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In JoVE (1)
- تتبع الزحف داخل اللمعة العدلات ، والهجرة والانجذاب الكيميائي Transendothelial في الأنسجة بواسطة الميكروسكوب فيديو Intravital
Other Publications (45)
- Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences = Hua Zhong Ke Ji Da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ying De Wen Ban = Huazhong Keji Daxue Xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen Ban
- Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
- Thrombosis and Haemostasis
- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
- Chinese Medical Journal
- Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi = Journal of Biomedical Engineering = Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- The American Journal of Pathology
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- The Journal of Surgical Research
- Optics Letters
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- Journal of Cell Science
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- Anesthesia and Analgesia
- Journal of Human Genetics
- Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
- Archives of Surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
- The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
- Nanoscale Research Letters
- Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
- Wound Repair and Regeneration : Official Publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society
- Nature Communications
- Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Wound Repair and Regeneration : Official Publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Clinical Cardiology
- Nano Letters
- Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
- Nano Letters
- European Journal of Clinical Investigation
- The Journal of Chemical Physics
- Cardiovascular Research
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
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Articles by Lixin Liu in JoVE
تتبع الزحف داخل اللمعة العدلات ، والهجرة والانجذاب الكيميائي Transendothelial في الأنسجة بواسطة الميكروسكوب فيديو Intravital
Najia Xu, Xi Lei, Lixin Liu
Department of Pharmacology, University of Saskatchewan
وصفنا على بروتوكول المجهري brightfield intravital لقياس ديناميكية التفاعلات الخلية العدلة البطاني خلال تجنيد العدلة ردا على مصدر جاذب كيميائي العدلة في الجسم الحي. العدلة الزحف داخل اللمعة ، والهجرة وtransendothelial الكيميائي في الأنسجة العضلية الماوس المشمرة وتصور مع التصوير الفيديو وانقضى الوقت مع ImageJ مجنزرة.
Other articles by Lixin Liu on PubMed
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences = Hua Zhong Ke Ji Da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ying De Wen Ban = Huazhong Keji Daxue Xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen Ban. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12658745
Whether conventional hypothermic CPB induces myocyte apoptosis in dog hearts and modulation of bcl-2, bcl-xl, bax, bad, and caspase-3 pathways in this setting was investigated. Ten healthy adult dogs were randomized into sham-operated and CPB groups. Samples of left ventricle were obtained before, during and 3 h after CPB. In situ TUNEL was used to detect apoptotic myocytes. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were employed for detection of expressions of bcl-2, bcl-xl, bax and bad proteins. Z-DEVD-AMC substrate cleavage and TBARS methods were used to measure the activity of caspase-3 and the content of lipid peroxide in LV myocardium, respectively. After CPB, the number of apoptotic myocytes in CPB group was significantly increased. The results of immunohistochemistry demonstrated that bcl-2, bcl-xl, bax and bad proteins were constitutionally present on the sarcolemma of the LV myocytes. FACS results showed that, after CPB, expressions of bax and bad in CPB group were significantly upregulated, while the expressions of bcl-2 and bcl-xl were not significantly changed in both groups. The activity of caspase-3 and the content of lipid peroxide in LV myocardium in CPB group were also significantly increased after CPB. The present study shows that there exists myocardiocyte apoptosis in dog hearts undergoing conventional hypothermic CPB and the myocyte apoptosis is initiated by ischemia and performed during reperfusion. Moreover, the CPB-induced myocyte apoptosis was associated with upregulation of expressions of bax and bad proteins, activation of caspase-3 and increase of oxidative stress.
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11744672
Massive loss of cardiac myocytes after myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of heart failure. The present study was designed to investigate the improvement of cardiac function in MI rats after embryonic stem (ES) cell transplantation. MI in rats was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cultured ES cells used for cell transplantation were transfected with the marker green fluorescent protein (GFP). Animals in the treated group received intramyocardial injection of ES cells in injured myocardium. Compared with the MI control group injected with an equivalent volume of the cell-free medium, cardiac function in ES cell-implanted MI animals was significantly improved 6 wk after cell transplantation. The characteristic phenotype of engrafted ES cells was identified in implanted myocardium by strong positive staining to sarcomeric alpha-actin, cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain, and troponin I. GFP-positive cells in myocardium sectioned from MI hearts confirmed the survival and differentiation of engrafted cells. In addition, single cells isolated from cell-transplanted MI hearts showed rod-shaped GFP-positive myocytes with typical striations. The present data demonstrate that ES cell transplantation is a feasible and novel approach to improve ventricular function in infarcted failing hearts.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12574798
Leukocyte recruitment in the microcirculation is a critical process underlying inflammatory responses in tissues. The mechanism of recruitment is summarized by the generally accepted paradigm: selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling, subsequent integrin activation, followed by integrin-mediated firm adhesion. This simple paradigm may not be able to explain the leukocyte recruitment mechanisms in some organs including the liver and brain. Recent studies suggested that these organs have their own leukocyte recruitment paradigms in acute and even chronic inflammation. The combination of unique hemodynamic patterns and specific structural and functional features of the vessels and endothelium in liver may dictate and select the specific patterns of leukocyte recruitment in this organ. In the brain microvasculature, where shears are high and adhesion molecule expression low, platelets may play an important role as a bridge between the leukocytes and endothelium.
Priming of Eosinophil Migration Across Lung Epithelial Cell Monolayers and Upregulation of CD11b/CD18 Are Elicited by Extracellular Ca2+
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12760968
In patients with asthma, eosinophils are primed and massively infiltrate lung tissues and migrate across epithelia into airways. Using blocking monoclonal antibodies, we found that eosinophil transmigration across a lung epithelial cell monolayer depended on the functions of alphaMbeta2 integrin CD11b/CD18. To study the role of Ca2+ in eosinophil priming and transepithelial migration, we treated eosinophils with eotaxin or thapsigargin (TG), reagents that increase cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentrations by receptor- or nonreceptor-mediated mechanisms, respectively. Pretreatment of eosinophils with TG enhanced CD11b/CD18-dependent transmigration across lung epithelium. Within minutes, TG time- and dose-dependently upregulated the expression of CD11b/CD18 but did not upregulate the expression of alphaL (CD11a) or beta1 (CD29) integrin. The upregulation of CD11b/CD18 expression by eotaxin or TG was prevented when Ca2+ entry was blocked. The priming of eosinophil transmigration by TG was also abrogated by the blockade of Ca2+ entry. Our results indicate that induction of Ca2+ entry by the depletion of Ca2+ from intracellular stores upregulates CD11b/CD18 expression on eosinophils and primes eosinophil transmigration across lung epithelium. Both responses are therefore elicited by extracellular Ca2+. We suggest that, as an important priming signal for human eosinophil functional responses, store-operated Ca2+ entry may be one of the underlying mechanisms of eosinophilic inflammation in asthma.
