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In JoVE (1)
- Toepassing van Stopped-flow Kinetics Methoden om het werkingsmechanisme van een DNA Repair eiwit Onderzoek
Other Publications (22)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Analytical Biochemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- DNA Repair
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
- Nucleic Acids Research
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Biophysical Journal
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- Journal of Molecular Biology
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Articles by Manju M. Hingorani in JoVE
Toepassing van Stopped-flow Kinetics Methoden om het werkingsmechanisme van een DNA Repair eiwit Onderzoek
F. Noah Biro, Jie Zhai, Christopher W. Doucette, Manju M. Hingorani
Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Department, Wesleyan University
MSH2-MSH6 is verantwoordelijk voor het initiëren reparatie van replicatie fouten in DNA. Hier presenteren wij een voorbijgaande kinetiek benadering begrijpen hoe deze kritische eiwit werkt. Het rapport toont gestopt-flow experimenten voor het meten van de gekoppelde DNA-binding en ATPase kinetiek onderliggende MSH2-MSH6 werkingsmechanisme bij DNA-herstel.
Other articles by Manju M. Hingorani on PubMed
On the Specificity of Interaction Between the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Clamp Loader Replication Factor C and Primed DNA Templates During DNA Replication
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12370190
Replication factor C (RFC) catalyzes assembly of circular proliferating cell nuclear antigen clamps around primed DNA, enabling processive synthesis by DNA polymerase during DNA replication and repair. In order to perform this function efficiently, RFC must rapidly recognize primed DNA as the substrate for clamp assembly, particularly during lagging strand synthesis. Earlier reports as well as quantitative DNA binding experiments from this study indicate, however, that RFC interacts with primer-template as well as single- and double-stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA, respectively) with similar high affinity (apparent K(d) approximately 10 nm). How then can RFC distinguish primed DNA sites from excess ssDNA and dsDNA at the replication fork? Further analysis reveals that despite its high affinity for various DNA structures, RFC selects primer-template DNA even in the presence of a 50-fold excess of ssDNA and dsDNA. The interaction between ssDNA or dsDNA and RFC is far less stable than between primed DNA and RFC (k(off) > 0.2 s(-1) versus 0.025 s(-1), respectively). We propose that the ability to rapidly bind and release single- and double-stranded DNA coupled with selective, stable binding to primer-template DNA allows RFC to scan DNA efficiently for primed sites where it can pause to initiate clamp assembly.
Mechanism of Loading the Escherichia Coli DNA Polymerase III Beta Sliding Clamp on DNA. Bona Fide Primer/templates Preferentially Trigger the Gamma Complex to Hydrolyze ATP and Load the Clamp
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12519754
The Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III gamma complex clamp loader assembles the ring-shaped beta sliding clamp onto DNA. The core polymerase is tethered to the template by beta, enabling processive replication of the genome. Here we investigate the DNA substrate specificity of the clamp-loading reaction by measuring the pre-steady-state kinetics of DNA binding and ATP hydrolysis using elongation-proficient and deficient primer/template DNA. The ATP-bound clamp loader binds both elongation-proficient and deficient DNA substrates either in the presence or absence of beta. However, elongation-proficient DNA preferentially triggers gamma complex to release beta onto DNA with concomitant hydrolysis of ATP. Binding to elongation-proficient DNA converts the gamma complex from a high affinity ATP-bound state to an ADP-bound state having a 10(5)-fold lower affinity for DNA. Steady-state binding assays are misleading, suggesting that gamma complex binds much more avidly to non-extendable primer/template DNA because recycling to the high affinity binding state is rate-limiting. Pre-steady-state rotational anisotropy data reveal a dynamic association-dissociation of gamma complex with extendable primer/templates leading to the diametrically opposite conclusion. The strongly favored dynamic recognition of extendable DNA does not require the presence of beta. Thus, the gamma complex uses ATP binding and hydrolysis as a mechanism for modulating its interaction with DNA in which the ATP-bound form binds with high affinity to DNA but elongation-proficient DNA substrates preferentially trigger hydrolysis of ATP and conversion to a low affinity state.
