Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (18)
- The Hematology Journal : the Official Journal of the European Haematology Association / EHA
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Stem Cell Reviews
- Nature Biotechnology
- Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
- Tissue Engineering. Part A
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cell Stem Cell
- Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
- Stem Cell Research & Therapy
- Cell Stem Cell
- PloS One
Articles by Laurence Daheron in JoVE
Propagation of Human Embryonic Stem (ES) Cells
Center for Regenerative Medicine, MGH - Massachusetts General Hospital
Other articles by Laurence Daheron on PubMed
E2A/HLF Fusion Gene in an Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patient with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and a Normal Karyotype
The Hematology Journal : the Official Journal of the European Haematology Association / EHA. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12111652
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a rare event in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, it has been described in a few cases of pre-B ALL with translocation t(17;19)(q22;p13) which results in the fusion of E2A gene with sequences of HLF gene. Here, we report a case of pre-B ALL with DIC and an apparently normal karyotype by R banding.
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15342941
Murine embryonic stem (mES) cells remain undifferentiated in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) via LIF receptor (LIFR) signaling appears sufficient for maintenance of mES cell pluripotency. Anecdotal and contradictory accounts exist for the action of LIF in the culture of human embryonic stem cells, and the nature of LIF signaling and whether the LIF-STAT3 pathway is conserved in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has not been systematically explored. In this study, we show that the LIFRbeta and the signaling subunit gp130 are expressed in hESCs and that human LIF can induce STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in hESCs. Nevertheless, despite the functional activation of the LIF-STAT3 signaling pathway, human LIF is unable to maintain the pluripotent state of hESCs. Feeder-free culture conditions that maintain hESCs in an undifferentiated state do not show activation of STAT3, suggesting that distinct signaling mechanisms govern the self-renewal of hESCs.
Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15479714
MOTIVATION: Signaling events that direct mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and differentiation are complex and accordingly difficult to understand in an integrated manner. We address this problem by adapting a Bayesian network learning algorithm to model proteomic signaling data for ES cell fate responses to external cues. Using this model we were able to characterize the signaling pathway influences as quantitative, logic-circuit type interactions. Our experimental dataset includes measurements for 28 signaling protein phosphorylation states across 16 different factorial combinations of cytokine and matrix stimuli as reported previously. RESULTS: The Bayesian network modeling approach allows us to uncover previously reported signaling activities related to mouse ES cell self-renewal, such as the roles of LIF and STAT3 in maintaining undifferentiated ES cell populations. Furthermore, the network predicts novel influences such as between ERK phosphorylation and differentiation, or RAF phosphorylation and differentiated cell proliferation. Visualization of the influences detected by the Bayesian network provides intuition about the underlying physiology of the signaling pathways. We demonstrate that the Bayesian networks can capture the linear, nonlinear and multistate logic interactions that connect extracellular cues, intracellular signals and consequent cell functional responses.
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15749924
RNA interference methodology suppresses gene expression, thus mimicking loss-of-function mutation and enabling in vitro and in vivo gene function analysis. In this study, we used retroviral and lentiviral vectors to deliver small interfering RNAs and report high-efficiency silencing of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) trans gene and the stem cell-specific transcription factors Oct4/POU5F1 and Nanog in human embryonic stem cells. Gene knockdown of Oct4 and Nanog promotes differentiation, thereby demonstrating a role for these factors in human embryonic stem cell self-renewal.
Stem Cell Reviews. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17625255
The ability of stem cells to self-renew and to replace mature cells is fundamental to ontogeny and tissue regeneration. Stem cells of the adult organism can be categorized as mono-, bi-, or multipotent, based on the number of mature cell types to which they can give rise. In contrast, pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo have the ability to form every cell type of the adult body. Permanent lines of pluripotent stem cells have been derived from preimplantation embryos (embryonic stem cells), fetal primordial germ cells (embryonic germ cells), and malignant teratocarcinomas (embryonal carcinoma cells). Cultured pluripotent stem cells can easily be manipulated genetically, and they can be matured into adult-type stem cells and terminally differentiated cell types in vitro, thereby, providing powerful model systems for the study of mammalian embryogenesis and disease processes. In addition, human embryonic stem cell lines hold great promise for the development of novel regenerative therapies. To fully utilize the potential of these cells, we must first understand the mechanisms that control pluripotent stem cell fate and function. In recent decades, the microenvironment or niche has emerged as particularly critical for stem cell regulation. In this article, we review how pluripotent stem cell signal transduction mechanisms and transcription factor circuitries integrate information provided by the microenvironment. In addition, we consider the potential existence and location of adult pluripotent stem cell niches, based on the notion that a revealing feature indicating the presence of stem cells in a given tissue is the occurrence of tumors whose characteristics reflect the normal developmental potential of the cognate stem cells.
