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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Lauren Figard in JoVE
Imagem Alterar Forma Celular em Viver Drosophila Os embriões
Lauren Figard1, Anna Marie Sokac1,2
1Program in Cell & Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), 2Verna & Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM)
Desenvolvimento precoce da mosca da fruta, Drosophila melanogaster, é caracterizada por uma série de alterações nas células forma que são adequados para abordagens de imagem. Este artigo irá descrever as ferramentas básicas e métodos necessários para geração de imagens ao vivo confocal de embriões Drosophila, e incidirá sobre uma mudança a forma da célula chamada celularização.
Other articles by Lauren Figard on PubMed
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21106818
Plasmalemmal repair is necessary for survival of damaged eukaryotic cells. Ca(2+) influx through plasmalemmal disruptions activates calpain, vesicle accumulation at lesion sites, and membrane fusion proteins; Ca(2+) influx also initiates competing apoptotic pathways. Using the formation of a dye barrier (seal) to assess plasmalemmal repair, we now report that B104 hippocampal cells with neurites transected nearer (<50 μm) to the soma seal at a lower frequency and slower rate compared to cells with neurites transected farther (>50 μm) from the soma. Analogs of cAMP, including protein kinase A (PKA)-specific and Epac-specific cAMP, each increase the frequency and rate of sealing and can even initiate sealing in the absence of Ca(2+) influx at both transection distances. Furthermore, Epac activates a cAMP-dependent, PKA-independent, pathway involved in plasmalemmal sealing. The frequency and rate of plasmalemmal sealing are decreased by a small molecule inhibitor of PKA targeted to its catalytic subunit (KT5720), a peptide inhibitor targeted to its regulatory subunits (PKI), an inhibitor of a novel PKC (an nPKCη pseudosubstrate fragment), and an antioxidant (melatonin). Given these and other data, we propose a model for redundant parallel pathways of Ca(2+)-dependent plasmalemmal sealing of injured neurons mediated in part by nPKCs, cytosolic oxidation, and cAMP activation of PKA and Epac. We also propose that the evolutionary origin of these pathways and substances was to repair plasmalemmal damage in eukaryotic cells. Greater understanding of vesicle interactions, proteins, and pathways involved in plasmalemmal sealing should suggest novel neuroprotective treatments for traumatic nerve injuries and neurodegenerative disorders.