Mismatch Recognition-coupled Stabilization of Msh2-Msh6 in an ATP-bound State at the Initiation of DNA Repair
Biochemistry. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12820877
Mismatch repair proteins correct errors in DNA via an ATP-driven process. In eukaryotes, the Msh2-Msh6 complex recognizes base pair mismatches and small insertion/deletions in DNA and initiates repair. Both Msh2 and Msh6 proteins contain Walker ATP-binding motifs that are necessary for repair activity. To understand how these proteins couple ATP binding and hydrolysis to DNA binding/mismatch recognition, the ATPase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 was examined under pre-steady-state conditions. Acid-quench experiments revealed that in the absence of DNA, Msh2-Msh6 hydrolyzes ATP rapidly (burst rate = 3 s(-1) at 20 degrees C) and then undergoes a slow step in the pathway that limits catalytic turnover (k(cat) = 0.1 s(-1)). ATP is hydrolyzed similarly in the presence of fully matched duplex DNA; however, in the presence of a G:T mismatch or +T insertion-containing DNA, ATP hydrolysis is severely suppressed (rate = 0.1 s(-1)). Pulse-chase experiments revealed that Msh2-Msh6 binds ATP rapidly in the absence or in the presence of DNA (rate = 0.1 microM(-1) s(-1)), indicating that for the Msh2-Msh6.mismatched DNA complex, a step after ATP binding but before or at ATP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in the pathway. Thus, mismatch recognition is coupled to a dramatic increase in the residence time of ATP on Msh2-Msh6. This mismatch-induced, stable ATP-bound state of Msh2-Msh6 likely signals downstream events in the repair pathway.
Overproduction and Analysis of Eukaryotic Multiprotein Complexes in Escherichia Coli Using a Dual-vector Strategy
Analytical Biochemistry. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12842110
Biochemical studies of eukaryotic proteins are often constrained by low availability of these typically large, multicomponent protein complexes in pure form. Escherichia coli is a commonly used host for large-scale protein production; however, its utility for eukaryotic protein production is limited because of problems associated with transcription, translation, and proper folding of proteins. Here we describe the development and testing of pLANT, a vector that addresses many of these problems simultaneously. The pLANT vector contains a T7 promoter-controlled expression unit, a p15A origin of replication, and genes for rare transfer RNAs and kanamycin resistance. Thus, the pLANT vector can be used in combination with the pET vector to coexpress multiple proteins in E. coli. Using this approach, we have successfully produced high-milligram quantities of two different Saccharomyces cerevisiae complexes in E. coli: the heterodimeric Msh2-Msh6 mismatch repair protein (248kDa) and the five-subunit replication factor C clamp loader (250 kDa). Quantitative analyses indicate that these proteins are fully active, affirming the utility of pLANT+pET-based production of eukaryotic proteins in E. coli for in vitro studies of their structure and function.
Replication Factor C Clamp Loader Subunit Arrangement Within the Circular Pentamer and Its Attachment Points to Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14530260
Replication factor C (RFC) is a heteropentameric AAA+ protein clamp loader of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) processivity factor. The prokaryotic homologue, gamma complex, is also a heteropentamer, and structural studies show the subunits are arranged in a circle. In this report, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RFC protomers are examined for their interaction with each other and PCNA. The data lead to a model of subunit order around the circle. A characteristic of AAA+ oligomers is the use of bipartite ATP sites in which one subunit supplies a catalytic arginine residue for hydrolysis of ATP bound to the neighboring subunit. We find that the RFC(3/4) complex is a DNA-dependent ATPase, and we use this activity to determine that RFC3 supplies a catalytic arginine to the ATP site of RFC4. This information, combined with the subunit arrangement, defines the composition of the remaining ATP sites. Furthermore, the RFC(2/3) and RFC(3/4) subassemblies bind stably to PCNA, yet neither RFC2 nor RFC4 bind tightly to PCNA, indicating that RFC3 forms a strong contact point to PCNA. The RFC1 subunit also binds PCNA tightly, and we identify two hydrophobic residues in RFC1 that are important for this interaction. Therefore, at least two subunits in RFC make strong contacts with PCNA, unlike the Escherichia coli gamma complex in which only one subunit makes strong contact with the beta clamp. Multiple strong contact points to PCNA may reflect the extra demands of loading the PCNA trimeric ring onto DNA compared with the dimeric beta ring.
Journal of Molecular Biology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15364574
Clamp loader proteins catalyze assembly of circular sliding clamps on DNA to enable processive DNA replication. During the reaction, the clamp loader binds primer-template DNA and positions it in the center of a clamp to form a topological link between the two. Clamp loaders are multi-protein complexes, such as the five protein Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and human clamp loaders, and the two protein Pyrococcus furiosus and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum clamp loaders, and thus far the site(s) responsible for binding and selecting primer-template DNA as the target for clamp assembly remain unknown. To address this issue, we analyzed the interaction between the E.coli gamma complex clamp loader and DNA using UV-induced protein-DNA cross-linking and mass spectrometry. The results show that the delta subunit in the gamma complex makes close contact with the primer-template junction. Tryptophan 279 in the delta C-terminal domain lies near the 3'-OH primer end and may play a key role in primer-template recognition. Previous studies have shown that delta also binds and opens the beta clamp (hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal domain of delta contact beta. The clamp-binding and DNA-binding sites on delta appear positioned for facile entry of primer-template into the center of the clamp and exit of the template strand from the complex. A similar analysis of the S.cerevisiae RFC complex suggests that the dual functionality observed for delta in the gamma complex may be true also for clamp loaders from other organisms.