Carvedilol Attenuates CPB-induced Apoptosis in Dog Heart: Regulationof Fas/FasL and Caspase-3 Pathway
Chinese Medical Journal. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12875697
To evaluate the effects of Carvedilol on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-induced myocardiocyte apoptosis and its effects on regulation of Fas, FasL expression, caspase-3 activity and oxidative stress in the left ventricle (LV) in this setting.
Thyroid Hormones Interact with Glucocorticoids to Affect Somatotroph Abundance in Chicken Embryonic Pituitary Cells in Vitro
Endocrinology. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12933655
Our laboratory has reported that somatotroph differentiation occurs between d 14 and d 16 of chicken embryonic development and that corticosterone (CORT) can induce somatotroph differentiation at an earlier age in vitro and in vivo. The objective of the present study was to test for thyroid hormone-CORT interactions on somatotroph differentiation in vitro. Pituitary cells from d 11 chicken embryos were treated with CORT and thyroid hormones, and GH-producing somatotrophs were detected by reverse hemolytic plaque assays and immunocytochemistry. We found that thyroid hormones can act synergistically with CORT to further augment the abundance of somatotrophs in vitro but have little to no effect on their own. Both T(4) and T(3) could act synergistically with CORT to increase somatotroph abundance, but the effects of T(3) were biphasic, inhibiting CORT actions at higher concentrations. The monodeiodination inhibitor iopanoic acid inhibited the synergistic effect of T(4) on CORT induction of GH cells in vitro but not the synergistic effect of CORT and T(3) or the effect of CORT alone. Furthermore, T(3) treatment overcame the iopanoic acid-induced reduction in the T(4)-CORT effect. Our findings indicate that thyroid hormones act synergistically with CORT to further augment the abundance of somatotrophs in vitro and that conversion of T(4) to T(3) within the pituitary is involved in T(4) modulation of somatotroph abundance. Somatotroph differentiation during normal development may be regulated by complex interactions of hormones produced by the embryonic thyroid and adrenal glands.
[Construction of Recombinant Caspases-3 Gene and the Test of Its Apoptotic Activity in Pancreatic Carcinoma Cell Strain]
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi = Journal of Biomedical Engineering = Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14716874
To explore the new gene therapeutic method for pancreatic carcinoma, the recombinant Caspases-3 gene (r-Caspases-3) was constructed by molecular biologic method. The eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA 3.1 (+)/r-Caspase-3 was constructed by rearrangement of the large subunit and small subunit of caspases-3, and then it was transfected into pancreatic carcinoma cells strain (PC-II). After being transfected, the expression of r-Caspase-3 mRNA in pancreatic carcinoma cells was detected by RT-PCR and its apoptotic activity was detected by FCM. The sequencing of the recombinant molecules (r-Caspases-3) confirmed that its small subunit preceded its large subunit. After the pancreatic carcinoma cells were transfected with the pcDNA3.1(+)/r-Caspases-3 by liposomes, an 894 bp strap was observed by means of RT-PCR. No strap was found in control groups. A transparent hypodiploid karyotype peak was revealed by FCM. The above data indicate that the gene of r-Caspase-3 has been constructed successfully, r-Caspase-3 has apoptotic activity and can be used as target gene in gene therapy for pancreatic carcinoma.
A Down-regulatable E-selectin Ligand is Functionally Important for PSGL-1-independent Leukocyte-endothelial Cell Interactions
Blood. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15304396
P-selectin glycoprotein-1 (PSGL-1) supports P-selectin-dependent rolling in vivo and in vitro. However, controversy exists regarding the importance of PSGL-1-dependent and -independent E-selectin rolling. Using antibodies against PSGL-1 and PSGL-1(-/-) mice, we demonstrated abolition of P-selectin-dependent rolling but only partial inhibition of E-selectin-mediated rolling in the cremaster microcirculation following local administration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In vitro studies demonstrated that binding of recombinant mouse E-selectin chimera to PSGL-1(-/-) neutrophils was dramatically decreased in mice treated systemically but not locally with TNF-alpha. Further, PSGL-1 blockade abolished E-selectin-dependent rolling in wild-type mice following systemic TNF-alpha administration but not local TNF-alpha administration. Together, these data support an E-selectin ligand present on PSGL-1(-/-) neutrophils that is down-regulatable upon systemic but not local activation. To determine whether the PSGL-1-independent E-selectin ligand was physiologically important, we used a P- and E-selectin-dependent cutaneous contact hypersensitivity model. Binding studies showed no E-selectin ligand down-regulation in this model. The few cells that rolled on E-selectin ligand following PSGL-1 antibody administration or in PSGL-1 deficiency were sufficient to induce profound contact hypersensitivity. In conclusion, E-selectin mediates PSGL-1-dependent and independent rolling and the latter can be down-regulated by systemic activation and can replace PSGL-1 to support the development of inflammation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15358138
The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a recently isolated host antiviral factor. It specifically inhibits the replication of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) by preventing the accumulation of viral RNA in the cytoplasm. In this report, we demonstrate that ZAP is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm at steady state but shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in a CRM1-dependent manner. Two nuclear localization sequences (NLS) and one nuclear export sequence (NES) were identified. One NLS was mapped to amino acids 68-RARVCRRK-75 and the other mapped to a region including amino acids K405 and K406. The NES was mapped to amino acids 284-LEDVSVDV-291. These findings help to understand why ZAP specifically prevents the accumulation of viral RNA in the cytoplasm. These findings also suggest possible functions of ZAP in the nucleus.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15585887
Lymphocyte CD44 interactions with hyaluronan localized on the endothelium have been demonstrated to mediate rolling and regulate lymphocyte entry into sites of chronic inflammation. Because neutrophils also express CD44, we investigated the role of CD44 and hyaluronan in the multistep process of neutrophil recruitment. CD44(-/-) and wild-type control mice were intrascrotally injected with the neutrophil-activating chemokine, MIP-2, and leukocyte kinetics in the cremasteric microcirculation were investigated 4 h subsequently using intravital microscopy. Neither the rolling flux nor the rolling velocities were decreased in CD44(-/-) mice relative to wild-type mice. In vitro, neutrophils did not roll on the CD44 ligand hyaluronan, consistent with the in vivo data that CD44/hyaluronan did not mediate rolling. However, the number of adherent leukocytes in the venule was decreased by 65% in CD44(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Leukocyte emigration was also greatly decreased in the CD44(-/-) mice. The same decrease in adhesion and emigration was observed in the wild-type mice given hyaluronidase. Histology revealed neutrophils as being the dominant infiltrating population. We generated chimeric mice that express CD44 either on their leukocytes or on their endothelium and found that CD44 on both the endothelium and neutrophils was important for optimal leukocyte recruitment into tissues. Of those neutrophils that emigrated in wild-type and CD44(-/-) mice, there was no impairment in migration through the interstitium. This study suggests that CD44 can mediate some neutrophil adhesion and emigration, but does not appear to affect subsequent migration within tissues.
Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins 3 and 5 Are Overexpressed in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Contribute to Extracellular Matrix Deposition
The American Journal of Pathology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15681824
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrotic disease of unknown etiology that results in significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of IPF is not completely understood. Because recent studies have implicated insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, we examined the expression and function of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-3 and -5 in IPF. IGFBP-3 and -5 levels were increased in vivo in IPF lung tissues and in vitro in fibroblasts cultured from IPF lung. The IGFBPs secreted by IPF fibroblasts are functionally active and can bind IGF-I, and IGFBPs secreted by primary fibroblasts bind extracellular matrix components. Our results also suggest that IGFBPs may be involved in the initiation and/or perpetuation of fibrosis by virtue of their ability to induce the production of extracellular matrix components such as collagen type I and fibronectin in normal primary adult lung fibroblasts. Although transforming growth factor-beta increased IGFBP-3 production by primary fibroblasts in a time-dependent manner, IGFBP-5 levels were not increased by transforming growth factor-beta. Taken together, our results suggest that IGFBPs play an important role in the development of fibrosis in IPF.
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15684321
Leukocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1), an F-actin binding protein and a major downstream substrate of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as well as protein kinase C, has been reported to be important in leukocyte chemotaxis. Although its distribution has been thought to be restricted to leukocytes, herein we report that LSP1 is expressed in endothelium and is essential to permit neutrophil emigration. Using intravital microscopy to directly visualize leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and emigration in postcapillary venules in LSP1-deficient (Lsp1-/-) mice, we found that LSP1 deficiency inhibits neutrophil extravasation in response to various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta) and to neutrophil chemokine keratinocyte-derived chemokine in vivo. LSP1 deficiency did not affect leukocyte rolling or adhesion. Generation of Lsp1-/- chimeric mice using bone marrow transplantation revealed that in mice with Lsp1-/- endothelial cells and wild-type leukocytes, neutrophil transendothelial migration out of postcapillary venules is markedly restricted. In contrast, Lsp1-/- neutrophils in wild-type mice were able to extravasate normally. Consistent with altered endothelial function was a reduction in vascular permeability to histamine in Lsp1-/- animals. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy examination confirmed the presence of LSP1 in wild-type but not in Lsp1-/- mouse microvascular endothelial cells. Cultured human endothelial cells also stained positive for LSP1. Our results suggest that LSP1 expressed in endothelium regulates neutrophil transendothelial migration.
Effects of Emodin on Ca2+ Signal Transduction of Smooth Muscle Cells in Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
The Journal of Surgical Research. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16271368
We have made several reports on the signal transduction mechanism that emodin enhance the calcium concentrations of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the physiological condition by inositol [1, 4, 5]-friphosphate (IP3). The observation that IP3 concentrations in SMCs were decreased in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) prompted us to ask whether emodin can activate SMCs to contract by way of elevating [Ca2+] and thus modulating the critical Ca2+ signal transduction pathways involved in the contraction of the SMCs in the pathological setting of MODS. To test this hypothesis, we used the rat model of MODS to explore the potential roles of emodin in Ca2+ signal transduction in the SMCs of colon in rats. ML-7 [an inhibitor of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)] and Calphostin C [an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC)] were used to observe the influence of emodin on the muscle strips and SMCs in rats after MODS. Nifedipine (an antagonist of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel), EGTA (removal of extracellular Ca2+), heparine (a specific IP3 receptor antagonist), and ryanodine were used to probe the potential mechanisms involved in emodin-mediated elevation of the global cytoplasmic Ca2+ in SMCs of colon in the rats after MODS. Our results show that emodin is capable of contract the smooth muscles of colon in rats after MODS by MLCK increasing [Ca2+] of SMCs, and by PKC enhancing the calcium sensitivity of SMCs. The mechanism by which emodin triggers elevated [Ca2+] of smooth muscles of colon in rats after MODS is likely to operate through IP3 and RyR receptors in the sarcoplasm. It is hoped that deeper insights into how emodin modulates the critical calcium signaling in SMCs might lead to the potential development of emodin in the treatment of MODS.
Optics Letters. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16480211
We present a novel sampling imaging technique capable of performing simultaneous two-dimensional measurements of the temporal and spectral characteristics of light-emission processes by use of a specially designed streak camera. A proof-of-principle experiment was performed with a homemade multifocal multiphoton fluorescence microscope. The system was calibrated with a Fabry-Perot etalon and a standard fluorophore solution (rhodamine 6G in ethanol) and was shown to have temporal and spectral resolution of 6.5 ps and 3 nm, respectively, as well as high accuracy and reproducibility in lifetime and spectrum measurement. Temporally and spectrally resolved images of 4 x 4 foci on the sample can be obtained with a snapshot.
