down-regulation of CXCR4 is one of the mechanisms by which causes neutrophilia.

The Antiproliferative Role of ERG K+ Channels in Rat Osteoblastic Cells

We report on the role of K+ currents in the mechanisms regulating the proliferation of UMR 106-01 osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. Electrophysiological analysis showed that UMR 106-01 cells produce robust K+ currents that can be pharmacologically separated into two major components: a E-4031-susceptible current, I E-4031, and a tetraethylammonium (TEA)-susceptible component, I TEA. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed that I E-4031 is produced by ether a go-go (eag)-related channels (ERG). Incubation of the cells with E-4031 enhanced their proliferation by 80%. Application of E-4031 in the bath solution did not induce instantaneous changes in the membrane resting potential or in the level of cytosolic calcium; however, the cells were slightly depolarized and the calcium content was significantly increased upon prolonged incubation with the compound. Taken together these findings indicate that ERG channels can impair cell proliferation. This is a novel finding that underscores new modes of regulation of mitosis by voltage-gated K+ channels and provides an unexpected insight into the current view of the mechanisms governing bone tissue proliferation.

A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blinded, and Split-face Clinical Study on LED Phototherapy for Skin Rejuvenation: Clinical, Profilometric, Histologic, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Evaluations and Comparison of Three Different Treatment Settings

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to be effective in skin rejuvenation. We investigated the clinical efficacy of LED phototherapy for skin rejuvenation through the comparison with three different treatment parameters and a control, and also examined the LED-induced histological, ultrastructural, and biochemical changes. Seventy-six patients with facial wrinkles were treated with quasimonochromatic LED devices on the right half of their faces. All subjects were randomly divided into four groups treated with either 830nm alone, 633nm alone, a combination of 830 and 633nm, or a sham treatment light, twice a week for four weeks. Serial photography, profilometry, and objective measurements of the skin elasticity and melanin were performed during the treatment period with a three-month follow-up period. The subject's and investigator's assessments were double-blinded. Skin specimens were evaluated for the histologic and ultrastructural changes, alteration in the status of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), and the changes in the mRNA levels of IL-1ss, TNF-alpha, ICAM-1, IL-6 and connexin 43 (Cx43), by utilizing specific stains, TEM, immunohistochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. In the results, objectively measured data showed significant reductions of wrinkles (maximum: 36%) and increases of skin elasticity (maximum: 19%) compared to baseline on the treated face in the three treatment groups. Histologically, a marked increase in the amount of collagen and elastic fibers in all treatment groups was observed. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated highly activated fibroblasts, surrounded by abundant elastic and collagen fibers. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase of TIMP-1 and 2. RT-PCR results showed the mRNA levels of IL-1ss, TNF-alpha, ICAM-1, and Cx43 increased after LED phototherapy whereas that of IL-6 decreased. This therapy was well-tolerated by all patients with no adverse effects. We concluded that 830 and 633nm LED phototherapy is an effective approach for skin rejuvenation.

Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects and Visual Field Abnormalities by Humphrey Matrix Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry

To investigate the ability of frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry to identify eyes with a localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect and normal Humphrey C30-2 SITA-Standard visual field (HVF).

An Arrhythmia Susceptibility Gene in Caenorhabditis Elegans

kcne are evolutionarily conserved genes that encode accessory subunits of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels. Missense mutations in kcne1, kcne2, and kcne3 are linked to congenital and acquired channelopathies in Homo sapiens. Here we show an unique example of conservation of kcne activities at genetic, physiological, functional, and pathophysiological level in Caenorhabditis elegans. Thus, mps-4 is the homologue of kcne1 that operates in human heart and inner ear. Like its KCNE relatives, MPS-4 assembles with a Kv channel, EXP-2, to form a complex that controls pharyngeal muscle contractility. MPS-4 modulates EXP-2 function in a similar fashion as KCNE proteins endow human channels. When defective, MPS-4, can induce abnormal repolarization by mechanisms that resemble the way KCNE proteins are thought to provoke arrhythmia in human heart. Mutation of a conserved aspartate residue associated with human disease (MPS-4-D74N) alters the functional attributes of the C. elegans current. Taken together these data underscore a significant conservation of KCNE activities in different pumps. This implies that C. elegans can develop into a system to study the molecular and genetic basis of KCNE-mediated muscle contractility and disease states.

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Evaluation Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Optic Disc Hemorrhage

To examine the association between disc hemorrhage and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness.

Ability of Stratus OCT to Identify Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects in Patients with Normal Standard Automated Perimetry Results

To evaluate the ability of Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) with its internal normative database to discriminate between healthy eyes and eyes with a localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect not accompanied by a perimetric defect according to standard automated perimetry (SAP) (i.e., a preperimetric localized RNFL defect).

Using Red-free Monochromatic Conversions of Nonmydriatic Digital Fundus Images

To compare three types of digital images for assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects: red-free RNFL images, color nonmydriatic images, and digitally converted nonmydriatic red-free fundus images.

Patterns of Plasma Fatty Acids in Rat Models with Adenovirus Infection

Adenoviral vectors are among the most promising vectors available for human gene therapy. However, the use of recombinant adenoviral vectors, including replicationcompetent adenovirus (RCA), raises a variety of safety concerns in relation to the development of new therapies based on gene therapy. To examine how organic compounds change in rat plasma following the injection of adenovirus, beta-galactosidase expressing recombinant adenovirus (designated rAdLacZ) or RCA, we investigated the content of fatty acids (FAs), which are important biochemical indicators in pathological conditions. Pattern recognition analysis on the level of FAs in rat plasma is described for the visual discrimination of adenovirus infection groups from normal controls. Plasma FAs from four control rats (normal group), and from four rats with rAdLacZ infection and six rats with RCA infection (the two abnormal groups), were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring modes as their tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. In total, 20 FAs were positively detected and quantified. The results of the Studentos t-test on the normal mean of two abnormal groups, the levels of three FAs (p< 0.05) from rAdLacZ group and eleven FAs (p < 0.05) from RCA group were significantly different. When star symbol plotting was applied to the group mean values of 20 FAs after normalization to the corresponding normal mean values, the resulting eicosagonal star patterns of the two infected groups were distorted into similar shapes, but were distinguishable from each other. Thus, these approaches will be useful for screening and monitoring of diagnostic markers for the effects of infection following the use of adenoviral vectors in gene therapy.

Assessing Intraocular Pressure by Rebound Tonometer in Rats with an Air-filled Anterior Chamber

To compare rebound tonometer and cannulation as methods for measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) in rats.

Optic Disc Hemorrhage May Be Associated with Retinal Nerve Fiber Loss in Otherwise Normal Eyes

To evaluate quantitatively the structural damage of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in eyes with disc hemorrhage (DH).

Overlapping of Retinal Nerve Fibers in the Horizontal Plane

To describe a previously unreported overlapping trajectory of retinal nerve fibers over other retinal nerve fibers in the horizontal plane, and to report on the incidence of this anatomic variation.

Differences in the Histopathology and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Tenon's Tissue of Primary Open-angle Glaucoma and Primary Angle-closure Glaucoma

To investigate the differences in the histopathology and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in the Tenon's tissue of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) patients, and non-glaucomatous patients.

Changes in Corneal Endothelial Cell Density in Patients with Normal-tension Glaucoma

To study the changes in corneal endothelial cell density in eyes with normal-tension glaucoma compared with those in controls.

Clindamycin-primaquine Versus Pentamidine for the Second-line Treatment of Pneumocystis Pneumonia

There are limited data on the efficacy of alternative regimens for treating patients with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We compared the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine (C-P) with that of pentamidine as a second line treatment for PCP. Among 91 patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) as a first-line treatment for PCP, 31 (34%) did not respond and 7 (8%) had adverse reactions. Fourteen patients received C-P and 9 received pentamidine as a second-line regimen because of treatment failure or an adverse reaction to TMP-SMX. The response rate of patients to C-P was higher than the response rate to pentamidine (9/14; 64% vs 1/9; 11%; P = 0.03).

Clinical Outcomes of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation Using Tube Ligation and Removable External Stents

To investigate the immediate and long-term outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation with silicone tube ligation and removable external stents.

Paradoxical Responses in Non-HIV-infected Patients with Peripheral Lymph Node Tuberculosis

We evaluated the clinical characteristics and risk factors for the paradoxical response (PR) in non-HIV-infected patients with peripheral lymph node tuberculosis (TB).

The Effect of Cataract Surgery on Diurnal Intraocular Pressure Fluctuation

We examined prospectively the effects of cataract surgery on diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation in patients without glaucoma.

Toxicity Induced Enhanced Extracellular Matrix Production in Osteoblastic Cells Cultured on Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Networks

A central effort in biomedical research concerns the development of materials for sustaining and controlling cell growth. Carbon nanotube based substrates have been shown to support the growth of different kinds of cells (Hu et al 2004 Nano Lett. 4 507-11; Kalbacova et al 2006 Phys. Status Solidi b 13 243; Zanello et al 2006 Nano Lett. 6 562-7); however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. To address the fundamental question of mechanisms by which nanotubes promote bone mitosis and histogenesis, primary calvariae osteoblastic cells were grown on single-walled carbon nanotube thin film (SWNT) substrates. Using a combination of biochemical and optical techniques we demonstrate here that SWNT networks promote cell development through two distinct steps. Initially, SWNTs are absorbed in a process that resembles endocytosis, inducing acute toxicity. Nanotube-mediated cell destruction, however, induces a release of endogenous factors that act to boost the activity of the surviving cells by stimulating the synthesis of extracellular matrix.

Prevalence of Superior Segmental Optic Nerve Hypoplasia in Korea

To investigate the prevalence of superior segmental optic nerve hypoplasia in Korea.

Auto-phosphorylation of a Voltage-gated K+ Channel Controls Non-associative Learning

Here, we characterize a new K(+) channel-kinase complex that operates in the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans to control learning behaviour. This channel is composed of a pore-forming subunit, dubbed KHT-1 (73% homology to human Kv3.1), and the accessory subunit MPS-1, which shows kinase activity. Genetic, biochemical and electrophysiological evidence show that KHT-1 and MPS-1 form a complex in vitro and in native mechanosensory PLM neurons, and that KHT-1 is a substrate for the kinase activity of MPS-1. Behavioural analysis further shows that the kinase activity of MPS-1 is specifically required for habituation to repetitive mechanical stimulation. Thus, worms bearing an inactive MPS-1 variant (D178N) respond normally to touch on the body but do not habituate to repetitive mechanical stimulation such as tapping on the side of the Petri dish. Hence, the phosphorylation status of KHT-1-MPS-1 seems to be linked to distinct behavioural responses. In the non-phosphorylated state the channel is necessary for the normal function of the touch neurons. In the auto-phosphorylated state the channel acts to induce neuronal adaptation to mechanical stimulation. Taken together, these data establish a new mechanism of dynamic regulation of electrical signalling in the nervous system.