Asymmetric ATP Binding and Hydrolysis Activity of the Thermus Aquaticus MutS Dimer is Key to Modulation of Its Interactions with Mismatched DNA
Biochemistry. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15476405
Prokaryotic MutS and eukaryotic Msh proteins recognize base pair mismatches and insertions or deletions in DNA and initiate mismatch repair. These proteins function as dimers (and perhaps higher order oligomers) and possess an ATPase activity that is essential for DNA repair. Previous studies of Escherichia coli MutS and eukaryotic Msh2-Msh6 proteins have revealed asymmetry within the dimer with respect to both DNA binding and ATPase activities. We have found the Thermus aquaticus MutS protein amenable to detailed investigation of the nature and role of this asymmetry. Here, we show that (a) in a MutS dimer one subunit (S1) binds nucleotide with high affinity and the other (S2) with 10-fold weaker affinity, (b) S1 hydrolyzes ATP rapidly while S2 hydrolyzes ATP at a 30-50-fold slower rate, (c) mismatched DNA binding to MutS inhibits ATP hydrolysis at S1 but slow hydrolysis continues at S2, and (d) interaction between mismatched DNA and MutS is weakened when both subunits are occupied by ATP but remains stable when S1 is occupied by ATP and S2 by ADP. These results reveal key MutS species in the ATPase pathway; S1(ADP)-S2(ATP) is formed preferentially in the absence of DNA or in the presence of fully matched DNA, while S1(ATP)-S2(ATP) and S1(ATP)-S2(ADP) are formed preferentially in the presence of mismatched DNA. These MutS species exhibit differences in interaction with mismatched DNA that are likely important for the mechanism of MutS action in DNA repair.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15710614
Escherichia coli SecA uses ATP to drive the transport of proteins across cell membranes. Glutamate 210 in the "DEVD" Walker B motif of the SecA ATP-binding site has been proposed as the catalytic base for ATP hydrolysis (Hunt, J. F., Weinkauf, S., Henry, L., Fak, J. J., McNicholas, P., Oliver, D. B., and Deisenhofer, J. (2002) Science 297, 2018-2026). Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that mutation of glutamate 210 to aspartate results in a 90-fold reduction of the ATP hydrolysis rate compared with wild type SecA, 0.3 s(-1) versus 27 s(-1), respectively. SecA-E210D also releases ADP at a slower rate compared with wild type SecA, suggesting that in addition to serving as the catalytic base, glutamate 210 might aid turnover as well. Our results contradict an earlier report that proposed aspartate 133 as the catalytic base (Sato, K., Mori, H., Yoshida, M., and Mizushima, S. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 17439-17444). Re-evaluation of the SecA-D133N mutant used in that study confirms its loss of ATPase and membrane translocation activities, but surprisingly, the analogous SecA-D133A mutant retains full activity, revealing that this residue does not play a key role in catalysis.
Contribution of Msh2 and Msh6 Subunits to the Asymmetric ATPase and DNA Mismatch Binding Activities of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 Mismatch Repair Protein
DNA Repair. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16214425
Previous analyses of both Thermus aquaticus MutS homodimer and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 heterodimer have revealed that the subunits in these protein complexes bind and hydrolyze ATP asymmetrically, emulating their asymmetric DNA binding properties. In the MutS homodimer, one subunit (S1) binds ATP with high affinity and hydrolyzes it rapidly, while the other subunit (S2) binds ATP with lower affinity and hydrolyzes it at an apparently slower rate. Interaction of MutS with mismatched DNA results in suppression of ATP hydrolysis at S1-but which of these subunits, S1 or S2, makes specific contact with the mismatch (e.g., base stacking by a conserved phenylalanine residue) remains unknown. In order to answer this question and to clarify the links between the DNA binding and ATPase activities of each subunit in the dimer, we made mutations in the ATPase sites of Msh2 and Msh6 and assessed their impact on the activity of the Msh2-Msh6 heterodimer (in Msh2-Msh6, only Msh6 makes base specific contact with the mismatch). The key findings are: (a) Msh6 hydrolyzes ATP rapidly, and thus resembles the S1 subunit of the MutS homodimer, (b) Msh2 hydrolyzes ATP at a slower rate, and thus resembles the S2 subunit of MutS, (c) though itself an apparently weak ATPase, Msh2 has a strong influence on the ATPase activity of Msh6, (d) Msh6 binding to mismatched DNA results in suppression of rapid ATP hydrolysis, revealing a "cis" linkage between its mismatch recognition and ATPase activities, (e) the resultant Msh2-Msh6 complex, with both subunits in the ATP-bound state, exhibits altered interactions with the mismatch.