Intraluminal Crawling of Neutrophils to Emigration Sites: a Molecularly Distinct Process from Adhesion in the Recruitment Cascade
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17116736
The prevailing view is that the beta2-integrins Mac-1 (alphaMbeta2, CD11b/CD18) and LFA-1 (alphaLbeta2, CD11a/CD18) serve similar biological functions, namely adhesion, in the leukocyte recruitment cascade. Using real-time and time-lapse intravital video-microscopy and confocal microscopy within inflamed microvessels, we systematically evaluated the function of Mac-1 and LFA-1 in the recruitment paradigm. The chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 induced equivalent amounts of adhesion in wild-type and Mac-1-/- mice but very little adhesion in LFA-1-/- mice. Time-lapse video-microscopy within the postcapillary venules revealed that immediately upon adhesion, there is significant intraluminal crawling of all neutrophils to distant emigration sites in wild-type mice. In dramatic contrast, very few Mac-1-/- neutrophils crawled with a 10-fold decrease in displacement and a 95% reduction in velocity. Therefore, Mac-1-/- neutrophils initiated transmigration closer to the initial site of adhesion, which in turn led to delayed transmigration due to movement through nonoptimal emigration sites. Interestingly, the few LFA-1-/- cells that did adhere crawled similarly to wild-type neutrophils. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 but not intercellular adhesion molecule-2 mediated the Mac-1-dependent crawling. These in vivo results clearly delineate two fundamentally different molecular mechanisms for LFA-1 and Mac-1 in vivo, i.e., LFA-1-dependent adhesion followed by Mac-1-dependent crawling, and both steps ultimately contribute to efficient emigration out of the vasculature.
Blood. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17488877
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have been considered important in leukocyte motility. PI3Kgamma, the class I(B) PI3K, expressed prominently in leukocytes and also in endothelial cells, mediates leukocyte functional responses induced by chemoattractants. To reveal its role in leukocyte recruitment, we used intravital microscopy to directly visualize leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and emigration in postcapillary venules in PI3Kgamma-deficient (PI3Kgamma(-/-)) mice. We report here that PI3Kgamma deficiency had no significant effects on leukocyte rolling flux or rolling velocity and minor effects on adhesion (30% to 35%) in response to CXC chemokine MIP-2 (CXCL2) or KC (CXCL1). However, leukocyte emigration was severely impaired in PI3Kgamma(-/-) mice in an early (first 90 minutes) response to MIP-2 or KC. Chimeric mice receiving bone marrow transplants revealed that this early response was entirely dependent upon PI3Kgamma in neutrophils but not parenchymal cells (endothelium and others). Identical responses were observed when endogenous chemokine production was induced by TNFalpha; leukocyte emigration was reduced in PI3Kgamma(-/-) mice. More prolonged responses to MIP-2 (for 4 to 5 hours) or TNFalpha (6 to 8 hours) were almost entirely PI3Kgamma independent and largely dependent on PI3Kdelta. Our results reveal that leukocyte emigration response to CXC chemokines is entirely dependent upon PI3Kgamma or PI3Kdelta, but these are nonoverlapping, temporally distinct events in inflamed tissues in vivo.
Journal of Cell Science. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18187452
PI3K activity, resulting in the accumulation of PIP(3) along the leading edge of a chemotaxing cell, has been proposed to be an indispensable signaling event that is required for cells to undergo chemotaxis to endogenous and exogenous chemoattractants. Some studies have suggested that this might be the case for chemoattractants such as IL8, whereas chemotaxis to other stimuli, such as the bacterial peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), might occur normally in the absence of PI3K activity. Herein, we systematically analyze the role of PI3K in mediating chemotaxis to fMLP, both in vitro and in vivo. Using short- and long-term in vitro assays, as well as an in vivo chemotaxis assay, we investigated the importance of PI3K in response to the prototypic chemoattractant fMLP. Exposure of neutrophils to fMLP induced an immediate polarization, which resulted in directional migration towards fMLP within 2-3 minutes. PI3K-inhibited cells also polarized and migrated in a directional fashion towards fMLP; however, this process was delayed by approximately 15 minutes, demonstrating that PI3K accelerates the initial response to fMLP, but an alternative pathway replaces PI3K over time. By contrast, p38-MAPK-inhibited cells, or cells lacking MK2, were unable to polarize in response to fMLP. Long-term chemotaxis assays using a pan-PI3K inhibitor, a PI3Kdelta-specific inhibitor or PI3Kgamma-knockout neutrophils, demonstrated no role for PI3K in mediating chemotaxis to fMLP, regardless of the steepness of the fMLP gradient. Similar results were observed in vivo, with PI3Kgamma(-/-) cells displaying a delayed, but otherwise normal, chemotactic response to gradients of fMLP. Together, these data demonstrate that, although PI3K can enhance early responses to the bacterial chemoattractant fMLP, it is not required for migration towards this chemoattractant.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18370216
Keratinocyte growth factor-1 (KGF-1) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family FGF7 and is expressed in normal and wounded skin. KGF-1 is massively produced in the early stages of the wound healing process as well as during the later remodeling process (1, 2). We have studied the effects of the electroporation of a KGF-1 plasmid into excisional wounds of different rodent models mimicking diseases known to impair the normal wound healing process. We have used a genetically diabetic mouse model and a septic rat model in our experiments, and we have shown improvement of the healing rate (92% of the wounds are healed at day 12 vs. 40% of the control), the quality of epithelialization (histological score of 3.3 vs. 1.5), and the density of new blood vessels (85% more new blood vessels in the superficial layers than that of the control) (3, 4). Considering these results, we believe we can further explore the treatment modalities for using the electroporation-assisted transfection of DNA plasmid expression vectors of growth factors to enhance cutaneous wound healing.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18424631
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12), a CXC chemokine, has been found to be involved in inflammation models in vivo and in cell adhesion, migration, and chemotaxis in vitro. This study aimed to determine whether exogenous SDF-1 induces leukocyte recruitment in mice. After systemic administration of SDF-1alpha, expression of the adhesion molecules P-selectin and VCAM-1 in mice was measured using a quantitative dual-radiolabeled Ab assay and leukocyte recruitment in various tissues was evaluated using intravital microscopy. The effect of local SDF-1alpha on leukocyte recruitment was also determined in cremaster muscle and compared with the effect of the cytokine TNFalpha and the CXC chemokine keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC; CXCL1). Systemic administration of SDF-1alpha (10 microg, 4-5 h) induced upregulation of P-selectin, but not VCAM-1, in most tissues in mice. It caused modest leukocyte recruitment responses in microvasculature of cremaster muscle, intestine, and brain, i.e., an increase in flux of rolling leukocytes in cremaster muscle and intestines, leukocyte adhesion in all three tissues, and emigration in cremaster muscle. Local treatment with SDF-1alpha (1 microg, 4-5 h) reduced leukocyte rolling velocity and increased leukocyte adhesion and emigration in cremasteric venules, but the responses were much less profound than those elicited by KC or TNFalpha. SDF-1alpha-induced recruitment was dependent on endothelial P-selectin, but not P-selectin on platelets. We conclude that the exogenous SDF-1alpha enhances leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and induces modest and endothelial P-selectin-dependent leukocyte recruitment.
