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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
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Articles by Luke C. Swenson in JoVE
V3 के एचआईवी -1 tropism के genotypic निष्कर्ष का प्रयोग जनसंख्या आधारित अनुक्रमण
Rachel A. McGovern, P. Richard Harrigan, Luke C. Swenson
Laboratory Program, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS
एचआईवी tropism वायरल लिफाफा के V3 के क्षेत्र से inferred किया जा सकता है. V3 पीसीआर नेस्टेड RT-पीसीआर, अनुक्रम का उपयोग कर तीन प्रतियों में परिलक्षित है, और bioinformatic सॉफ्टवेयर का उपयोग कर व्याख्या. कम g2P स्कोर के साथ 1 या अधिक अनुक्रम (ओं) के साथ के साथ नमूने गैर-R5 वायरस के रूप में वर्गीकृत कर रहे हैं.
Other articles by Luke C. Swenson on PubMed
AIDS Reviews. Jul-Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18820716
The introduction of CCR5 antagonists increases the options available for constructing antiretroviral regimens. However, this option is coupled with the caveat that patients should be tested for HIV coreceptor tropism prior to initiating CCR5 antagonist-based therapy. Failure to screen for CXCR4 usage increases the risk of using an ineffective drug, thus reducing the likelihood of viral suppression and increasing their risk for developing antiretroviral resistance. This review discusses current and future methods of determining HIV tropism, with a focus on their utility in the clinical setting for screening purposes. Some of these methods include recombinant phenotypic tests, such as the Monogram Trofile assay, as well as genotype-based predictors, heteroduplex tracking assays, and flow cytometry based methods. Currently, the best evidence supports the use of phenotypic methods, although other methods of screening for HIV coreceptor usage prior to the administration of CCR5 antagonists may reduce costs and increase turnaround time over phenotypic methods. The presence of low levels of X4 virus is a challenge to all assay methods, resulting in reduced sensitivity in clinical, patient-derived samples when compared to clonally derived samples. Gaining a better understanding of the output of these assays and correlating them with clinical progression and therapy response will provide some indication on how both genotype-based, and phenotypic assays for determining HIV coreceptor usage can be improved. In addition, leveraging new technologies capable of detecting low-level minority species may provide the most significant advances in ensuring that individuals with low levels of dual/mixed tropic virus are not inadvertently prescribed CCR5 antagonists.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19690614
Despite the extensive genetic diversity of HIV-1, viral evolution in response to immune selective pressures follows broadly predictable mutational patterns. Sites and pathways of Human Leukocyte-Antigen (HLA)-associated polymorphisms in HIV-1 have been identified through the analysis of population-level data, but the full extent of immune escape pathways remains incompletely characterized. Here, in the largest analysis of HIV-1 subtype B sequences undertaken to date, we identify HLA-associated polymorphisms in the three HIV-1 proteins most commonly considered in cellular-based vaccine strategies. Results are organized into protein-wide escape maps illustrating the sites and pathways of HLA-driven viral evolution.
Phylogenetic Analysis of Population-based and Deep Sequencing Data to Identify Coevolving Sites in the Nef Gene of HIV-1
Molecular Biology and Evolution. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19955476
Rapidly evolving viruses such as HIV-1 display extensive sequence variation in response to host-specific selection, while simultaneously maintaining functions that are critical to replication and infectivity. This apparent conflict between diversifying and purifying selection may be resolved by an abundance of epistatic interactions such that the same functional requirements can be met by highly divergent sequences. We investigate this hypothesis by conducting an extensive characterization of sequence variation in the HIV-1 nef gene that encodes a highly variable multifunctional protein. Population-based sequences were obtained from 686 patients enrolled in the HOMER cohort in British Columbia, Canada, from which the distribution of nonsynonymous substitutions in the phylogeny was reconstructed by maximum likelihood. We used a phylogenetic comparative method on these data to identify putative epistatic interactions between residues. Two interactions (Y120/Q125 and N157/S169) were chosen to further investigate within-host evolution using HIV-1 RNA extractions from plasma samples from eight patients. Clonal sequencing confirmed strong linkage between polymorphisms at these sites in every case. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (MPP) to reconstruct within-host evolution in these patients. Experimental error associated with MPP was quantified by performing replicates at two different stages of the protocol, which were pooled prior to analysis to reduce this source of variation. Phylogenetic reconstruction from these data revealed correlated substitutions at Y120/Q125 or N157/S169 repeated across multiple lineages in every host, indicating convergent within-host evolution shaped by epistatic interactions.