Deepening of Eyelid Superior Sulcus During Topical Travoprost Treatment

Topical travoprost, a prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) analog, has several well-known side effects, including a darkening of the eyelid and eyelash hypertrichosis, but there are no reports of a deepening of the eyelid superior sulcus associated with its use.

Effect of Travoprost on Intraocular Pressure During 12 Months of Treatment for Normal-tension Glaucoma

To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of travoprost in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) over a 12-month follow-up.

The Effect of Soft Contact Lenses During the Measurement of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Using Optical Coherence Tomography

To investigate if the measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) is affected by soft contact lens wear.

Ability of Stratus OCT to Detect Progressive Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Atrophy in Glaucoma

To evaluate the ability of Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT version 4.0; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) to detect progressive glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) atrophy observed by red-free RNFL photography.

Intraocular Pressure Changes After Vitrectomy with and Without Combined Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation

To determine sequential intraocular pressure (IOP) changes after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with or without combined phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation (PE & IOL).

Effects of Brimonidine 0.2%-timolol 0.5% Fixed-combination Therapy for Glaucoma

To evaluate the effects of brimonidine 0.2%-timolol 0.5% fixed-combination therapy in the treatment of patients with glaucoma.

Protein Kinase C βII and δ/θ Play Critical Roles in Bone Morphogenic Protein-4-stimulated Osteoblastic Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells

Bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP-4), one of TGF-β superfamily, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and bone fracture repair. In the present study, the role of protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in BMP-4-induced differentiation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. PKC inhibitor UCN-01 significantly attenuated the synthesis of osteocalcin, a marker of mature osteoblast phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner as well as blocked osteroblastic differentiation and mineralization in BMP-4-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. Also, UCN-01 suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in BMP-4-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, UCN-01 remarkably suppressed BMP-4-activated PKC βII and PKC δ/θ of PKC family proteins by Western blotting. Consistently, 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) immunoblotting revealed that UCN-01 inhibited the BMP-4-induced activation of PKC subfamilies in MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that PKC βII and PKC δ/θ mediate BMP-4-induced osteoblastic differentiation.

Ca2+ Overload and Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Instability in Tric-a Null Skeletal Muscle

The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle contains K(+), Cl(-), and H(+) channels may facilitate charge neutralization during Ca(2+) release. Our recent studies have identified trimeric intracellular cation (TRIC) channels on SR as an essential counter-ion permeability pathway associated with rapid Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Skeletal muscle contains TRIC-A and TRIC-B isoforms as predominant and minor components, respectively. Here we test the physiological function of TRIC-A in skeletal muscle. Biochemical assay revealed abundant expression of TRIC-A relative to the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor with a molar ratio of TRIC-A/ryanodine receptor ∼5:1. Electron microscopy with the tric-a(-/-) skeletal muscle showed Ca(2+) overload inside the SR with frequent formation of Ca(2+) deposits compared with the wild type muscle. This elevated SR Ca(2+) pool in the tric-a(-/-) muscle could be released by caffeine, whereas the elemental Ca(2+) release events, e.g. osmotic stress-induced Ca(2+) spark activities, were significantly reduced likely reflecting compromised counter-ion movement across the SR. Ex vivo physiological test identified the appearance of "alternan" behavior with isolated tric-a(-/-) skeletal muscle, i.e. transient and drastic increase in contractile force appeared within the decreasing force profile during repetitive fatigue stimulation. Inhibition of SR/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ ATPase) function could lead to aggravation of the stress-induced alternans in the tric-a(-/-) muscle. Our data suggests that absence of TRIC-A may lead to Ca(2+) overload in SR, which in combination with the reduced counter-ion movement may lead to instability of Ca(2+) movement across the SR membrane. The observed alternan behavior with the tric-a(-/-) muscle may reflect a skeletal muscle version of store overload-induced Ca(2+) release that has been reported in the cardiac muscle under stress conditions.

Post-therapy Paradoxical Response in Immunocompetent Patients with Lymph Node Tuberculosis

Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects Associated with Cotton Wool Spots

To introduce four cases of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects after emergence of retinal cotton wool spots (CWSs).

Age-related Changes of Ocular Parameters in Korean Subjects

To evaluate the age-related variations of ocular parameters in Korean subjects.

Locating the Center of Resistance of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Retracted by Double J Retractor with Palatal Miniscrews

To locate the center of resistance of six maxillary anterior teeth retracted by the Double J Retractor (DJR) and to find the optimal position of palatal miniscrews.

A Quantitative AFM Analysis of Nano-scale Surface Roughness in Various Orthodontic Brackets

In orthodontics, the surface roughnesses of orthodontic archwire and brackets affect the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement, corrosion behavior, and the aesthetics of orthodontic components. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements were used to provide quantitative information on the surface roughness of the orthodontic material. In this study, the changes in surface roughness of various orthodontic bracket slots before and after sliding movement of archwire in vitro and in vivo were observed through the utilization of AFM. Firstly, we characterized the surface of four types of brackets slots as follows: conventional stainless steel (Succes), conventional ceramic (Perfect), self-ligating stainless steel (Damon) and self-ligating ceramic (Clippy-C) brackets. Succes) and Damon brackets showed relatively smooth surfaces, while Perfect had the roughest surface among the four types of brackets used. Secondly, after in vitro sliding test with beta titanium wire in two conventional brackets (Succes and Perfect), there were significant increases in only stainless steel bracket, Succes. Thirdly, after clinical orthodontic treatment for a maximum of 2 years, the self-ligating stainless steel bracket, Damon, showed a significant increase in surface roughness. But self-ligating ceramic brackets, Clippy-C, represented less significant changes in roughness parameters than self-ligating stainless steel ones. Based on the results of the AFM measurements, it is suggested that the self-ligating ceramic bracket has great possibility to exhibit less friction and better biocompatibility than the other tested brackets. This implies that these bracket slots will aid in the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement.

Charade of the SR K+-channel: Two Ion-channels, TRIC-A and TRIC-B, Masquerade As a Single K+-channel

The presence of a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) K+-selective ion-channel has been known for >30 years yet the molecular identity of this channel has remained a mystery. Recently, an SR trimeric intracellular cation channel (TRIC-A) was identified but it did not exhibit all expected characteristics of the SR K+-channel. We show that a related SR protein, TRIC-B, also behaves as a cation-selective ion-channel. Comparison of the single-channel properties of purified TRIC-A and TRIC-B in symmetrical 210 mM K+ solutions, show that TRIC-B has a single-channel conductance of 138 pS with subconductance levels of 59 and 35 pS, whereas TRIC-A exhibits full- and subconductance open states of 192 and 129 pS respectively. We suggest that the K+-current fluctuations observed after incorporating cardiac or skeletal SR into bilayers, can be explained by the gating of both TRIC-A and TRIC-B channels suggesting that the SR K+-channel is not a single, distinct entity. Importantly, TRIC-A is regulated strongly by trans-membrane voltage whereas TRIC-B is activated primarily by micromolar cytosolic Ca2+ and inhibited by luminal Ca2+. Thus, TRIC-A and TRIC-B channels are regulated by different mechanisms, thereby providing maximum flexibility and scope for facilitating monovalent cation flux across the SR membrane.

Diagnostic Usefulness of a T-cell-based Assay for Osteoarticular Tuberculosis

Although diagnosing osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge, a recently developed Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific ELISPOT assay for diagnosing TB infection has shown promising results. We performed a prospective, blinded, observational study to compare its diagnostic usefulness with those of conventional tests in patients with suspected osteoarticular TB.

Structure-function Relationships in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes Determined by Time- and Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

To compare the relationships between retinal mean sensitivity (MS) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, as measured by time-domain (TD) and spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Effect of Media Opacity on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements by Optical Coherence Tomography

To assess the effect of ocular media opacity on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements by optical coherence tomography (OCT).

MicroRNAs Induced During Ischemic Preconditioning

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded short RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by either degradation or translational repression of mRNA. Although miRNAs control a number of conditions and diseases, few neuroprotective miRNAs have been described. In this study, we investigated neuroprotective miRNAs induced early in ischemic preconditioning.

Outcome of Attempted Hickman Catheter Salvage in Febrile Neutropenic Cancer Patients with Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia

There are limited data on outcomes of Hickman catheter salvage associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in neutropenic cancer patients. We evaluated the outcome of attempted Hickman catheter salvage in these patients who were not given antibiotic lock therapy. Outcomes were retrospectively analyzed in all neutropenic cancer patients with Hickman catheter-related SAB over a 12-year period (56 episodes in 54 patients). Salvage attempts were defined as cases where the catheter was still in place 3 days after initial bacteremia. Salvage attempts were considered successful if catheter was still in place 12 weeks later without recurrent SAB or death. Of the 56 episodes, catheters were immediately removed in eight (14%), and catheter salvage was attempted in 48 (86%). Of these 48 episodes, attempted salvage was successful in 29 (60%) and failed in 14 (29%). Outcome of attempted salvage was indeterminate in five (11%) episodes. In univariate analysis, presence of external signs of catheter infection (p = 0.03), positive follow-up blood culture (p = 0.03), and methicillin resistance (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with catheter salvage failure. In multivariate analysis, presence of external signs of catheter infection (OR 12.0; p = 0.04) and methicillin resistance (OR 5.1; p = 0.04) were independently associated with catheter savage failure. In conclusion, attempted catheter salvage without antibiotic lock therapy was successful in 60% of the patients with Hickman catheter-related SAB. External signs of catheter infection and methicillin resistance were independent risk factors for catheter salvage failure.

Quantitative Assessment of Diffuse Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Atrophy Using Optical Coherence Tomography: Diffuse Atrophy Imaging Study

To evaluate quantitatively the degree of diffuse retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) atrophy using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Upregulation of SOX2, NOTCH1, and ID1 in Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors: a Distinct Differentiation Pattern from That of Medulloblastomas

Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and medulloblastoma are highly malignant embryonal brain tumors. They share morphological similarities, but differ in their differentiation patterns and global gene expression. The authors compared the expression of specific genes involved in neuroglial differentiation in supratentorial PNETs and medulloblastomas to define the distinct characters of these tumors.