Age-dependent Impairment of HIF-1alpha Expression in Diabetic Mice: Correction with Electroporation-facilitated Gene Therapy Increases Wound Healing, Angiogenesis, and Circulating Angiogenic Cells
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18506785
Wound healing is impaired in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that age-dependent impairment of cutaneous wound healing in db/db diabetic mice: (a) would correlate with reduced expression of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) as well as its downstream target genes; and (b) could be overcome by HIF-1alpha replacement therapy. Wound closure, angiogenesis, and mRNA expression in excisional skin wounds were analyzed and circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) were quantified in db/db mice that were untreated or received electroporation-facilitated HIF-1alpha gene therapy. HIF-1alpha mRNA levels in wound tissue were significantly reduced in older (4-6 months) as compared to younger (1.5-2 months) db/db mice. Expression of mRNAs encoding the angiogenic cytokines vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1), ANGPT2, platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B), and placental growth factor (PLGF) was also impaired in wounds of older db/db mice. Intradermal injection of plasmid gWIZ-CA5, which encodes a constitutively active form of HIF-1alpha, followed by electroporation, induced increased levels of HIF-1alpha mRNA at the injection site on day 3 and increased levels of VEGF, PLGF, PDGF-B, and ANGPT2 mRNA on day 7. CACs in peripheral blood increased 10-fold in mice treated with gWIZ-CA5. Wound closure was significantly accelerated in db/db mice treated with gWIZ-CA5 as compared to mice treated with empty vector. Thus, HIF-1alpha gene therapy corrects the age-dependent impairment of HIF-1alpha expression, angiogenic cytokine expression, and CACs that contribute to the age-dependent impairment of wound healing in db/db mice.
Attenuation of Isoflurane-induced Preconditioning and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in the Senescent Rat Heart
Anesthesia and Analgesia. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18713882
Although attenuation of anesthetic preconditioning in aged ex vivo heart models has been studied extensively, there are no comparable in vivo studies. To extend previous work and to address a possible mechanism underlying age-related differences, we investigated isoflurane-induced preconditioning and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the aged rat heart in vivo.
Journal of Human Genetics. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19590515
Normal function of the dopaminergic system is necessary for speech fluency. There was evidence that the activities of dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) could be altered in people with speech disfluency. This study aims to ascertain the possible correlation between two dopaminergic genes (SLC6A3 and DRD2) and disorder of speech fluency, and to determine the allelic frequencies of the five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2617604, rs28364997, rs28364998 in SLC6A3 and rs6275, rs6277 in DRD2) among Han Chinese patients with this disorder. A sample of 112 patients with speech disfluency and 112 gender-matched controls were included in this case-control study. The results show that the presence of C allele at rs6277 in DRD2 gene is associated with increased susceptibility to the disorder, whereas T allele is protective. Haplotype 939T/957T is also a protective factor.
Anesthesiology. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19858872
Cardiac protection afforded by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and anesthetic preconditioning (APC) are significantly reduced in the senescent myocardium. The authors hypothesized that age would differentially modulate gene expression induced by IPC and APC in vivo.
Overexpression of Human CAP10-like Protein 46 KD in T-acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20143914
We earlier identified a novel gene human CAP10-like protein 46 KD (hCLP46) from human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome CD34(+) cells, but the function of this gene remains unclear. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay was developed to quantify expression of hCLP46 in the peripheral blood of AML and T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) primary samples and in six leukemic cell lines. Also, we investigated expression of CDKN2A/B and the apoptosis in U937 cells when hCLP46 is downregulated in vitro.
Association of Increasing Burn Severity in Mice with Delayed Mobilization of Circulating Angiogenic Cells
Archives of Surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960). Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20231626
To perform a systematic exploration of the phenomenon of mobilization of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) in an animal model. This phenomenon has been observed in patients with cutaneous burn wounds and may be an important mechanism for vasculogenesis in burn wound healing.
Age-associated Differences in Activation of Akt/GSK-3beta Signaling Pathways and Inhibition of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening in the Rat Heart
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20427381
Pretreatment with isoflurane decreased myocardial infarction size in young rats (3-5 months) but not in old rats (20-24 months). To understand the mechanisms underlying the failure to protect the old myocardium, differences in phosphorylation of Akt/GSK-3beta and age-associated differences in mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in the aging heart in vivo were measured. Isoflurane significantly increased Akt and GSK-3beta phosphorylation in the young groups. In contrast, levels of p-Akt and p-GSK-3beta were highly elevated in the old sham control groups. Isoflurane preconditioning significantly reduced the fall in NAD(+) levels induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury in the young animals, reflecting the inhibition of mPTP opening. In the old animals, however, isoflurane failed to prevent the fall in NAD(+) levels induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. Lack of isoflurane-induced cardioprotective effects, seen in the old animals, can be explained by age-related differences in Akt/GSK-3beta signaling pathway and the inability to reduce mPTP opening following ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Nanoscale Research Letters. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20730130
ZnO/HfO(2):Eu nanocables were prepared by radio frequency sputtering with electrospun ZnO nanofibers as cores. The well-crystallized ZnO/HfO(2):Eu nanocables showed a uniform intact core-shell structure, which consisted of a hexagonal ZnO core and a monoclinic HfO(2) shell. The photoluminescence properties of the samples were characterized. A white-light band emission consisted of blue, green, and red emissions was observed in the nanocables. The blue and green emissions can be attributed to the zinc vacancy and oxygen vacancy defects in ZnO/HfO(2):Eu nanocables, and the yellow-red emissions are derived from the inner 4f-shell transitions of corresponding Eu(3+) ions in HfO(2):Eu shells. Enhanced white-light emission was observed in the nanocables. The enhancement of the emission is ascribed to the structural changes after coaxial synthesis.