Biomaterials. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17727944
Currently available synthetic grafts demonstrate moderate success at the macrovascular level, but fail at the microvascular scale (<6mm inner diameter). We report on the development of silk fibroin microtubes for blood vessel repair with several advantages over existing scaffold materials/designs. These microtubes were prepared by dipping straight lengths of stainless steel wire into aqueous silk fibroin, where the addition of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) enabled control of microtube porosity. The microtube properties were characterized in terms of pore size, burst strength, protein permeability, enzymatic degradation, and cell migration. Low porosity microtubes demonstrated superior mechanical properties in terms of higher burst pressures, but displayed poor protein permeability; whereas higher porosity tubes had lower burst strengths but increased permeability and enhanced protein transport. The microtubes also exhibited cellular barrier functions as low porosity tubes prevented outward migration of GFP-transduced HUVECs, while the high porosity microtubes allowed a few cells per tube to migrate outward during perfusion. When combined with the biocompatible and suturability features of silk fibroin, these results suggest that silk microtubes, either implanted directly or preseeded with cells, are an attractive biomaterial for microvascular grafts.
Nature Biotechnology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17322871
We describe the differentiation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells into endothelial cells using a scalable two-dimensional method that avoids an embryoid-body intermediate. After transplantation into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, the differentiated cells contributed to arborized blood vessels that integrated into the host circulatory system and served as blood conduits for 150 d.
Differential in Vivo Potential of Endothelial Progenitor Cells from Human Umbilical Cord Blood and Adult Peripheral Blood to Form Functional Long-lasting Vessels
Blood. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17993613
Tissue engineering requires formation of a de novo stable vascular network. Because of their ability to proliferate, differentiate into endothelial cells, and form new vessels, blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are attractive source of cells for use in engineering blood vessels. However, the durability and function of EPC-derived vessels implanted in vivo are unclear. To this end, we directly compared formation and functions of tissue-engineered blood vessels generated by peripheral blood- and umbilical cord blood-derived EPCs in a model of in vivo vasculogenesis. We found that adult peripheral blood EPCs form blood vessels that are unstable and regress within 3 weeks. In contrast, umbilical cord blood EPCs form normal-functioning blood vessels that last for more than 4 months. These vessels exhibit normal blood flow, perm-selectivity to macromolecules, and induction of leukocyte-endothelial interactions in response to cytokine activation similar to normal vessels. Thus, umbilical cord blood EPCs hold great therapeutic potential, and their use should be pursued for vascular engineering.
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19382119
Cartilage tissue can be engineered by starting from a diversity of cell sources, including stem-cell based and primary cell-based platforms. Selecting an appropriate cell source for the process of cartilage tissue engineering or repair is critical and challenging, due to the variety of cell options available. In this study, cellular responses of isolated human chondrocytes, human embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from three sources, human embryonic stem cells, bone marrow and adipose tissue, were assessed for chondrogenic potential in 3D culture. All cell sources were characterized by FACS analysis to compare expression of some surface markers. The cells were differentiated in two different biomaterial matrices, silk and chitosan scaffolds, in the presence and absence of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), along with the standard chondrogenic differentiating factors. Embryonic stem cells-derived MSCs showed unique characteristics, with preserved chondrogenic phenotype in both scaffolds with regard to chondrogenesis, as determined by real time RT-PCR, histological and microscopical analyses. After 4 weeks of cultivation, embryonic stem cells-derived MSCs were promising for chondrogenesis, particularly in the silk scaffolds with BMP6. The results suggest that cell source differences are important to consider with regard to chondrogenic outcomes, and among the variables addressed here the human embryonic stem cells-derived MSCs were the preferred cell source.
Tissue Engineering. Part A. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19728785
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may provide a clinical option for rebuilding damaged superficial lamina propria of the vocal fold. We investigated the effects of five hydrogels (hyaluronic acid [HA], collagen, fibrin, and cogels of fibrin-collagen and fibrin-HA) on the differentiation of ASCs, with the long-term goal of establishing the conditions necessary for controlling the differentiation of ASC into the functional equivalent of superficial lamina propria fibroblasts. Human ASCs were isolated and characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. According to fluorescence-activated cell sorting and gene analysis, over 90% of isolated ASCs expressed adult stem cell surface markers and expressed adult stem cell genes. Scaffold-specific gene expression and morphology were assessed by culturing the ASCs in three-dimensional hydrogels. Twofold higher amounts of total DNA were detected in fibrin and cogel cultures than in collagen and HA cultures. Elastin expression was significantly higher in cells grown in fibrin-based gels than in cells grown in other gels. Cells grown in the cogels showed elongated morphology, expressed decorin marker, and exhibited glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which indicate ASC differentiation. Our data suggest that it may be possible to control the differentiation of ASCs using scaffolds appropriate for vocal fold tissue engineering applications. In particular, cogels of HA or collagen with fibrin enhanced proliferation, differentiation, and elastin expression.