Korean Normative Database for Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography to Detect Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects (preliminary Study)

To establish a Korean normative database of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness.

Bloodstream Infections Caused by Qnr-positive Enterobacteriaceae: Clinical and Microbiologic Characteristics and Outcomes

The clinical significance of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnr has not been well characterized. We investigated the clinical and microbiologic characteristics and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by qnr-positive Enterobacteriaceae. We prospectively collected 351 nonduplicate consecutive blood isolates of Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae. qnr genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by sequencing. The medical records of patients were retrospectively reviewed. qnr genes were detected in a total of 26 isolates. A comparison of these 26 qnr-positive and 297 qnr-negative Enterobacteriaceae BSIs in adult patients showed that the population characteristics and clinical features of BSIs were similar between the qnr-positive and qnr-negative groups. However, patients with hematologic malignancies, solid organ transplant recipients, and BSIs caused by strains with multiple antimicrobial resistance, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) resistance, were more common in the qnr-positive group. Previous antibiotic therapy and prior use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or aminoglycosides were significantly associated with BSIs caused by qnr-positive strains. In the multivariate analysis, prior use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-20.94) and having an underlying disease other than solid tumor (OR, 4.06; 95% CI, 15.07) were independently associated with qnr-positive Enterobacteriaceae BSIs. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality rates between the qnr-positive and qnr-negative groups (15.4% [4/26] versus 13.8% [41/297], P = 0.77). Although qnr determinants were significantly associated with multiple antimicrobial resistance including ESBL resistance, they did not affect clinical outcomes of BSIs.

Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Thickness Measurements Using the Test-retest Function of Spectral OCT/SLO in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes

To evaluate the reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements in normal and glaucoma patients using the spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT)/scanning laser ophthalmosope (SLO).

Circadian Blood Pressure and Intraocular Pressure Patterns in Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients with Undisturbed Sleep

To investigate and compare the circadian pattern of blood pressure (BP), intraocular pressure (IOP) and mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) while experiencing undisturbed sleep in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and non-glaucoma control patient groups.

Comparison of the Clinical and Microbiologic Characteristics of Patients with Enterobacter Cloacae and Enterobacter Aerogenes Bacteremia: a Prospective Observation Study

We compared the characteristics and outcomes of 172 Enterobacter cloacae bacteremia and 67 Enterobacter aerogenes bacteremia (EAB) cases. Antimicrobial resistance rates to E. cloacae were higher than those to E. aerogenes. However, EAB more frequently presented as septic shock and was associated with poorer outcomes.

Laser-aided Circumferential Supracrestal Fiberotomy and Low-level Laser Therapy Effects on Relapse of Rotated Teeth in Beagles

To investigate the effectiveness and periodontal side effects of laser circumferential supracrestal fiberotomy (CSF) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on orthodontically rotated teeth in beagles.

Relation Between Axial Length and Ocular Parameters

To investigate the relation between axial length (AL) and ocular parameters.

Comparison of Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT on the Ability to Detect Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects in Preperimetric Glaucoma

To evaluate and compare the diagnostic ability of Cirrus and Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in patients with normal standard automated perimetry.

Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography and Scanning Laser Polarimetry for Detection of Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects

To compare the ability of Stratus optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensator (GDx VCC) in recognizing a localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect identified on red-free fundus photography.

Prevalence of Eye Diseases in South Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009

The aim of this study is to report on preliminary data regarding the prevalence of major eye diseases in Korea.

Disrupted Membrane Structure and Intracellular Ca²⁺ Signaling in Adult Skeletal Muscle with Acute Knockdown of Bin1

Efficient intracellular Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) homeostasis in skeletal muscle requires intact triad junctional complexes comprised of t-tubule invaginations of plasma membrane and terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Bin1 consists of a specialized BAR domain that is associated with t-tubule development in skeletal muscle and involved in tethering the dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR) to the t-tubule. Here, we show that Bin1 is important for Ca²⁺ homeostasis in adult skeletal muscle. Since systemic ablation of Bin1 in mice results in postnatal lethality, in vivo electroporation mediated transfection method was used to deliver RFP-tagged plasmid that produced short -hairpin (sh)RNA targeting Bin1 (shRNA-Bin1) to study the effect of Bin1 knockdown in adult mouse FDB skeletal muscle. Upon confirming the reduction of endogenous Bin1 expression, we showed that shRNA-Bin1 muscle displayed swollen t-tubule structures, indicating that Bin1 is required for the maintenance of intact membrane structure in adult skeletal muscle. Reduced Bin1 expression led to disruption of t-tubule structure that was linked with alterations to intracellular Ca²⁺ release. Voltage-induced Ca²⁺ released in isolated single muscle fibers of shRNA-Bin1 showed that both the mean amplitude of Ca²⁺ current and SR Ca²⁺ transient were reduced when compared to the shRNA-control, indicating compromised coupling between DHPR and ryanodine receptor 1. The mean frequency of osmotic stress induced Ca²⁺ sparks was reduced in shRNA-Bin1, indicating compromised DHPR activation. ShRNA-Bin1 fibers also displayed reduced Ca²⁺ sparks' amplitude that was attributed to decreased total Ca²⁺ stores in the shRNA-Bin1 fibers. Human mutation of Bin1 is associated with centronuclear myopathy and SH3 domain of Bin1 is important for sarcomeric protein organization in skeletal muscle. Our study showing the importance of Bin1 in the maintenance of intact t-tubule structure and ([Ca²⁺]i) homeostasis in adult skeletal muscle could provide mechanistic insight on the potential role of Bin1 in skeletal muscle contractility and pathology of myopathy.

Enhancement of Cutaneous Immune Response to Bacterial Infection After Low-level Light Therapy with 1072 Nm Infrared Light: a Preliminary Study

We investigated the photobiomodulation effects of 1072 nm infrared light on the natural immune response involved in anti-bacterial and wound healing processes. Thirty mice infected with MRSA on the skin were divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated with 1072 nm infrared light (irradiance: 20 mW/cm(2), fluence: 12 J/cm(2) for 10 min) at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 h, 3 and 5 days after inoculation and the control group with sham light. Serial changes of the mRNA levels of TLR2, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, MCP-1, TGF-β, bFGF and VEGF were studied by real time RT-PCR and those of the expression level of VEGF, bFGF, TGF-β and NF-κB by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of the cytokines involved in the early phase of anti-bacterial immune response (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1) increased significantly in the 1072 nm group, peaking between 12 and 24 h post-inoculation. These levels normalized after 3-5 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed a notably stronger expression of VEGF in the 1072 nm group from 8-h post-inoculation to 5-day post-inoculation. We concluded that 1072 nm infrared light had a photobiomodulation effect which resulted in an enhanced biological immune response to the bacterial infection by MRSA and also increased the expression of VEGF to a significant level.

Development of a Joint Space Width Measurement Method Based on Radiographic Hand Images

This study presents a novel algorithm to measure joint space widths (JSWs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using radiographic hand images. Radiographic images were first preprocessed, and then phalangeal regions corresponding to the bone structures of each finger were extracted using step-wedge functions. Phalangeal branch paths were also extracted. Each of the five extracted phalangeal branch paths matched the bone structures of each finger exactly and ran through the center of each finger. The algorithm automatically detected 14 joints, which were identified as sharp changes in gray scale intensity along phalangeal branch paths through the profile plot. The regions of interest corresponding to the 14 joints were subsequently extracted. A total of 35 radiographic images from three groups were tested. The performance of our algorithm was evaluated by measuring joint location percentage errors and mean JSWs for three joints in the phalanges. The algorithm correctly detected 94.69% of total joints and had a low detection rate in RA patients with severe deformities or ankylosis. The mean JSW in the control group was significantly greater than that in the RA group (p<0.05). In contrast, the standard deviation of JSW in the control group was lower than that in the RA groups (p<0.005). Control and seropositive RA groups showed significant symmetry in JSW values.

Mutation Spectrum of CYP1B1 and MYOC Genes in Korean Patients with Primary Congenital Glaucoma

To elucidate the incidence of cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and myocillin (MYOC) mutations in Korean patients with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG).

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defect and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

To determine whether retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD) is associated with cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) and to identify risk factors for RNFLD.

Diagnostic Performance of T-SPOT.TB for Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis According to the Site of Infection

The clinical manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (E-TB) vary according to site of disease, so we tested the hypothesis that IFN-γ producing T-cell responses also vary in parallel. Therefore we conducted a prospective, blinded, observational study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of blood T-SPOT.TB according to the various sites of E-TB.

Ginsenoside Rh2(S) Induces Differentiation and Mineralization of MC3T3-E1 Cells Through Activation of the PKD/AMPK Signaling Pathways

As part of our search for biologically active anti-osteoporotic agents that enhance differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, we identified the ginsenoside Rh2(S). Mostly known to exhibit beneficial effects in cancer prevention and metabolic diseases, Rh2(S) is one of the most active ginsenosides. Here, we show that Rh2(S) stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization, manifested by the up-regulation of differentiation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteogenic genes) and von Kossa/Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Rh2(S) also activated protein kinase D (PKD) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and Rh2(S)-induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic cells were significantly abolished in the presence of specific inhibitors; Go6976 for PKD and Ara-A for AMPK. Furthermore, Go6976 suppressed Rh2(S)-mediated activation of AMPK, indicating that PKD may be an upstream signal for AMPK in Rh2(S)-induced differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Rh2(S) induces the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells through activation of PKD/AMPK signaling pathways. These findings provide a molecular basis for the osteogenic effect of Rh2(S).

Diagnostic Accuracy of OCT with a Normative Database to Detect Diffuse Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Atrophy: Diffuse Atrophy Imaging Study

To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) with its internal normative database to detect diffuse retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) atrophy in glaucoma subjects.

Effects of Brimonidine Timolol Fixed Combination Therapy on Anterior Ocular Segment Configuration

To assess the effects of brimonidine and of brimonidine and timolol fixed combination (BTFC) therapy on the pupil and angle structures in both normal subjects and in open angle glaucoma patients.