Supramolecular Hydrogels from Cisplatin-Loaded Block Copolymer Nanoparticles and α-Cyclodextrins with a Stepwise Delivery Property
Biomacromolecules. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20958000
A stepwise anticancer drug delivery system based on an injectable supramolecular hydrogel was presented. In this system, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PEG-b-PAA) block copolymer nanoparticles containing cisplatin were released by erosion of the hydrogels and then the cisplatin was released from the nanoparticles by exchanging with chloride ions. By mixing α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) and the PEG-b-PAA micelles with their PAA cores loaded with the cisplatin in water, the novel supramolecular hydrogels were generated by threading α-CDs onto the PEG segments and forming physical cross-links of molecular necklaces. The gelation properties could be tuned by changing concentrations of the polymers and cisplatin, their feeds, and by adding PEG homopolymers or Pluronic copolymers as additives. Structures and properties of the supramolecular hydrogels containing cisplatin were studied by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and rheology measurements, respectively. The thixotropic effect of the hydrogels and their reversible sol-gel transition were confirmed. In vitro hydrogel erosion experiments were conducted and cisplatin release in saline and pure water was quantified. Hydrogel erosion produced discrete nanoparticles from which cisplatin was released completely in saline. In contrast, the hydrogels were eroded into nanoparticles in pure water, but no cisplatin could be released. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that the cisplatin-loaded hydrogels inhibited the growth of human bladder carcinoma EJ cells with a similar potency as that of the free cisplatin, whereas the hydrogels without cisplatin showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggested that the cisplatin-coordinated PEG-b-PAA/α-CD supramolecular hydrogels hold great potential as an injectable system for sustained delivery of cisplatin in cancer therapy.
Biamphiphilic Triblock Copolymer Micelles As a Multifunctional Platform for Anticancer Drug Delivery
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21117160
Novel micelles from biamphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PEG-b-PCL-b-PAA) as new multifunctional nanocarriers to delivery anticancer drugs were evaluated. The well-defined triblock copolymers prepared by controlled polymerizations self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solution with a hydrodynamic radius of 13 nm as obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and a low critical micellization concentration of 2.9 × 10(-4) g/L. The hydrophobic PCL cores of micelles were applied to load hydrophobic drug doxorubicin and the functional PAA subcoronas clung to the micellar core were used to carry cisplatin through covalent interaction. The results indicated that two anticancer drugs had been loaded by different mechanism either separately or simultaneously. Drug loading content and efficiency as well as release profiles were evaluated. Furthermore, internalization and cytotoxicity of the anticancer nanoparticles against human bladder carcinoma EJ cells were studied. The biamphiphilic triblock copolymer micelles provided not only biocompatibility and biodegradability, but also abilities for loading single and dual anticancer drugs, indicating that this was a useful multifunctional platform for anticancer drug delivery. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A:, 2010.
Impaired Angiogenesis and Mobilization of Circulating Angiogenic Cells in HIF-1alpha Heterozygous-null Mice After Burn Wounding
Wound Repair and Regeneration : Official Publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society. Mar-Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20163569
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that controls vascular responses to hypoxia and ischemia. In this study, mice that were heterozygous (HET) for a null allele at the locus encoding the HIF-1alpha subunit (HET mice) and their wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to a thermal injury involving 10% of the body surface area. HIF-1alpha protein levels were increased in burn wounds of WT but not of HET mice on day 2. The serum levels of stromal-derived factor 1alpha, which binds to CXCR4, were increased on day 2 in WT but not in HET mice. Circulating angiogenic cells were also increased on day 2 in WT but not in HET mice and included CXCR4(+)Sca1(+) cells. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging demonstrated increased blood flow in burn wounds of WT but not HET mice on day 7. Immunohistochemistry on day 7 revealed a reduced number of CD31(+) vessels at the healing margin of burn wounds in HET as compared with WT mice. Vessel maturation was also impaired in wounds of HET mice as determined by the number of alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive vessels on day 21. The remaining wound area on day 14 was significantly increased in HET mice compared with WT littermates. The percentage of healed wounds on day 14 was significantly decreased in HET mice. These data delineate a signaling pathway by which HIF-1 promotes angiogenesis during burn wound healing.
Amphiphilic Toothbrushlike Copolymers Based on Poly(ethylene Glycol) and Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) As Drug Carriers with Enhanced Properties
Biomacromolecules. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20405912
Amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-g-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)) (PEG-b-P(HEMA-g-PCL)) toothbrushlike copolymers were synthesized and evaluated as drug delivery carriers. Two toothbrushlike polymers were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone (CL) initiated by poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PEG-b-PHEMA) macromolecular initiators, and their molecular structures and physical properties were characterized using (1)H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC). The melting points and crystallizable temperature have been decreased obviously, implying that the PCL cores of PEG-b-P(HEMA-g-PCL) toothbrushlike copolymer micelles with shorter PCL segments were unlikely to crystallize at room temperature for drug delivery application. Also the micellization properties of toothbrushlike copolymers in aqueous solution were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Compared with the micelles from linear PEG-b-PCL block copolymers, the micelles of PEG-b-P(HEMA-g-PCL)s exhibited higher loading capacity to the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), and the drug-loaded micelles were highly stable in aqueous solution. In vitro DOX release data and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies showed that DOX-loaded toothbrushlike copolymer micelles could be effectively internalized by bladder carcinoma EJ cells, and the DOX could be released into endocytic compartments and finally transported to the nucleus. Such toothbrushlike copolymer micelles can be analogues of linear PEG-b-PCL diblock copolymers, but demonstrated better properties of loading and release due to their hydrophobic PCL cores do not crystallize at delivery conditions.
Nature Communications. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22146398
Graphene has the potential for high-speed, wide-band photodetection, but only with very low external quantum efficiency and no spectral selectivity. Here we report a dramatic enhancement of the overall quantum efficiency and spectral selectivity that enables multicolour photodetection, by coupling graphene with plasmonic nanostructures. We show that metallic plasmonic nanostructures can be integrated with graphene photodetectors to greatly enhance the photocurrent and external quantum efficiency by up to 1,500%. Plasmonic nanostructures of variable resonance frequencies selectively amplify the photoresponse of graphene to light of different wavelengths, enabling highly specific detection of multicolours. Being atomically thin, graphene photodetectors effectively exploit the local plasmonic enhancement effect to achieve a significant enhancement factor not normally possible with traditional planar semiconductor materials.