The Effects of Nucleotides on MutS-DNA Binding Kinetics Clarify the Role of MutS ATPase Activity in Mismatch Repair
Journal of Molecular Biology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17207499
MutS protein initiates mismatch repair with recognition of a non-Watson-Crick base-pair or base insertion/deletion site in DNA, and its interactions with DNA are modulated by ATPase activity. Here, we present a kinetic analysis of these interactions, including the effects of ATP binding and hydrolysis, reported directly from the mismatch site by 2-aminopurine fluorescence. When free of nucleotides, the Thermus aquaticus MutS dimer binds a mismatch rapidly (k(ON)=3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) and forms a stable complex with a half-life of 10 s (k(OFF)=0.07 s(-1)). When one or both nucleotide-binding sites on the MutS*mismatch complex are occupied by ATP, the complex remains fairly stable, with a half-life of 5-7 s (k(OFF)=0.1-0.14 s(-1)), although MutS(ATP) becomes incapable of (re-)binding the mismatch. When one or both nucleotide-binding sites on the MutS dimer are occupied by ADP, the MutS*mismatch complex forms rapidly (k(ON)=7.3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) and also dissociates rapidly, with a half-life of 0.4 s (k(OFF)=1.7 s(-1)). Integration of these MutS DNA-binding kinetics with previously described ATPase kinetics reveals that: (a) in the absence of a mismatch, MutS in the ADP-bound form engages in highly dynamic interactions with DNA, perhaps probing base-pairs for errors; (b) in the presence of a mismatch, MutS stabilized in the ATP-bound form releases the mismatch slowly, perhaps allowing for onsite interactions with downstream repair proteins; (c) ATP-bound MutS then moves off the mismatch, perhaps as a mobile clamp facilitating repair reactions at distant sites on DNA, until ATP is hydrolyzed (or dissociates) and the protein turns over.
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18059451
Conserved Residues in the Delta Subunit Help the E. Coli Clamp Loader, Gamma Complex, Target Primer-template DNA for Clamp Assembly
Nucleic Acids Research. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18424802
The Escherichia coli clamp loader, gamma complex (gamma(3)deltadelta'lambdapsi), catalyzes ATP-driven assembly of beta clamps onto primer-template DNA (p/tDNA), enabling processive replication. The mechanism by which gamma complex targets p/tDNA for clamp assembly is not resolved. According to previous studies, charged/polar amino acids inside the clamp loader chamber interact with the double-stranded (ds) portion of p/tDNA. We find that dsDNA, not ssDNA, can trigger a burst of ATP hydrolysis by gamma complex and clamp assembly, but only at far higher concentrations than p/tDNA. Thus, contact between gamma complex and dsDNA is necessary and sufficient, but not optimal, for the reaction, and additional contacts with p/tDNA likely facilitate its selection as the optimal substrate for clamp assembly. We investigated whether a conserved sequence-HRVW(279)QNRR--in delta subunit contributes to such interactions, since Tryptophan-279 specifically cross-links to the primer-template junction. Mutation of delta-W279 weakens gamma complex binding to p/tDNA, hampering its ability to load clamps and promote proccessive DNA replication, and additional mutations in the sequence (delta-R277, delta-R283) worsen the interaction. These data reveal a novel location in the C-terminal domain of the E. coli clamp loader that contributes to DNA binding and helps define p/tDNA as the preferred substrate for the reaction.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18854319
DNA mismatch repair is initiated by the recognition of mismatches by MutS proteins. The mechanism by which MutS searches for and recognizes mismatches and subsequently signals repair remains poorly understood. We used single-molecule analyses of atomic force microscopy images of MutS-DNA complexes, coupled with biochemical assays, to determine the distributions of conformational states, the DNA binding affinities, and the ATPase activities of wild type and two mutants of MutS, with alanine substitutions in the conserved Phe-Xaa-Glu mismatch recognition motif. We find that on homoduplex DNA, the conserved Glu, but not the Phe, facilitates MutS-induced DNA bending, whereas at mismatches, both Phe and Glu promote the formation of an unbent conformation. The data reveal an unusual role for the Phe residue in that it promotes the unbending, not bending, of DNA at mismatch sites. In addition, formation of the specific unbent MutS-DNA conformation at mismatches appears to be required for the inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by MutS that signals initiation of repair. These results provide a structural explanation for the mechanism by which MutS searches for and recognizes mismatches and for the observed phenotypes of mutants with substitutions in the Phe-Xaa-Glu motif.