Effects of Laser-aided Circumferential Supracrestal Fiberotomy on Root Surfaces

To evaluate and compare the effects of circumferential supracrestal fiberotomy in vivo (using diode, CO(2), and Er∶YAG lasers) on the morphology and chemical composition of the root surface.

Evaluation of the Effect of Force Direction on Stationary Anchorage Success of Mini-implant with a Lever-arm-shaped Upper Structure

To compare the effect of clockwise and counterclockwise torque on the primary stability of a mini-implant with a lever-arm-shaped upper structure.

Visualization of the Lamina Cribrosa Using Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

To investigate whether the enhanced depth imaging technique (EDI) may improve the visualization of the lamina cribrosa using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).

Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculous Peritonitis by T Cell-based Assays on Peripheral Blood and Peritoneal Fluid Mononuclear Cells

The utility of a newly-developed Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay for diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis (TBP) has not been fully assessed.

β-Zone Parapapillary Atrophy and the Rate of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning in Glaucoma

To evaluate whether β-zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA) is associated with the rate of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness change as assessed by trend-based analysis using time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Melatonin Promotes Osteoblastic Differentiation Through the BMP/ERK/Wnt Signaling Pathways

Although melatonin has a variety of biological actions such as antitumor, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant activities, the osteogenic mechanism of melatonin still remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, the molecular mechanism of melatonin was elucidated in the differentiation of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Melatonin enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization compared to untreated controls in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Also, melatonin increased wound healing and dose-dependently activated osteogenesis markers such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteocalcin (OCN), bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 and -4 in MC3T3-E1 cells. Of note, melatonin activated Wnt 5 α/β, β-catenin and the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a time-dependent manner while it attenuated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) in MC3T3-E1 cells. Consistently, confocal microscope observation revealed that BMP inhibitor Noggin blocked melatonin-induced nuclear localization of β-catenin. Furthermore, Western blotting showed that Noggin reversed activation of β-catenin and Wnt5 α/β and suppression of GSK-3β induced by melatonin in MC3T3-E1 cells, which was similarly induced by ERK inhibitor PD98059. Overall, these findings demonstrate that melatonin promotes osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells via the BMP/ERK/Wnt pathways.

Changes in Anterior Chamber Configuration After Cataract Surgery As Measured by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

To evaluate the changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) and angle width induced by phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in normal eyes using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT).

Feasibility of TEOS Coated CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles to a GMR Biosensor Agent for Single Molecular Detection

Magnetic properties of 200 nm ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles before and after coating with TEOS were explored and compared to soft ferrimagnetic MgFe2O4 nanoparticles (200 nm) to evaluate the feasibility as an in-vitro GMR SV (giant magnetoresistance spin-valve) biosensor agent for single molecular detection (SMD). It was found that the magnetic degradation (or variation) of TEOS coated CoFe2O4 and MgFe2O4 nanoparticles are dominantly affected by the chemical dispersion process, which is carried out in the oleic acid (OA), oleylamine (OL), or OA+OL surfactant, before starting major coating process. In addition, the TEOS coating thickness controlled by TEOS concentration and pH level in the buffer solution prominently influenced on the magnetic degradation of TEOS coated nanoparticles. According to the experimental analysis results, the magnetic degradation of TEOS coated nanoparticles is mainly attributed to the variation of particle dipole interaction caused by the degree of particle aggregation depending on TEOS coating process conditions. The TEOS coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles exhibited a higher magnetic stability for a GMR biosensor agent, e.g., small variation of remnant magnetization, saturation magnetization and magnetic coercivity, than that of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles at the different coating process conditions. The physical and chemical analysis confirmed that this is primarily due to its higher magnetic anisotropy. The experimentally verified high biocompatibility as well as the stably maintained magnetic properties of TEOS coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles demonstrate that CoFe2O4 nanoparticles can be considered as one of the promising ferrimagnetic nanoparticle sensor agent for an SMD GMR SV biosensor.

Influence of Angular Width and Peripapillary Position of Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects on Their Detection by Time-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

To investigate the influence of angular width and peripapillary position of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects on their detection by the time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Development of Subsequent Bloodstream Infection in Patients with Positive Hickman Catheter Blood Cultures and Negative Peripheral Blood Cultures

There are limited data on the incidence of subsequent bloodstream infection (BSI) and the effect of systemic antibiotics in patients who had positive catheter-drawn blood cultures (CBC) and negative peripheral blood cultures (PBC). We retrospectively reviewed all paired blood cultures from patients with Hickman catheter in the hematology-oncology ward between January 1997 and December 2008. There were 112 episodes with positive CBC and negative PBC. Nine episodes (8.0%; 95% CI, 3.0-13.1%) led to subsequent BSI within 28 days. Subsequent BSI developed in 6 of 31 episodes (19%) where empiric antibiotics were inappropriate but in 3 of 81 episodes (4%) where empiric antibiotics were appropriate (P = 0.01). Subsequent candidemia (50%, 2 of 4) was more common than subsequent bacteremia (6%, 7 of 108) (P = 0.03). In conclusion, for patients with positive CBC and negative PBC, the overall incidence of subsequent BSI was 8.0%, and inappropriate empiric antibiotics was associated with subsequent BSI.

Treatment of Class II Open Bite Complicated by an Ankylosed Maxillary Central Incisor

Ankylosed teeth in growing patients cause troublesome dentoalveolar problems and require special therapeutic care for accomplishing long-term esthetic and functional results. The various treatment modalities for ankylosed teeth include reconstruction after extraction, surgical extrusive luxation, individual segmental osteotomy or corticotomy, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old boy with anterior open bite complicated by an ankylosed maxillary central incisor that was managed by corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic treatment.

Clinical Significance of Propionibacterium Acnes Recovered from Blood Cultures: Analysis of 524 Episodes

Of 522 patients with Propionibacterium acnes bacteremia (PAB), 18 (3.5%) had clinically significant PAB. Of these 18 patients, 10 (55.6%) had hospital-acquired bacteremia and 6 (33.3%) had undergone invasive procedures before development of PAB. One patient with a ventricular septal defect presented with infective endocarditis. After the exclusion of 1 patient whose outcome was not available, the overall mortality rate was 5.9% (1/17).

Correlation Between Skeletal Changes by Maxillary Protraction and Upper Airway Dimensions

To describe the correlation between the skeletal changes induced by maxillary protraction treatment and the sagittal airway dimension associated with tongue, soft palate, and hyoid bone position in skeletal Class III children.

Changes in Ultrastructure and Properties of Bracket Slots After Orthodontic Treatment with Bicuspid Extraction

This study examined the effects of an orthodontic treatment using a bicuspid extraction on the surface roughness and mechanical properties of stainless steel (SS) brackets adjacent to the extraction space. Four experimental groups were employed; groups 1 and 2 used the Archist(®) SS brackets before and after the extraction treatment, respectively, and groups 3 and 4 used the Victory(®) SS brackets before and after the extraction treatment, respectively. The slot surfaces of the bracket were scanned in air at a resolution of 512 × 512 pixels with a scan speed of 0.8 line/s. The visco-elasticity of the bracket slot was determined from the force-distance curves of atomic force microscopy. The orthodontic treatment with bicuspid extraction led to a significant increase (p<0.0001) in surface roughness in both groups. In particular, the Archist(®) SS brackets showed more changes than the Victory(®) SS brackets (p<0.0005). However, there was no significant difference in properties of the Victory(®) and Archist(®) brackets between before and after treatment. This suggests that the orthodontic treatment with bicuspid extraction is more responsible for the changes in surface roughness than the properties of the brackets.

Comparison of the Correlations Between Optic Disc Rim Area and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Glaucoma and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

To test whether comparison of the correlation between optic disc rim area and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (rim-RNFL correlation) can differentiate eyes with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) from eyes with open-angle glaucoma (OAG).

Enhanced Proliferation and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Synovium-derived Stem Cells Expanded with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

Synovium-derived stem cell (SDSC) is one of valuable sources for cartilage regeneration. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was reported to augment the differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells originating from a variety of sources. In this study, we applied various concentrations of bFGF to monolayer cultures of SDSCs and evaluated its effects on proliferation and chondrogenesis. SDSCs expressed mRNAs of FGF receptor 1, 2, 3, and 4, but produced only FGF receptor 3 protein. The SDSCs were expanded as monolayer supplemented with various concentrations of bFGF (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) before chondrogenesis. Cell shrinkage and increased actin expression was noted as well as enhanced proliferation by bFGF treatment in monolayer cultures. Cell surface marker CD34 and CD49a expression of SDSCs was decreased with 10 and 100 ng/mL of bFGF. In micromass pellet cultures, bFGF-treated SDSCs showed augmented sizes, weights, and glycosaminoglycan accumulation of pellets by bFGF supplementation. Messenger RNA and protein expression of type II and type X collagen were upregulated in pellets cultured bFGF. These results demonstrated that bFGF was an effective agent for the enhancement of SDSC proliferation and chondrogenesis. From the results in this study, we could elect the 10 ng/mL of bFGF as an optimal concentration for pretreatment of SDSCs before chondrogenic differentiation.

Trend-based Analysis of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Localized Nerve Fiber Layer Defects

To evaluate the rate of change in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in eyes with stable and progressive localized RNFL defects and to investigate, in a trend-based approach, the diagnostic capability of OCT in the detection of progressive RNFL thinning.

Altered MicroRNA Regulation in Huntington's Disease Models

Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormal CAG expansion. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules regulating gene expression, and are implicated in a variety of diseases including HD. However, the profiles and regulation of miRNAs in HD are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the miRNA expression and miRNA regulators in two transgenic models of HD, YAC128 and R6/2 mice, and in a 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP)-induced striatal degeneration rat model. After characterizing the phenotypes by behavioral tests and histological analyses, we profiled striatal miRNAs using a miRNA microarray and we measured the key molecules involved in miRNA biogenesis and function. YAC128 mice showed upregulation-dominant miRNA expressions at 5 months and downregulation-dominant expressions at 12 months. Concomitantly, the expressions of Drosha-DGCR8, Exportin-5, and Dcp1 were increased at 5months, and the expression of Dicer was decreased at 12 months. In 10-week-old R6/2 mice, downregulation was dominant in the miRNA expressions and the level of Drosha decreased concomitantly. Nine miRNAs (miR-22, miR-29c, miR-128, miR-132, miR-138, miR-218, miR-222, miR-344, and miR-674*) were commonly down-regulated in both the 12-month-old YAC128 and 10-week-old R6/2 mice. Meanwhile, 3NP rats showed dynamic changes in the miRNA profiles during disease development and a few miRNAs with altered expression. Our results show that transgenic HD mice have abnormal miRNA biogenesis. This information should aid in future studies on therapeutic application of miRNAs in HD.