Biamphiphilic Triblock Copolymer Micelles As a Multifunctional Platform for Anticancer Drug Delivery
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21171152
Novel micelles from biamphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PEG-b-PCL-b-PAA) as new multifunctional nanocarriers to delivery anticancer drugs were evaluated. The well-defined triblock copolymers prepared by controlled polymerizations self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solution with a hydrodynamic radius of 13 nm as obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and a low critical micellization concentration of 2.9 × 10(-4) g/L. The hydrophobic PCL cores of micelles were applied to load hydrophobic drug doxorubicin and the functional PAA subcoronas clung to the micellar core were used to carry cisplatin through covalent interaction. The results indicated that two anticancer drugs had been loaded by different mechanism either separately or simultaneously. Drug loading content and efficiency as well as release profiles were evaluated. Furthermore, internalization and cytotoxicity of the anticancer nanoparticles against human bladder carcinoma EJ cells were studied. The biamphiphilic triblock copolymer micelles provided not only biocompatibility and biodegradability, but also abilities for loading single and dual anticancer drugs, indicating that this was a useful multifunctional platform for anticancer drug delivery.
Cardioprotection of the Aged Rat Heart by GSK-3beta Inhibitor is Attenuated: Age-related Changes in Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Modulation
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21217064
It is well established that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in the young adult myocardium protects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury through inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. Here, we investigated age-associated differences in the ability of GSK-3β inhibitor [SB-216763 (SB)] to protect the heart and to modulate mPTP opening during I/R injury. Fischer 344 male rats were assigned from their respective young or old age groups. Animals were subjected to 30 min ischemia following 120 min reperfusion to determine myocardial infarction (MI) size in vivo. Ischemic tissues were collected 10 min after reperfusion for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) measurements and immunoblotting. In parallel experiments, ventricular myocytes isolated from young or old rats were exposed to oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mPTP opening times were measured by using confocal microscopy. Our results showed that SB decreased MI in young SB-treated rats compared with young untreated I/R animals, whereas SB failed to significantly affect MI in the old animals. SB also significantly increased GSK-3β phosphorylation in young rats, but phosphorylation levels were already highly elevated in old control groups. There were no significant differences observed between SB-treated and untreated old animals. NAD(+) levels were better maintained in young SB-treated animals compared with the young untreated group during I/R, but this relative improvement was not observed in old animals. SB also significantly prolonged the time to mPTP opening induced by ROS in young cardiomyocytes, but not in aged cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate that this GSK-3β inhibitor fails to protect the aged myocardium in response to I/R injury or prevent mPTP opening following a rise in ROS and suggest that healthy aging alters mPTP regulation by GSK-3β.
Wound Repair and Regeneration : Official Publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society. Mar-Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21362088
The importance of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in promoting angiogenesis and vasculogenesis during wound healing has been demonstrated. It is widely accepted that HIF activity can be promoted by many factors, including hypoxia in the wound or cytokines from inflammatory cells infiltrating the wound. However, there has not been a systematic exploration of the relationship between HIF activity and hypoxia in the burn wound. The location of the hypoxic tissue has not been clearly delineated. The time course of the appearance of hypoxia and the increased activity of HIF and appearance of HIF's downstream transcription products has not been described. The aim of this study was to utilize pimonidazole, a specific tissue hypoxia marker, to characterize the spatial and temporal course of hypoxia in a murine burn model and correlate this with the appearance of HIF-1α and its important angiogenic and vasculogenic transcription products vascular endothelial growth factor and SDF-1. Hypoxia was found in the healing margin of burn wounds beginning at 48 hours after burn and peaking at day 3 after burn. On sequential sections of the same tissue block, positive staining of HIF-1α, SDF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor all occurred at the leading margin of the healing area and peaked at day 3, as did hypoxia. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to explore the characteristics of the hypoxic region of the wound. The localization of hypoxia was found to be related to cell growth and migration, but not to proliferation or inflammatory infiltration.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21458412
Human CAP10-like protein 46 kDa (hCLP46) is the homolog of Rumi, which is the first identified protein O-glucosyltransferase that modifies Notch receptor in Drosophila. Dysregulation of hCLP46 occurs in many hematologic diseases, but the role of hCLP46 remains unclear. Knockdown of hCLP46 by RNA interference resulted in decreased protein levels of endogenous Notch1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Notch target gene Hes-1, suggesting the impairment of the Notch signaling. However, neither cell surface Notch expression nor ligand binding activities were affected. In addition, down-regulated expression of hCLP46 inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells, which was correlated with increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) CDKN1B (p27) and decreased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (RB) protein. We showed that lack of hCLP46 results in impaired ligand induced Notch activation in mammalian cell, and hCLP46 regulates the proliferation of U937 cell through CDKI-RB signaling pathway, which may be important for the pathogenesis of leukemia.
LAMP-2 Gene Expression in Peripheral Leukocytes is Increased in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease
Clinical Cardiology. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21462217
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common complex disease that is caused by interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Accumulating evidence indicates that foam cells in the atherosclerotic plaques exhibit the characteristics of lysosomal storage diseases, namely lysosomal accumulation of indigested materials. In patients with lysosomal storage diseases, lysosomal accumulation of lipids and cholesterols in atherosclerotic plaque cells has been observed. However, the roles of lysosomal hydrolases and proteins in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and CAD remain unclear.
Nano Letters. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21548551
Graphene transistors are of considerable interest for radio frequency (rf) applications. In general, transistors with large transconductance and drain current saturation are desirable for rf performance, which is however nontrivial to achieve in graphene transistors. Here we report high-performance top-gated graphene transistors based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene with large transconductance and drain current saturation. The graphene transistors were fabricated with evaporated high dielectric constant material (HfO(2)) as the top-gate dielectrics. Length scaling studies of the transistors with channel length from 5.6 μm to 100 nm show that complete current saturation can be achieved in 5.6 μm devices and the saturation characteristics degrade as the channel length shrinks down to the 100-300 nm regime. The drain current saturation was primarily attributed to drain bias induced shift of the Dirac points. With the selective deposition of HfO(2) gate dielectrics, we have further demonstrated a simple scheme to realize a 300 nm channel length graphene transistors with self-aligned source-drain electrodes to achieve the highest transconductance of 250 μS/μm reported in CVD graphene to date.