Improved Detection of CXCR4-using HIV by V3 Genotyping: Application of Population-based and "deep" Sequencing to Plasma RNA and Proviral DNA
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999). Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20512044
Tropism testing should rule out CXCR4-using HIV before treatment with CCR5 antagonists. Currently, the recombinant phenotypic Trofile assay (Monogram) is most widely utilized; however, genotypic tests may represent alternative methods.
Deep Sequencing to Infer HIV-1 Co-receptor Usage: Application to Three Clinical Trials of Maraviroc in Treatment-experienced Patients
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21288824
The Maraviroc versus Optimized Therapy in Viremic Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Patients (MOTIVATE) studies compared maraviroc versus placebo in treatment-experienced patients with CCR5-using (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), screened using the original Trofile assay. A subset with non-R5 HIV infection entered the A4001029 trial. We retrospectively examined the performance of a genotypic tropism assay based on deep sequencing of the HIV env V3 loop in predicting virologic response to maraviroc in these trials.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21390218
'Virtual' or inferred phenotypes (vPhenotypes) are commonly used to assess resistance to antiretroviral agents in patients failing therapy. In this study, we provide a clinical context for understanding vPhenotype values.
Mutations in Gp41 Are Correlated with Coreceptor Tropism but Do Not Improve Prediction Methods Substantially
Antiviral Therapy. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21555814
The main determinants of HIV-1 coreceptor usage are located in the V3-loop of gp120, although mutations in V2 and gp41 are also known. Incorporation of V2 is known to improve prediction algorithms; however, this has not been confirmed for gp41 mutations.
Detection of Inferred CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 Variants and Evolutionary Intermediates Using Ultra-deep Pyrosequencing
PLoS Pathogens. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21731496
The emergence of CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants is associated with accelerated disease progression. CXCR4-using variants are believed to evolve from CCR5-using variants, but due to the extremely low frequency at which transitional intermediate variants are often present, the kinetics and mutational pathways involved in this process have been difficult to study and are therefore poorly understood. Here, we used ultra-deep sequencing of the V3 loop of the viral envelope in combination with the V3-based coreceptor prediction tools PSSM(NSI/SI) and geno2pheno([coreceptor]) to detect HIV-1 variants during the transition from CCR5- to CXCR4-usage. We analyzed PBMC and serum samples obtained from eight HIV-1-infected individuals at three-month intervals up to one year prior to the first phenotypic detection of CXCR4-using variants in the MT-2 assay. Between 3,482 and 10,521 reads were generated from each sample. In all individuals, V3 sequences of predicted CXCR4-using HIV-1 were detected at least three months prior to phenotypic detection of CXCR4-using variants in the MT-2 assay. Subsequent analysis of the genetic relationships of these V3 sequences using minimum spanning trees revealed that the transition in coreceptor usage followed a stepwise mutational pathway involving sequential intermediate variants, which were generally present at relatively low frequencies compared to the major predicted CCR5- and CXCR4-using variants. In addition, we observed differences between individuals with respect to the number of predicted CXCR4-using variants, the diversity among major predicted CCR5-using variants, and the presence or absence of intermediate variants with discordant phenotype predictions. These results provide the first detailed description of the mutational pathways in V3 during the transition from CCR5- to CXCR4-usage in natural HIV-1 infection.
Deep V3 Sequencing for HIV Type 1 Tropism in Treatment-naive Patients: a Reanalysis of the MERIT Trial of Maraviroc
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21890778
Deep sequencing is a highly sensitive technique that can detect and quantify the proportion of non-R5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) variants, including small minorities, that may emerge and cause virologic failure in patients who receive maraviroc-containing regimens. We retrospectively tested the ability of deep sequencing to predict response to a maraviroc-containing regimen in the Maraviroc versus Efavirenz in Treatment-Naive Patients (MERIT) trial. Results were compared with those obtained using the Enhanced Sensitivity Trofile Assay (ESTA), which is widely used in clinical practice.