Engineered Superparamagnetic Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Nanoparticles As a Heat Shock Protein Induction Agent for Ocular Neuroprotection in Glaucoma

Ocular neuroprotection induced by localized heat shock proteins (HSPs) has been paid considerable attention as an efficacious treatment modality for glaucoma. However, the current clinical approaches to induce HSPs in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are limited due to undesirable side effects. Here, we present that the induction of HSPs by local magnetic hyperthermia using engineered superparamagnetic Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4) nanoparticle agents (EMZF-SPNPAs) with a 5.5 nm mean particle size is promisingly feasible for a physiologically tolerable ocular neuroprotection modality. The sufficiently high specific absorption rate (SAR) (∼256.4 W/g in an agar solution) achieved at the biologically safe range of applied AC magnetic field and frequency as well as the superior biocompatibility of EMZF-SPNPA, which were confirmed from both in-vitro and in-vivo animal pilot studies, allowing it to be considered as a potential localized HSPs agent. Furthermore, the successful demonstration of a newly designed infusion technique, which diffuses the EMZF-SPNPAs through the vitreous body to the retina in a rat eye, more strongly verified the promises of this biotechnical approach to the ocular neuroprotection modality in glaucoma clinics.

Successful Salvage Therapy with Inhaled Zanamivir in a Patient with Peramivir-resistant Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Virus

We describe a patient with multiple myeloma who developed a pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection during chemotherapy. The clinical condition of the patient worsened and viral shedding persisted despite 10 days of peramivir treatment; however viral shedding ceased and the patient recovered completely with inhaled zanamivir.

Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation for Neovascular Glaucoma After Vitrectomy for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation (AGVI) for the management of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in the vitrectomized eyes.

Investigation of the Association Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Normal Tension Glaucoma

To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with normal tension glaucoma (NTG).

Asymmetry of Diurnal Intraocular Pressure Fluctuation Between Right and Left Eyes

To evaluate diurnal curves of intraocular pressure (IOP) in the right and left eyes of non-glaucomatous patients.

Long-term Temporal Changes of Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Before and After Panretinal Photocoagulation in Severe Diabetic Retinopathy

: To analyze the long-term changes of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness before and after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in patients with severe diabetic retinopathy.

Diagnostic Usefulness of a T-cell-based Assay in Patients with Miliary Tuberculosis, Compared to That in Patients with Lymph Node Tuberculosis

Forty-three patients with miliary tuberculosis (TB) were evaluated for diagnostic usefulness of ELISPOT assay. Among non-invasive rapid tests available within 3-5 days, ELISPOT had the highest sensitivity (93%), compared with acid-fast bacilli stain (sputum 32% and bronchoalveolar lavage 7%), M.TB-PCR (sputum 53% and bronchoalveolar lavage 36%), and tuberculin skin test (22%). In comparison to 44 patients with lymph node TB, the sensitivity of the ELISPOT assay in patients with miliary TB (93%) was as high as in those with lymph node TB (95%, P = 0.63), whereas the sensitivity of the tuberculin skin test was substantially lower in patients with miliary TB (22%) than in those with lymph node TB (73%, P <.001).

Changes in Intraocular Pressure After Pharmacologic Pupil Dilation

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intraocular pressure (IOP) may vary according to the change of ocular conditions. In this study, we want to assess the effect and mechanism of pupil dilation on IOP in normal subjects. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 32 eyes of 32 patients (age; 61.7 +/- 8.2 years) with normal open angles under diurnal IOP. IOP was measured every two hours from 9 AM to 11 PM for one day to establish baseline values and was measured again for one day to assess the differences after dilation. To induce dilation, we administered 2.5% phenylephrine and 1% tropicamide every 5 minutes from 8:30 AM to 8:45 AM and for every two hours from 11 AM to 9 PM to keep the pupil dilated. Diurnal IOP, biometry, Visante OCT, and laser flare photometry were measured before and after dilation. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in IOP after dilation, 1.85 +/- 2.01 mmHg (p = 0.002). IOP elevation remained significant until about four hours after dilation. Thereafter, IOP decreased slowly and eventually reached pre-dilation level (p > 0.05). Flare values decreased, and the anterior chamber angle became wider after mydriasis. CONCLUSIONS: Dilation of the pupil significantly and incidentally elevated IOP in normal subjects. Further related studies are warranted to characterize the mechanism of the increased IOP after dilation.

Hong's Grading for Evaluating Anterior Chamber Angle Width

PURPOSE: To compare Hong's grading method with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), gonioscopy, and the dark-room prone-position test (DRPT) for evaluating anterior chamber width. METHODS: The anterior chamber angle was graded using Hong's grading method, and Hong's angle width was calculated from the arctangent of Hong's grades. The correlation between Hong's angle width and AS-OCT parameters was analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for Hong's grading method when discriminating between narrow and open angles as determined by gonioscopy was calculated. Correlation analysis was performed between Hong's angle width and intraocular pressure (IOP) changes determined by DRPT. RESULTS: A total of 60 subjects were enrolled. Of these subjects, 53.5 % had a narrow angle. Hong's angle width correlated significantly with the AS-OCT parameters (r = 0.562-0.719, P < 0.01). A Bland-Altman plot showed relatively good agreement between Hong's angle width and the angle width obtained by AS-OCT. The ability of Hong's grading method to discriminate between open and narrow angles was good (AUC = 0.868, 95 % CI 0.756-0.942). A significant linear correlation was found between Hong's angle width and IOP change determined by DRPT (r = -0.761, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Hong's grading method is useful for detecting narrow angles. Hong's grading correlated well with AS-OCT parameters and DRPT.

Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of the Effect of the Brushing Time on the Human Tooth Dentin After Exposure to Acidic Softdrinks

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the abrasive and erosive potential of the brushing time on the dentin surface eroded by acidic soft drinks to suggest an optimized toothbrushing start time after the consumption of cola (pH 2.52) in children. Thirty-six non-carious primary central incisors were assigned to 12 experimental groups (n = 3) based on the erosive and abrasive treatment protocols. Cola exposure was used as the erosive treatment. Three brushing durations (5, 15, and 30 sec) and four brushing start times (immediately, 30 min, 60 min, and 120 min) after an erosive pre-treatment were used for the abrasive treatment. Toothbrushing after exposure to acidic soft drinks led to an increase in the open-tubule fraction and microstructural changes. Toothbrushing immediately after the erosive pre-treatment showed the largest abrasive and erosive potential on the dentin whereas that 60 and 120 min after the pre-treatment showed the least abrasive and erosive potential on the dentin. Toothbrushing for both 60 and 120 min after the pre-treatment showed similar erosive and abrasive potentials on the dentin. The brushing duration showed no effect on the erosive and abrasive potential on the dentin. Therefore, to achieve the desired tooth surface cleaning and less surface lesion on the dentin surface, toothbrushing should be performed at least 1 hour after cola consumption. Three-minute brushing after cola consumption is sufficient to prevent dental lesions, and prolonged brushing can irritate the gingival tissues.

Efficacy of Linezolid-based Salvage Therapy Compared with Glycopeptide-based Therapy in Patients with Persistent Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of linezolid-based salvage therapy compared with glycopeptide-based therapy in patients with persistent (≥7 days) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSA-B). METHODS: All patients with MRSA-B during 2-year period at a tertiary-care hospital were prospectively enrolled. Linezolid-based salvage therapy was classified if patients switched glycopeptides to linezolid with/without carbapenem due to persistent MRSA-B. Covariate adjustment using the propensity score and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score were performed to control for bias in treatment assignment. RESULTS: Of 377 patients with MRSA-B, 90 with persistent MRSA-B were included. Of these, 38 (42%) were classified as linezolid-based salvage group and the remaining 52 (58%) as glycopeptide-based therapy group. The duration of persistent bacteremia (median 16 days vs. 10 days; P = 0.008) was longer in linezolid-based salvage group than in the comparator. However, the 30-day mortality (11% vs. 25%; P = 0.08) had a trend toward being lower in linezolid-based salvage group than those in the comparator. Logistic regression models with covariate adjustment and IPTW using propensity scores also revealed that linezolid-based salvage showed a trend toward having better outcome than the comparator, although this did not reach any statistically significance (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.03-2.95 and OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.01-3.39, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: While having worse prognostic factors compared with glycopeptide-based therapy, linezolid-based salvage therapy revealed a trend toward better outcomes than the comparator. Our data suggest that linezolid-based salvage therapy would be considered in patients with persistent MRSA-B despite the use of glycopeptides therapy.

Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Bilberry Anthocyanins Improve Visual Function in Patients with Normal Tension Glaucoma

Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and anthocyanins are considered beneficial for various vascular diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of GBE and anthocyanins on visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) based on the vascular theory of mechanisms of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Retrospective analysis was carried out by a chart review of 332 subjects (209 men and 123 women) who were treated with anthocyanins (n=132), GBE (n=103), or no medication (control, n=97). Humphrey Visual Field (HVF) test, logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR BCVA), intraocular pressure, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose were determined before and after treatment. Complete ocular and systemic examinations were performed. The mean follow-up duration was 23.82±9.84 (range, 12-59) months; the mean anthocyanin treatment duration was 24.32±10.43 (range, 6-53) months, and the mean GBE treatment duration was 23.81±10.36 months (range, 6-59) months. After anthocyanin treatment, the mean BCVA for all eyes improved from 0.16 (±0.34) to 0.11 (±0.18) logMAR units (P=.008), and HVF mean deviation improved from -6.44 (±7.05) to -5.34 (±6.42) (P=.001). After GBE treatment, HVF mean deviation improved from -5.25 (±6.13) to -4.31 (±5.60) (P=.002). A generalized linear model demonstrated that the final BCVA was not affected by demographic differences among the groups. These results suggest that anthocyanins and GBE may be helpful in improving visual function in some individuals with NTG.

The Effect of Axial Length on the Variability of Stratus Optical Coherence Tomography

To evaluate the effect of axial length on the variability of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements using the Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) in normal and glaucomatous eyes.

Cell-free DNA Level As a Prognostic Biomarker for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

The use of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a non-invasive biomarker has been evaluated in many types of cancer. This study investigated the prognostic significance of cfDNA level for ovarian cancer.