Alterations of Autophagic-lysosomal System in the Peripheral Leukocytes of Patients with Myocardial Infarction
Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21575615
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common and multifactorial disease. To date, causal genes and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Autophagic-lysosomal system, a highly conserved degradative process in cells, has been implicated in lipid metabolism. In this study, we explored the alterations of the autophagic-lysosomal system in patients with acute MI.
Nano Letters. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21648419
Graphene transistors are of considerable interest for radio frequency (rf) applications. High-frequency graphene transistors with the intrinsic cutoff frequency up to 300 GHz have been demonstrated. However, the graphene transistors reported to date only exhibit a limited extrinsic cutoff frequency up to about 10 GHz, and functional graphene circuits demonstrated so far can merely operate in the tens of megahertz regime, far from the potential the graphene transistors could offer. Here we report a scalable approach to fabricate self-aligned graphene transistors with the extrinsic cutoff frequency exceeding 50 GHz and graphene circuits that can operate in the 1-10 GHz regime. The devices are fabricated on a glass substrate through a self-aligned process by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene and a dielectrophoretic assembled nanowire gate array. The self-aligned process allows the achievement of unprecedented performance in CVD graphene transistors with a highest transconductance of 0.36 mS/μm. The use of an insulating substrate minimizes the parasitic capacitance and has therefore enabled graphene transistors with a record-high extrinsic cutoff frequency (> 50 GHz) achieved to date. The excellent extrinsic cutoff frequency readily allows configuring the graphene transistors into frequency doubling or mixing circuits functioning in the 1-10 GHz regime, a significant advancement over previous reports (∼20 MHz). The studies open a pathway to scalable fabrication of high-speed graphene transistors and functional circuits and represent a significant step forward to graphene based radio frequency devices.
Nanotechnology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21659687
Electrospinning is a convenient and versatile method for fabricating different kinds of one-dimensional nanostructures such as nanofibres, nanotubes and nanobelts. Environmental parameters have a great influence on the electrospinning nanostructure. Here we report a new method to fabricate hafnium oxide (HfO(2)) nanobelts. HfO(2) nanobelts were prepared by electrospinning a sol-gel solution with the implementation of heating and subsequent calcination treatment. We investigate the temperature dependence of the products by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The heating temperature of spinning ambient is found to be crucial to the formation of HfO(2) nanobelts. By tuning the temperature, the morphological transformation of HfO(2) from nanowires to nanobelts was achieved. It was found that the rapid evaporation of solvent played an important role in the formation process of HfO(2) nanobelts. It is shown that nanobelts can only be obtained with the temperature higher than 50 °C and they are in the high quality monoclinic phase. A possible growth mechanism of the nanobelts based on phase separation is proposed. The enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of HfO(2):Eu(3+) nanobelts is also illustrated.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21812771
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common and multifactorial arterial disease that is mainly caused by atherosclerosis. Macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophils have been implicated in atherosclerotic plaque development. Autophagy, a highly conserved cellular process for the removal of long-lived protein and organelles, plays a variety of pathophysiological roles. However, the roles of autophagy in peripheral leucocytes in atherosclerosis and CAD have not been explored.
Optimization of Linear and Branched Alkane Interactions with Water to Simulate Hydrophobic Hydration
The Journal of Chemical Physics. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21823715
Previous studies of simple gas hydration have demonstrated that the accuracy of molecular simulations at capturing the thermodynamic signatures of hydrophobic hydration is linked both to the fidelity of the water model at replicating the experimental liquid density at ambient pressure and an accounting of polarization interactions between the solute and water. We extend those studies to examine alkane hydration using the transferable potentials for phase equilibria united-atom model for linear and branched alkanes, developed to reproduce alkane phase behavior, and the TIP4P/2005 model for water, which provides one of the best descriptions of liquid water for the available fixed-point charge models. Alkane site/water oxygen Lennard-Jones cross interactions were optimized to reproduce the experimental alkane hydration free energies over a range of temperatures. The optimized model reproduces the hydration free energies of the fitted alkanes with a root mean square difference between simulation and experiment of 0.06 kcal/mol over a wide temperature range, compared to 0.44 kcal/mol for the parent model. The optimized model accurately reproduces the temperature dependence of hydrophobic hydration, as characterized by the hydration enthalpies, entropies, and heat capacities, as well as the pressure response, as characterized by partial molar volumes.
Tie2-dependent Knockout of HIF-1 Impairs Burn Wound Vascularization and Homing of Bone Marrow-derived Angiogenic Cells
Cardiovascular Research. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22028336
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer composed of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits. HIF-1 is known to promote tissue vascularization by activating the transcription of genes encoding angiogenic factors, which bind to receptors on endothelial cells (ECs) and bone marrow-derived angiogenic cells (BMDACs). In this study, we analysed whether HIF-1 activity in the responding ECs and BMDACs is also required for cutaneous vascularization during burn wound healing.
The Calcineurin B Subunit (CnB) is a New Ligand of Integrin αM That Mediates CnB-induced Apo2L/TRAIL Expression in Macrophages
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22116828
We showed previously that the calcineurin B subunit (CnB) plays an important role in activation of peritoneal macrophage, but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To examine whether there is a CnB receptor on peritoneal macrophages, we performed the radioligand binding assay of receptors. The receptor saturation binding curve demonstrated high-affinity and specific binding; the maximum binding was 1090 fmol/10(5) cells, and the K(d) was 70.59 pM. Then, we used a CnB affinity resin to trap potential receptors from highly purified peritoneal macrophage membranes. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the binding protein was mouse integrin αM. We next performed a competition binding experiment to confirm the binding of CnB to integrin αM. This showed that FITC-CnB bound specifically to peritoneal macrophages and that binding was blocked by the addition of integrin αM Ab. We observed that CnB could induce TRAIL gene expression in peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Integrin αM Ab blocking, RNA interference, and ligand competition experiments demonstrated that CnB-induced TRAIL expression is dependent on integrin αM. Furthermore, the tumoricidal activity of CnB-activated peritoneal macrophages is partially dependent on TRAIL. In addition, CnB treatment significantly prolongs the survival of mice bearing H22 ascites tumors, which has a positive correlation with the induction level of TRAIL. These results reveal a novel function of the CnB in innate immunity and cancer surveillance. They also point to a new signaling pathway leading to induction of TRAIL and suggest a possible application of CnB in cancer therapy.