Cell. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20085705
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for accurate axial body patterning during embryonic development. PcG-mediated repression is conserved in metazoans and is targeted in Drosophila by Polycomb response elements (PREs). However, targeting sequences in humans have not been described. While analyzing chromatin architecture in the context of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) differentiation, we discovered a 1.8kb region between HOXD11 and HOXD12 (D11.12) that is associated with PcG proteins, becomes nuclease hypersensitive, and then shows alteration in nuclease sensitivity as hESCs differentiate. The D11.12 element repressed luciferase expression from a reporter construct and full repression required a highly conserved region and YY1 binding sites. Furthermore, repression was dependent on the PcG proteins BMI1 and EED and a YY1-interacting partner, RYBP. We conclude that D11.12 is a Polycomb-dependent regulatory region with similarities to Drosophila PREs, indicating conservation in the mechanisms that target PcG function in mammals and flies.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20133604
Clinical protocols utilize bone marrow to seed synthetic and decellularized allogeneic bone grafts for enhancement of scaffold remodeling and fusion. Marrow-derived cytokines induce host neovascularization at the graft surface, but hypoxic conditions cause cell death at the core. Addition of cellular components that generate an extensive primitive plexus-like vascular network that would perfuse the entire scaffold upon anastomosis could potentially yield significantly higher-quality grafts. We used a mouse model to develop a two-stage protocol for generating vascularized bone grafts using mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from human bone marrow and umbilical cord-derived endothelial cells. The endothelial cells formed tube-like structures and subsequently networks throughout the bone scaffold 4-7 days after implantation. hMSCs were essential for stable vasculature both in vitro and in vivo; however, contrary to expectations, vasculature derived from hMSCs briefly cultured in medium designed to maintain a proliferative, nondifferentiated state was more extensive and stable than that with hMSCs with a TGF-beta-induced smooth muscle cell phenotype. Anastomosis occurred by day 11, with most hMSCs associating closely with the network. Although initially immature and highly permeable, at 4 weeks the network was mature. Initiation of scaffold mineralization had also occurred by this period. Some human-derived vessels were still present at 5 months, but the majority of the graft vasculature had been functionally remodeled with host cells. In conclusion, clinically relevant progenitor sources for pericytes and endothelial cells can serve to generate highly functional microvascular networks for tissue engineered bone grafts.
A Murine ESC-like State Facilitates Transgenesis and Homologous Recombination in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Cell Stem Cell. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20569691
Murine pluripotent stem cells can exist in two functionally distinct states, LIF-dependent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and bFGF-dependent epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). However, human pluripotent cells so far seemed to assume only an epiblast-like state. Here we demonstrate that human iPSC reprogramming in the presence of LIF yields human stem cells that display morphological, molecular, and functional properties of murine ESCs. We termed these hLR5 iPSCs because they require the expression of five ectopic reprogramming factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, cMyc, and Nanog, to maintain this more naive state. The cells are "metastable" and upon ectopic factor withdrawal they revert to standard human iPSCs. Finally, we demonstrate that the hLR5 state facilitates gene targeting, and as such provides a powerful tool for the generation of recombinant human pluripotent stem cell lines.
Reactive Layer-by-layer Films from Solutions Containing Silicic Acid and a Ti(IV) Complex: Preferential Incorporation of Silica and Interactions of the Obtained Films with Hexacyanoferrate Anions
Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21204542
The concept of reactive layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition allows the build-up of films containing polycations and oxide particles, namely, silica and poorly crystalline anatase. Because polyelectrolyte multilayer films have been produced from blended polyanions or polycations solutions and since preferential incorporation of one of the partners of the blend has been found in most cases, one should wonder if a preferential polycondensation of either silica or titania should occur when the reactive deposition is performed from a solution containing a precursor of both inorganic species. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and UV-visible spectroscopies show that the reactive LBL films made from the blend and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) incorporate predominantly silica over TiO(2) over the whole molar fraction range of the silicic acic/hydrosoluble Ti(IV) complex. The transparency of the films below 365 nm, corresponding to the band edge of TiO(2), can easily be modulated. The silica/TiO(2) films are all able to bind hexacyanoferrate owing to the presence of the polycation allowing the binding of the oxide particles to the substrate. However, the binding capacity of the film does not scale proportionally to its thickness. The films made from eight dipping cycles showed a sudden decrease in their binding capacity for hexacyanoferrate when the molar fraction of the titanium complex was higher than ∼0.6 in the blend. For the same films, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) showed marked differences with a change in film composition: the more TiO(2) in the film, the higher the resistance to electron and to mass transfer. Therefore, EIS helps to explain the reduced surface concentration measured by means of cyclic voltammetry for films rich in TiO(2).