The Association Between Retinal Vessel Diameter and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Asymmetric Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients

The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between retinal vessel diameter and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG).

Viral Infection in Patients with Severe Pneumonia Requiring Intensive Care Unit Admission

The role of viruses in pneumonia in adults and the impact of viral infection on mortality have not been elucidated. Previous studies have significant limitations in that they relied predominantly on upper respiratory specimens.

Low Limit for Effective Signal Strength in the Stratus OCT in Imperative Low Signal Strength Cases

To determine the lowest limit of signal strength that is still effective for accurate analysis of optic coherence tomography (OCT) values, we investigated the reproducibility of OCT scans by signal strength (SS).

Risk Factors for Primary Open-angle Glaucoma in South Korea: the Namil Study

To investigate the risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the Namil study population.

Long-term Follow-ups of Revascularized Immature Necrotic Teeth: Three Case Reports

Revascularization of immature necrotic teeth is a reliable treatment alternative to conventional apexogenesis or apexification. In case 1, a 12-year-old boy had his necrotic, immature mandibular left second premolar treated with a revascularization technique. At a 24-month follow-up, periapical radiolucency had disappeared and thickening of the root wall was observed. In cases 2 and 3, a 10-year-old boy had his necrotic, immature, bilateral mandibular second premolars treated with the same modality. At 48-month (in case 2) and 42-month (in case 3) follow-ups, loss of periapical radiolucencies and increases in the root wall thickness were also observed.International Journal of Oral Science advance online publication, 25 May 2012; doi:10.1038/ijos.2012.23.

Detection of Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects with Posterior Pole Asymmetry Analysis of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

To investigate the diagnostic ability of posterior pole asymmetry analysis (PPAA) with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for detecting localized retinal nerve fiber layer defects (RNFLD).

Comparison of the Clinical Features, Bacterial Genotypes and Outcomes of Patients with Bacteraemia Due to Heteroresistant Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus Aureus and Vancomycin-susceptible S. Aureus

We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of, and the bacterial genotypes in, patients with bacteraemia due to heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) and vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA).

The Effect of Various Factors on Variability of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography

To evaluate the effects of various factors on the variability of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements using the Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) in normal and glaucomatous eyes.

Anterior Chamber Configuration Changes After Cataract Surgery in Eyes with Glaucoma

To evaluate changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) and angle width induced by phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in eyes with glaucoma, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT).

Ultrastructural Effect of Self-ligating Bracket Materials on Stainless Steel and Superelastic NiTi Wire Surfaces

Frictional interactions between wires and brackets reduce the efficacy in orthodontic treatments. Self-ligating brackets (SLBs) are now more often used due to lower frictional forces when compared with conventional-ligating brackets. In this study, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to examine the microstructural effects of stainless steel and ceramic SLBs on the surface roughness of stainless steel and superelastic NiTi wires both after in vivo clinical orthodontic treatment as well as in in vitro three-point bending experiments. A combination of two wires-0.019 in. × 0.025 in. stainless steel wires and 0.016 in. superelastic NiTi wires-and two SLBs-both passive-type stainless steel SLBs and active-type ceramic SLBs-was applied for 4 months (bicuspid-extraction) in an in vivo setting and for 1 month in an in vitro setting (200 g loads). After the SLB treatments, all wires exhibited severe scratches secondary to frictional interactions with the brackets. When used with the stainless steel SLBs (Damon 3MX®), the surfaces of 0.019 in. × 0.025 in. stainless steel (P < 0.0001) and 0.016 in. superelastic NiTi wires (P < 0.05) were significantly smoother than when used with the ceramic SLBs (Clippy-C®). Such results suggest that orthodontic treatments with stainless steel SLBs are more effective than with ceramic SLBs.

Clinical Significance and Outcome of Polymicrobial Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia

The clinical significance of polymicrobial Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) remains unclear. We therefore compared the clinical features and outcomes of polymicrobial and monomicrobial SAB.

Comparison of Sensitivities for Detecting Diffuse and Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects With Time-domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Glaucoma

PURPOSE:: To compare the ability of time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect diffuse and localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects using a built-in normative database in patients with early to moderate glaucoma. METHODS:: Subjects with localized visual field defects confined to either hemifield were consecutively recruited. Only 1 eye per subject was considered. Among the 91 eyes with localized RNFL defects, 46 eyes with mean deviations matched to those of the 46 eyes with diffuse RNFL defects were selected for statistical analysis. This case-control study included 46 eyes with diffuse RNFL defects and 46 eyes with localized RNFL defects. The fast RNFL thickness protocol of Stratus OCT was used. The clock-hour and quadrant sector parameters corresponding to the hemifield with the visual field defect were evaluated at P<0.05 with regard to the built-in normative database. The sensitivities of these parameters were compared between diffuse and localized RNFL defects. RESULTS:: The sensitivity of the clock-hour sector parameter for diffuse RNFL defects (84.8%) was not significantly different than that for localized RNFL defects (80.4%) (P=0.78). The sensitivity of the quadrant sector parameter for diffuse RNFL defects (74.9%) was significantly higher than that for localized RNFL defects (52.3%) (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS:: The clock-hour parameter of time-domain OCT detected RNFL defects without significant difference in sensitivities between diffuse and localized patterns of RNFL loss in glaucomatous eyes. However, the quadrant parameter of OCT showed better sensitivity for diffuse RNFL defects than for localized RNFL defects.

Three-dimensional Evaluation of the Lamina Cribrosa Using Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

To introduce a novel, digital, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the optic nerve head (ONH) and to use this method to evaluate the 3D configuration of the lamina cribrosa (LC) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

Glaucoma Progression After the First-detected Optic Disc Hemorrhage by Optical Coherence Tomography

To evaluate the progression of glaucoma after first detected disc hemorrhage (DH) by time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Correlation Between Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Visual Field Sensitivity: Diffuse Atrophy Imaging Study

To identify the correlation between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and visual field sensitivity in healthy eyes with preperimetric and perimetric glaucoma and to estimate the functional RNFL loss in eyes with pre-perimetric glaucoma.

Impact of Adequate Empirical Combination Therapy on Mortality from Bacteremic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pneumonia

Pseudomonas aeruginosa has gained an increasing amount of attention in the treatment of patients with pneumonia. However, the benefit of empirical combination therapy for pneumonia remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of adequate empirical combination therapy and multidrug-resistance in bacteremic Pseudomonas pneumonia on the mortality.

Persistent Catheter-related Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia After Catheter Removal and Initiation of Antimicrobial Therapy

Catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (CRSAB) occasionally persists despite catheter removal and initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of persistent CRSAB after catheter removal and initiation of antimicrobial therapy.

Brain Abscess Caused by Enterococcus Avium: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Brain abscesses can be highly lethal if appropriate treatment is not administered, and reports of such an abscess caused by Enterococcus avium are very rare. Here,we report a case of a 48-year-old man presenting with chronic otitis media. He initially presented with a headache and right otalgia. An otoscopic evaluation performed on the day of admission showed exudation of fresh pus from the right ear. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a hypodense area in the right temporoparietal lobe, suggestive of a brain abscess. A culturing of the ear discharge and brain abscess aspirate proved of E. avium infection. Following stereotactic aspiration of the brain abscess and proper antimicrobial treatment, the patient recovered completely. In this report, we also review and discuss the available medical literature on previous cases of E. avium infection associated with brain abscess.

Indeterminate T-SPOT.TB Test Results in Patients with Suspected Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Routine Clinical Practice

The two interferon-γ release assays such as QuantiFERON-TB Gold / In-Tube (QFT-TB) and T-SPOT.TB-are useful tools for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) but can yield indeterminate test results (ITRs). While some studies have identified risk factors for ITRs in the QFT-TB test, there have been few such studies for the T-SPOT.TB test. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with ITRs in the T-SPOT.TB test.

Comparison of Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects in Highly Myopic, Myopic, and Non-myopic Patients with Normal-tension Glaucoma: a Retrospective Cross-sectional Study

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between patterns of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects and the degree of myopia in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG).

Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT) Cannot Be a Substitution of Gonioscopy

Assessment of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α Levels in the Gingival Tissue of Patients with Periodontitis

In periodontal diseases, inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), may promote the degeneration of inflamed periodontal tissues. In previous studies, levels of these three cytokines were demonstrated to be elevated in inflammatory gingival tissues and gingival crevicular fluid. The aim of the present study was to quantify IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels in the human gingival tissues of patients with periodontitis and to assess the correlation of these three cytokines with each other. In this study, human gingival tissues from 19 patients with periodontitis (male, n=14; female, n=5) were collected. The tissues were homogenized, centrifuged and the protein in the supernatant was quantified. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in the measurement of the IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels, and the mean levels were observed to be 8.41±0.25, 34.01±1.09 and 20.70±0.31 pg/ml, respectively. The mean levels of IL-8 were higher than those of the other two cytokines. In each sample, the level of TNF-α expression was consistently high, with little difference between the results, which contrasted with the fluctuations in IL-6 and IL-8 levels. The expression of the two ILs (IL-6 and IL-8) showed a positive correlation (r=0.932, P=0.01), whereas TNF-α levels were not correlated with IL-6 or IL-8 levels. These results suggest that IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α may be relevant in the pathophysiology of periodontitis, and the measurement of these cytokines may be beneficial in the identification of patients with periodontitis.

Combination of Optic Disc Rim Area and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness for Early Glaucoma Detection by Using Spectral Domain OCT

To compare the diagnostic ability of optic disc rim area (RA), retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), and their combination on sector-based analysis of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Cirrus OCT) in discriminating subjects with early-stage open angle glaucoma (OAG) from normal subjects.

Comparison of Ability of Time-domain and Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography to Detect Diffuse Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Atrophy

Our aim was to evaluate and compare diagnostic capabilities of time-domain (Stratus) and spectral-domain (Cirrus) optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect diffuse retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) atrophy.

Clinical Characteristics and Therapeutic Outcomes of Hematogenous Vertebral Osteomyelitis Caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

To evaluate the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis (HVO) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

The Neuroprotective Effect of Resveratrol on Retinal Ganglion Cells After Optic Nerve Transection

This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol in an optic nerve transection (ONT) model and to identify the neuroprotective mechanism of resveratrol in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs).

