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In JoVE (1)

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Articles by Kylee M. Peterson in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Long-term, High-resolution Confocal Time Lapse Imaging of Arabidopsis Cotyledon Epidermis during Germination

1Department of Biology, University of Washington, 2Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, 3PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency


JoVE 4426

We describe a protocol using chamber slides and media to immobilize plant cotyledons for confocal imaging of the epidermis over several days of development, documenting stomatal differentiation. Fluorophore-tagged proteins can be tracked dynamically by expression and subcellular localization, increasing understanding of their possible roles during cell division and cell-type differentiation.

Other articles by Kylee M. Peterson on PubMed

Epidermal Cell Density is Autoregulated Via a Secretory Peptide, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 2 in Arabidopsis Leaves

Regulation of the number of cells is critical for development of multicellular organisms. During plant epidermal development, a protodermal cell first makes a fate decision of whether or not to be the meristemoid mother cell (MMC), which undergoes asymmetric cell division forming a meristemoid and its sister cell. The MMC-derived lineage produces all stomatal guard cells and a large proportion of non-guard cells. We demonstrate that a small secretory peptide, EPIDERMAL PATTERING FACTOR 2 (EPF2), is produced by the MMC and its early descendants, and negatively regulates the density of guard and non-guard epidermal cells. Our results suggest that EPF2 inhibits cells from adopting the MMC fate in a non-cell-autonomous manner, thus limiting the number of MMCs. This feedback loop is critical for regulation of epidermal cell density. The amino acid sequence of EPF2 resembles that of EPF1, which is known to control stomatal positioning. Over-expression of EPF1 also inhibits stomatal development, but EPF1 can act only on a later developmental process than EPF2. Overexpression and promoter swapping experiments suggested that the protein functions of EPF1 and EPF2, rather than the expression patterns of the genes, are responsible for the specific functions. Although targets of EPF1 and EPF2 are different, both EPF1 and EPF2 require common putative receptor components TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM), ERECTA (ER), ERECTA LIKE 1 (ERL1) and ERL2 in order to function.

Out of the Mouths of Plants: the Molecular Basis of the Evolution and Diversity of Stomatal Development

Stomata are microscopic valves on the plant epidermis that played a critical role in the evolution of land plants. Studies in the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana have identified key transcription factors and signaling pathways controlling stomatal patterning and differentiation. Three paralogous Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix proteins, SPEECHLESS (SPCH), MUTE, and FAMA, mediate sequential steps of cell-state transitions together with their heterodimeric partners SCREAM (SCRM) and SCRM2. Cell-cell signaling components, including putative ligands, putative receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, orient asymmetric cell divisions and prevent overproduction and clustering of stomata. The recent availability of genome sequence and reverse genetics tools for model monocots and basal land plants allows for the examination of the conservation of genes important in stomatal patterning and differentiation. Studies in grasses have revealed that divergence of SPCH-MUTE-FAMA predates the evolutionary split of monocots and dicots and that these proteins show conserved and novel roles in stomatal differentiation. By contrast, specific asymmetric cell divisions in Arabidopsis and grasses require unique molecular components. Molecular phylogenetic analysis implies potential conservation of signaling pathways and prototypical functions of the transcription factors specifying stomatal differentiation.

Plant Twitter: Ligands Under 140 Amino Acids Enforcing Stomatal Patterning

Stomata are an essential land plant innovation whose patterning and density are under genetic and environmental control. Recently, several putative ligands have been discovered that influence stomatal density, and they all belong to the epidermal patterning factor-like family of secreted cysteine-rich peptides. Two of these putative ligands, EPF1 and EPF2, are expressed exclusively in the stomatal lineage cells and negatively regulate stomatal density. A third, EPFL6 or CHALLAH, is also a negative regulator of density, but is expressed subepidermally in the hypocotyl. A fourth, EPFL9 or STOMAGEN, is expressed in the mesophyll tissues and is a positive regulator of density. Genetic evidence suggests that these ligands may compete for the same receptor complex. Proper stomatal patterning is likely to be an intricate process involving ligand competition, regional specificity, and communication between tissue layers. EPFL-family genes exist in the moss Physcomitrella patens, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, and rice, Oryza sativa, and their sequence analysis yields several genes some of which are related to EPF1, EPF2, EPFL6, and EPFL9. Presence of these EPFL family members in the basal land plants suggests an exciting hypothesis that the genetic components for stomatal patterning originated early in land plant evolution.

Dysregulation of Cell-to-cell Connectivity and Stomatal Patterning by Loss-of-function Mutation in Arabidopsis Chorus (glucan Synthase-like 8)

Patterning of stomata, valves on the plant epidermis, requires the orchestrated actions of signaling components and cell-fate determinants. To understand the regulation of stomatal patterning, we performed a genetic screen using a background that partially lacks stomatal signaling receptors. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of chorus (chor), which confers excessive proliferation of stomatal-lineage cells mediated by SPEECHLESS (SPCH). chor breaks redundancy among three ERECTA family genes and strongly enhances stomatal patterning defects caused by loss-of-function in TOO MANY MOUTHS. chor seedlings also exhibit incomplete cytokinesis and growth defects, including disruptions in root tissue patterning and root hair cell morphogenesis. CHOR encodes a putative callose synthase, GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE 8 (GSL8), that is required for callose deposition at the cell plate, cell wall and plasmodesmata. Consistently, symplastic macromolecular diffusion between epidermal cells is significantly increased in chor, and proteins that do not normally move cell-to-cell, including a fluorescent protein-tagged SPCH, diffuse to neighboring cells. Such a phenotype is not a general trait caused by cytokinesis defects. Our findings suggest that the restriction of symplastic movement might be an essential step for the proper segregation of cell-fate determinants during stomatal development.

Molecular Profiling of Stomatal Meristemoids Reveals New Component of Asymmetric Cell Division and Commonalities Among Stem Cell Populations in Arabidopsis

The balance between maintenance and differentiation of stem cells is a central question in developmental biology. Development of stomata in Arabidopsis thaliana begins with de novo asymmetric divisions producing meristemoids, proliferating precursor cells with stem cell-like properties. The transient and asynchronous nature of the meristemoid has made it difficult to study its molecular characteristics. Synthetic combination of stomatal differentiation mutants due to loss- or gain-of-function mutations in SPEECHLESS, MUTE, and SCREAM create seedlings with an epidermis overwhelmingly composed of pavement cells, meristemoids, or stomata, respectively. Through transcriptome analysis, we define and characterize the molecular signatures of meristemoids. The reporter localization studies of meristemoid-enriched proteins reveals pathways not previously associated with stomatal development. We identified a novel protein, POLAR, and demonstrate through time-lapse live imaging that it exhibits transient polar localization and segregates unevenly during meristemoid asymmetric divisions. The polar localization of POLAR requires BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the transcriptional profiles of a meristemoid with shoot and root apical meristems highlighted cytokinin signaling and the ERECTA family receptor-like kinases in the broad regulation of stem cell populations. Our work reveals molecular constituents of stomatal stem cells and illuminates a common theme among stem cell populations in plants.

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