Human Endometrial Cells Express Elevated Levels of Pluripotent Factors and Are More Amenable to Reprogramming into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Endocrinology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21209016
The human endometrium is a tissue with remarkable plasticity and regenerative capacity. Additionally, endometrial cells can be retrieved using minimally invasive procedures, which makes them an ideal source for reprogramming into a pluripotent state. Endometrial cells were obtained from donors in their fifth decade and reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells using retroviral transduction with SOX2, OCT4, KLF4, and MYC. The human endometrial cells displayed accelerated expression of endogenous NANOG and OCT4 during reprogramming compared with neonatal skin fibroblasts. As a result, iPS cell colonies that could be subcultured and propagated were established as early as 12 d after transduction rather than the usually reported 3-4 wk for other cell types. After 3 wk of reprogramming, the human endometrial cells also yielded significantly higher numbers of iPS colonies in comparison with the neonatal skin fibroblasts. Although the efficiency of iPS colony formation varied depending on the donor, the basal level of endogenous expression of the defined factors was positively correlated with reprogramming efficiency. The reprogramming resulted in an average colony-forming efficiency of 0.49 ± 0.10%, with a range from 0.31-0.66%, compared with the neonatal skin fibroblasts, resulting in an average efficiency of 0.03 ± 0.00% per transduction, with a range from 0.02-0.03%. Our studies show that the human endometrium expresses elevated levels of pluripotent factors, which with additional defined factors, results in significantly more efficient and accelerated generation of induced pluripotent stem cells compared with conventional somatic cells.
Fibroblasts Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Direct Development and Repair of 3D Human Skin Equivalents
Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21338517
Pluripotent, human stem cells hold tremendous promise as a source of progenitor and terminally differentiated cells for application in future regenerative therapies. However, such therapies will be dependent upon the development of novel approaches that can best assess tissue outcomes of pluripotent stem cell-derived cells and will be essential to better predict their safety and stability following in vivo transplantation.
Cell Stem Cell. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21474098
Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell lines are being generated at a rapid pace and now number in the thousands. We propose a standard nomenclature and suggest the use of a centralized database for all cell line names and a minimum set of information for reporting new derivations.
Epigenetic Characterization of the FMR1 Gene and Aberrant Neurodevelopment in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Fragile X Syndrome
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22022567
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability. In addition to cognitive deficits, FXS patients exhibit hyperactivity, attention deficits, social difficulties, anxiety, and other autistic-like behaviors. FXS is caused by an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the Fragile X Mental Retardation (FMR1) gene leading to epigenetic silencing and loss of expression of the Fragile X Mental Retardation protein (FMRP). Despite the known relationship between FMR1 CGG repeat expansion and FMR1 silencing, the epigenetic modifications observed at the FMR1 locus, and the consequences of the loss of FMRP on human neurodevelopment and neuronal function remain poorly understood. To address these limitations, we report on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from multiple patients with FXS and the characterization of their differentiation into post-mitotic neurons and glia. We show that clones from reprogrammed FXS patient fibroblast lines exhibit variation with respect to the predominant CGG-repeat length in the FMR1 gene. In two cases, iPSC clones contained predominant CGG-repeat lengths shorter than measured in corresponding input population of fibroblasts. In another instance, reprogramming a mosaic patient having both normal and pre-mutation length CGG repeats resulted in genetically matched iPSC clonal lines differing in FMR1 promoter CpG methylation and FMRP expression. Using this panel of patient-specific, FXS iPSC models, we demonstrate aberrant neuronal differentiation from FXS iPSCs that is directly correlated with epigenetic modification of the FMR1 gene and a loss of FMRP expression. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a key role for FMRP early in human neurodevelopment prior to synaptogenesis and have implications for modeling of FXS using iPSC technology. By revealing disease-associated cellular phenotypes in human neurons, these iPSC models will aid in the discovery of novel therapeutics for FXS and other autism-spectrum disorders sharing common pathophysiology.