Incidence and Outcomes of Paradoxical Lymph Node Enlargement After Anti-tuberculosis Therapy in Non-HIV Patients

Limited data are available regarding the incidence and outcomes of lymphadenopathy after completing tuberculosis (TB) treatment.

Physical Contribution of Néel and Brown Relaxation to Interpreting Intracellular Hyperthermia Characteristics Using Superparamagnetic Nanofluids

In this work, the AC magnetically-induced heating characteristics of various viscous nanofluids with either soft ferrite (Fe3O4) or hard ferrite (CoFe2O4) superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNPs) were investigated to empirically and physically interpret the contribution of "Néel relaxation loss power, P(Néel relaxation loss)," or "Brown relaxation loss power, P(Brown relaxation loss)," to the total AC heat generation of intracellular hyperthermia or in-vivo hyperthermia. It was found that the contribution of P(Brown relaxation loss) to the total AC heating power, P(totaI), and the specific loss power (SLP) was severely affected by the surrounding environment (or in-vivo environment) while the contribution of P(Néel relaxation loss) to the P(total) was independent of the variation of surrounding environment. Furthermore, all the theoretical and experimental results strongly suggested that highly efficacious intracellular hyperthermia (or in-vivo hyperthermia) modality can be achieved by enhancing the P(Néel relaxation loss) rather than the P(Brown relaxation loss) of SPNP agents in nanofluids.

Macular Ganglion Cell Imaging Study: Glaucoma Diagnostic Accuracy of Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) measurements using a high-definition optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT) ganglion cell analysis algorithm for detecting early and moderate-to-severe glaucoma.

Stanniocalcin-1 Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells by Inhibiting Apoptosis and Oxidative Damage

Optic neuropathy including glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision loss, and there are currently no effective therapies. The hallmark of pathophysiology of optic neuropathy is oxidative stress and apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a population of neurons in the central nervous system with their soma in the inner retina and axons in the optic nerve. We here tested that an anti-apoptotic protein stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) can prevent loss of RGCs in the rat retina with optic nerve transection (ONT) and in cultures of RGC-5 cells with CoCl2 injury. We found that intravitreal injection of STC-1 increased the number of RGCs in the retina at days 7 and 14 after ONT, and decreased apoptosis and oxidative damage. In cultures, treatment with STC-1 dose-dependently increased cell viability, and decreased apoptosis and levels of reactive oxygen species in RGC-5 cells that were exposed to CoCl2. The expression of HIF-1α that was up-regulated by injury was significantly suppressed in the retina and in RGC-5 cells by STC-1 treatment. The results suggested that intravitreal injection of STC-1 might be a useful therapy for optic nerve diseases in which RGCs undergo apoptosis through oxidative stress.

Can We Measure the Intraocular Pressure when the Eyeball is Against the Pillow in the Lateral Decubitus Position?

To evaluate the amount of intraocular pressure (IOP) change in the eye against the pillow in the lateral decubitus position (LDP).

Comparison of the New Rebound Tonometer with Goldmann Applanation Tonometer in a Clinical Setting

To evaluate the clinical usefulness of a new rebound tonometer, Icare(®) PRO (Icare PRO), by comparison with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) in a study on patients with glaucoma.

Glaucoma Detection Ability of Ganglion Cell-inner Plexiform Layer Thickness by Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography in High Myopia

To compare the glaucoma detection ability of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness measured with Cirrus spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with that of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in high myopia.

Persistent Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia: a Prospective Analysis of Risk Factors, Outcomes, and Microbiologic and Genotypic Characteristics of Isolates

Persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) that fails to respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy is associated with poor outcomes. Comprehensive prospective studies on risk factors and outcomes of persistent bacteremia are limited. We investigated outcomes and risk factors encompassing clinical, pharmacokinetic, microbiologic, and genotypic characteristics associated with persistent bacteremia using a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort of patients with SAB at a tertiary-care hospital from August 2008 through September 2010. We compared the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with persistent bacteremia (≥7 d) with controls with resolving bacteremia (<3 d). To detect associations between microbiologic and genotypic characteristics of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates and persistent bacteremia, we determined the heteroresistance phenotype, SCCmec type, agr genotype and functionality, multilocus sequence typing, and presence of 41 virulence genes. Our cohort consisted of 483 patients; 76 (15.7%) had persistent bacteremia, 212 (43.5%) had resolving bacteremia. In the multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with persistent bacteremia were community-onset bacteremia (odds ratio [OR], 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-6.87), bone and joint infection (OR, 5.26; 95% CI, 1.45-19.03), central venous catheter-related infection (OR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.47-7.65), metastatic infection (OR, 36.22; 95% CI, 12.71-103.23), and methicillin resistance (OR, 16.99; 95% CI, 5.53-52.15). For patients with eradicable foci, delay (>3 d) in the removal of the infection focus was significantly associated with persistent bacteremia (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.05-4.55). There were no significant associations of persistent bacteremia with high vancomycin minimal inhibitory concentration, vancomycin heteroresistance, and microbiologic/genotypic characteristics of MRSA isolates. However, initial vancomycin trough level <15 mg/L was an independent risk factor for persistent MRSA bacteremia (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 1.51-11.96) in the multivariate analysis. Clinical outcomes were significantly worse for patients with persistent bacteremia. Relapse of bacteremia and attributable mortality within 12 weeks after SAB were significantly higher in patients with persistent bacteremia than in those with resolving bacteremia (9.2% [7/76] vs. 2.4% [5/212], p = 0.02 and 21.1% [16/76] vs. 9.4% [20/212], p = 0.009, respectively). In conclusion, patients with SAB should be given early aggressive treatment strategies, including early source control and maintenance of a vancomycin trough level ≥15 mg/L, to reduce the risk of persistent bacteremia.

Intraocular Pressure Reduction with Topical Medications and Progression of Normal-tension Glaucoma: a 12-year Mean Follow-up Study

To investigate whether the amount of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction with topical medications is associated with the progression of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and to identify risk factors for NTG progression.

Long-term Reproducibility of Cirrus HD Optical Coherence Tomography Deviation Map in Clinically Stable Glaucomatous Eyes

To determine the long-term reproducibility of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness deviation map in glaucoma patients.

Intraocular Pressure-lowering Efficacy of Dorzolamide/Timolol Fixed Combination in Normal-tension Glaucoma

PURPOSE:: To investigate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (DTFC) in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS:: An open-label, 12-week, 2-center study was conducted. Thirty-seven patients with treatment-naïve NTG received DTFC for 12 weeks to reduce IOP. Primary outcome measures were changes in IOP from baseline to 12 weeks of treatment at a peak drug effect. Secondary outcome measures were changes in IOP from baseline to 12 weeks of treatment a trough drug effect and 8 hours after drug administration. At each visit, IOP was measured at 9 AM and then DTFC was administered by a hospital personnel. IOP was also measured at 11 AM and 5 PM At week 12, the IOP was measured at 1 and 3 PM as well. RESULTS:: The IOP at peak drug effect (11 AM) at 12 weeks was significantly reduced to 11.9±2.6 mm Hg from the baseline of 15.6±2.5 mm Hg (23.7%, P<0.0001). Significant reduction in the IOP was also achieved at trough drug effect (9 AM) and at 8 hours after drug administration (5 PM) at 12 weeks (20.5% and 24.4%, respectively, all P<0.0001). Eye irritation (59.5%) was the most frequently reported adverse event followed by ocular hyperemia (16.2%). The majority of eye irritations were mild in intensity. No patients discontinued the DTFC due to an adverse event and no systemic adverse event was considered related to study medication. CONCLUSIONS:: DTFC is a safe and effective IOP-lowering agent in patients with NTG.

Diagnostic Ability of Spectral-domain Versus Time-domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Preperimetric Glaucoma

PURPOSE:: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic abilities of the speckle noise-reduced spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT; Spectralis OCT) and time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT; Stratus OCT) to detect localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in patients with preperimetric open-angle glaucoma. METHODS:: Thirty-five eyes of 35 preperimetric glaucoma patients with localized RNFL defects and 72 normal control eyes were scanned using SD-OCT and TD-OCT. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROCs), and the sensitivity and specificity for detecting localized RNFL defects based on the internal normative database of each device were calculated and compared. RESULTS:: The AUROC for the best parameter from SD-OCT (inferotemporal sector, AUROC=0.940) was significantly higher than that of TD-OCT (7 o'clock sector, AUROC=0.881; P=0.009). The sensitivity of the SD-OCT parameters ranged from 18.9% to 83.8% and that of the TD-OCT parameters ranged from 5.4% to 54.1%, with the criterion of abnormal at the 5% level. The highest sensitivity of the SD-OCT was found with the temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal thickness graph abnormal at the 5% level, which had a specificity of 90.3%. On the basis of temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal thickness graphs, SD-OCT was more sensitive (P=0.001) for detection of preperimetric RNFL defects than TD-OCT at a comparable specificity (P=0.227). CONCLUSIONS:: Speckle noise-reduced SD-OCT is better able to detect preperimetric localized RNFL defect(s) than TD-OCT.

Comparison of Clinical Characteristics Between Korean and Western Normal-tension Glaucoma Patients

To detect potential differences in the phenotypes between Western normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and Korean NTG.

Effect of the Semen Extract of Thuja Orientalis on Inflammatory Responses in Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia Rat Model and LPS-stimulated BV-2 Microglia

In the central nervous system inflammation is dependent upon the synthesis of various inflammatory mediators by local neurons, astrocytes and especially microglia. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of the semen extract of Thuja orientalis (Thujae Orientalis Semen; TOS) on transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)-induced ischemia in rats and the production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 mouse microglia. TOS extract significantly decreased the infarction volumes of ischemic brains and also inhibited microglia activation and neuronal death. In addition, TOS extract significantly decreased the production of NO, PGE(2) and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia. TOS extract also attenuated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and IL-1β mRNAs and proteins in activated microglia. Furthermore, TOS extract significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in activated microglia. Our results indicate that TOS extract is capable of inhibiting microglia activation in an ischemic brain through the down-regulation of inflammatory responses, suggesting that the TOS extract may have therapeutic potential as an anti-inflammatory drug for ischemic stroke.

Effect of Lateral Decubitus Position on Intraocular Pressure in Glaucoma Patients with Asymmetric Visual Field Loss

To investigate the effect of the lateral decubitus position (LDP) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients with asymmetric visual field loss.

Accessory Gene Regulator (agr) Dysfunction in Staphylococcus Aureus Bloodstream Isolates from South Korean Patients

We describe the genetic and microbiological characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream isolates with agr dysfunction from a tertiary-care hospital in Korea. Of these, ST5-SCCmec type II-agr group II MRSA isolates, which are known to be prevalent in hospital-acquired infections in Korea, were the most abundant, because of the clonal spread of a specific agr-defective lineage. This finding suggests that the loss of agr function may confer a potential advantage in a hospital setting. Clonal spread of a specific defective-agr strain was not observed among community-associated MRSA or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus clones, regardless of community or hospital acquisition of infection. agr-defective clones, including ST5 and ST239 MRSA, were enriched for heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus.

Treatment Duration for Uncomplicated Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia to Prevent Relapse: Analysis of a Prospective Observational Cohort Study

Practice guidelines recommend at least 14 days of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). However, these recommendations have not been formally evaluated in clinical studies. To evaluate the duration of therapy for uncomplicated SAB, we analyzed data from our prospective cohort of patients with SAB. A prospective observational cohort study was performed in patients with SAB at a tertiary-care hospital in Korea between August 2008 and September 2010. All adult patients with SAB were prospectively enrolled and observed over a 12-week period. Uncomplicated SAB was defined as follows: negative results of follow-up blood cultures at 2 to 4 days, defervescence within 72 h of therapy, no evidence of metastatic infection, and catheter-related bloodstream infection or primary bacteremia without evidence of endocarditis on echocardiography. Of 483 patients with SAB, 111 met the study criteria for uncomplicated SAB. Fifty-three (47.7%) had methicillin-resistant SAB. When short-course therapy (<14 days) and intermediate-course therapy (≥14 days) were compared, the treatment failure rates (10/38 [26.3%] versus 16/73 [21.9%]) and crude mortality (7/38 [18.4%] versus 16/73 [21.9%]) did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, short-course therapy was significantly associated with relapse (3/38 [7.9%] versus 0/73; P = 0.036). In multivariate analysis, primary bacteremia was associated with a trend toward increased treatment failure (P = 0.06). Therefore, in the treatment of uncomplicated SAB, it seems reasonable to consider at least 14 days of antibiotic therapy to prevent relapse, as practice guidelines recommend. Because of its poor prognosis, primary bacteremia, even with a low risk of complication, should not be treated with short-course therapy.

Compressive Stress Induced the Up-regulation of M-CSF, RANKL, TNF-α Expression and the Down-regulation of OPG Expression in PDL Cells Via the Integrin-FAK Pathway

This study was performed to elucidate the involvement of integrin-FAK (focal adhesion kinase) pathway in compressive stress-induced mRNA expression of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and to further confirm the role of the integrin-FAK complex as a mechanoreceptor in PDL cells.

Topographic Correlation Between β-zone Parapapillary Atrophy and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defect

To investigate whether a topographic correlation exists between β-zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect. The location and extent of the β-zone were examined.

Optic Disc Rim Area to Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Correlation: Comparison of Diabetic and Normal Tension Glaucoma Eyes

To compare the correlation between optic disc rim area and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (rim-RNFL correlation) in diabetic eyes with non-progressive RNFL defects and normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes.

Comparison of Myopic and Nonmyopic Disc Hemorrhage in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

To compare the topographic characteristics of myopic and nonmyopic disc hemorrhage (DH) in primary open-angle glaucoma.

Trimeric Intracellular Cation Channels and Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Homeostasis

Trimeric intracellular cation channels (TRIC) represents a novel class of trimeric intracellular cation channels. Two TRIC isoforms have been identified in both the human and the mouse genomes: TRIC-A, a subtype predominantly expressed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of muscle cells, and TRIC-B, a ubiquitous subtype expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all tissues. Genetic ablation of either TRIC-A or TRIC-B leads to compromised K(+) permeation and Ca(2+) release across the SR/ER membrane, supporting the hypothesis that TRIC channels provide a counter balancing K(+) flux that reduces SR/ER membrane depolarization for maintenance of the electrochemical gradient that drives SR/ER Ca(2+) release. TRIC-A and TRIC-B seem to have differential functions in Ca(2+) signaling in excitable and nonexcitable cells. Tric-a(-/-) mice display defective Ca(2+) sparks and spontaneous transient outward currents in arterial smooth muscle and develop hypertension, in addition to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Knockout of TRIC-B results in abnormal IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release in airway epithelial cells, respiratory defects, and neonatal lethality. Double knockout mice lacking both TRIC-A and TRIC-B show embryonic lethality as a result of cardiac arrest. Such an aggravated lethality indicates that TRIC-A and TRIC-B share complementary physiological functions in Ca(2+) signaling in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Tric-a(-/-) and Tric-b(+/-) mice are viable and susceptible to stress-induced heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that TRIC-A directly modulates the function of the cardiac ryanodine receptor 2 Ca(2+) release channel, which in turn controls store-overload-induced Ca(2+) release from the SR. Thus, the TRIC channels, in addition to providing a countercurrent for SR/ER Ca(2+) release, may also function as accessory proteins that directly modulate the ryanodine receptor/IP3 receptor channel functions.

Preperimetric Normal Tension Glaucoma Study: Long-term Clinical Course and Effect of Therapeutic Lowering of Intraocular Pressure

The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term clinical course of normotensive preperimetric glaucoma (PPG).

Mitochondrial DNA Variant Discovery in Normal-Tension Glaucoma Patients by Next-Generation Sequencing

Purpose: Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a disease of late-onset, complex trait with multiple risk factors. In this study, we discovered a mitochondrial DNA variant in NTG patients using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Methods: DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of NTG patients and normal control subjects. Sequencing of the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) using NGS revealed new genetic risk variants for NTG patients (discovery sample, n = 20). For the candidate genetic variants, we performed a disease-gene association study in the independent case-control populations (validation sample; NTG, n = 196 and normal control, n=202) using Sanger sequencing. Results: This study identified 148 different novel mtDNA-sequence changes. Of these, 21 sequence variants identified at a frequency greater than 15% were located in the ND2-ND6, RNR1, RNR2, COX1, COX3, ATP6, ATP8, and CYTB genes. Of the 21 candidate genetic variants, the frequencies of m.4883C>T (ND2 gene), m.9540T>C (COX3 gene) and m.14766C>T (CYTB gene) were significantly different between NTG patients and controls (28.4% vs. 15.3%, P=0.002; 56.5% vs. 44.4%, P=0.020; and 3.1% vs. 0.0%, P=0.030, respectively). The association with m.4883C>T in the ND2 gene resisted the Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. The NTG patients of T genotype in the m.4883C>T variant have more advanced visual field loss than those who carry the C genotype (P=0.009). Conclusions: This study reveals a spectrum of mtDNA variants in patients with NTG. Our results identified a synonymous change, m.4883C>T variant, which was more prevalent in the NTG cohorts than in the controls. This finding suggests that the identified variant may be a genetic risk factor for the development of NTG.

The Distribution of Intraocular Pressure and Associated Systemic Factors in a Korean Population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

To investigate the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its associated factors in a large Korean population based on the data from the nationwide cross-sectional survey.

The Effect of Recombinant Human MG53 Protein on Tourniquet-induced Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rat Muscle

Introduction: Skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury (I-R) is a complex injury process that includes damage to the sarcolemmal membrane, contributing to necrosis and apoptosis. MG53, a muscle-specific TRIM family protein, has been shown to be essential for regulating membrane repair and has been shown to be protective against cardiac I-R and various forms of skeletal muscle injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) administration offered protection against I-R. Methods: rhMG53 was administered to rats immediately before tourniquet-induced ischemia and again immediately before reperfusion. Two days later muscle damage was assessed histologically. Results: rhMG53 offered no protective effect, as evidenced primarily by similar Evans blue dye inclusion in the muscles of rats administered rhMG53 or saline. Discussion: Administration of rhMG53 does not offer protection against I-R in rat skeletal muscle. Additional studies are required to determine if the lack of a response is species-specific. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Relationship Between Preferred Sleeping Position and Asymmetric Visual Field Loss in Open-angle Glaucoma Patients

To investigate the relationship between preferred sleeping position and asymmetric visual field (VF) loss in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients.

Topographic Characteristics of Optic Disc Hemorrhage in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

To investigate the topographic characteristics of optic disc hemorrhage (DH) and the factors associated with DH area in POAG.

Comparison of 2007-2012 Korean Trends in Laser Peripheral Iridotomy and Cataract Surgery Rates

To investigate the association between the trends in the rates of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) for primary angle closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and cataract surgery in Korea.

Pathogenesis and Clinical Implications of Optic Disk Hemorrhage in Glaucoma

The association between optic disk hemorrhage and glaucoma has been studied for many years. Recently, randomized clinical trials have confirmed that disk hemorrhage is a risk factor for development and progression of glaucoma. Disk hemorrhage is more commonly detected in open-angle glaucoma with normal tension than in open-angle glaucoma with high tension. Development of disk hemorrhage possibly is associated with the biomechanical properties of the lamina cribrosa and surrounding tissues, including the intraocular pressure (IOP)-cerebrospinal pressure gradient, arterial pressure, and venous pressure. Disk hemorrhage may be a marker of rapid glaucoma progression, in that localized subclinical structural change predisposes to disk hemorrhage, after which subsequent disease progression is accelerated, and recurrent optic disk hemorrhages are related to rapid structural progression of glaucomatous damage. IOP-lowering therapy can be helpful in halting post-hemorrhage glaucoma progression.

Nanostructured Mucoadhesive Microparticles for Enhanced Preocular Retention

We describe nanostructured microparticles (NMs) containing a mucoadhesive polymer for enhanced preocular retention and consider them as potential carriers of drugs to the eye. These NMs are each composed of entangled nanofibers to give an enlarged specific surface area, and thus can better adhere to the preocular mucus surface. This physical design allows the microparticles still to be composed mainly of a wall material, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), as required for controlled drug delivery, while the effects of an additive, mucoadhesive material, polyethylene glycol, can be synergistically improved via the nanostructured morphology. Thus, when formulated in a dry tablet dosage form, the NMs in this work show more than a 10-fold increase in preocular retention in vivo compared to conventional spherical microparticles. Therefore, we conclude that these mucoadhesive NMs can reside on the preocular surface for a prolonged period, and thus appear to be a promising system for topical drug delivery to the eye.

Waiting
simple hit counter