Structure of a Mutant Form of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen That Blocks Translesion DNA Synthesis
Biochemistry. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19053247
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a homotrimeric protein that functions as a sliding clamp during DNA replication. Several mutant forms of PCNA that block translesion DNA synthesis have been identified in genetic studies in yeast. One such mutant protein (encoded by the rev6-1 allele) is a glycine to serine substitution at residue 178, located at the subunit interface of PCNA. To improve our understanding of how this substitution interferes with translesion synthesis, we have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the PCNA G178S mutant protein. This substitution has little effect on the structure of the domain in which the substitution occurs. Instead, significant, local structural changes are observed in the adjacent subunit. The most notable difference between mutant and wild-type structures is in a single, extended loop (comprising amino acid residues 105-110), which we call loop J. In the mutant protein structure, loop J adopts a very different conformation in which the atoms of the protein backbone have moved by as much as 6.5 A from their positions in the wild-type structure. To improve our understanding of the functional consequences of this structural change, we have examined the ability of this mutant protein to stimulate nucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerase eta (pol eta). Steady state kinetic studies show that while wild-type PCNA stimulates incorporation by pol eta opposite an abasic site, the mutant PCNA protein actually inhibits incorporation opposite this DNA lesion. These results show that the position of loop J in PCNA plays an essential role in facilitating translesion synthesis.
Journal of Molecular Biology. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19285992
Circular clamps tether polymerases to DNA, serving as essential processivity factors in genome replication, and function in other critical cellular processes as well. Clamp loaders catalyze clamp assembly onto DNA, and the question of how these proteins construct a topological link between a clamp and DNA, especially the mechanism by which ATP is utilized for the task, remains open. Here we describe pre-steady-state analysis of ATP hydrolysis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp opening, and DNA binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication factor C (RFC), and present the first kinetic model of a eukaryotic clamp-loading reaction validated by global data analysis. ATP binding to multiple RFC subunits initiates a slow conformational change in the clamp loader, enabling it to bind and open PCNA and to bind DNA as well. PCNA opening locks RFC into an active state, and the resulting RFC.ATP.PCNA((open)) intermediate is ready for the entry of DNA into the clamp. DNA binding commits RFC to ATP hydrolysis, which is followed by PCNA closure and PCNA.DNA release. This model enables quantitative understanding of the multistep mechanism of a eukaryotic clamp loader and furthermore facilitates comparative analysis of loaders from diverse organisms.
Biochemistry. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19320425
The observation that Cadmium (Cd(2+)) inhibits Msh2-Msh6, which is responsible for identifying base pair mismatches and other discrepancies in DNA, has led to the proposal that selective targeting of this protein and consequent suppression of DNA repair or apoptosis promote the carcinogenic effects of the heavy metal toxin. It has been suggested that Cd(2+) binding to specific sites on Msh2-Msh6 blocks its DNA binding and ATPase activities. To investigate the mechanism of inhibition, we measured Cd(2+) binding to Msh2-Msh6, directly and by monitoring changes in protein structure and enzymatic activity. Global fitting of the data to a multiligand binding model revealed that binding of about 100 Cd(2+) ions per Msh2-Msh6 results in its inactivation. This finding indicates that the inhibitory effect of Cd(2+) occurs via a nonspecific mechanism. Cd(2+) and Msh2-Msh6 interactions involve cysteine sulfhydryl groups, and the high Cd(2+):Msh2-Msh6 ratio implicates other ligands such as histidine, aspartate, glutamate, and the peptide backbone as well. Our study also shows that cadmium inactivates several unrelated enzymes similarly, consistent with a nonspecific mechanism of inhibition. Targeting of a variety of proteins, including Msh2-Msh6, in this generic manner would explain the marked broad-spectrum impact of Cd(2+) on biological processes. We propose that the presence of multiple nonspecific Cd(2+) binding sites on proteins and their propensity to change conformation on interaction with Cd(2+) are critical determinants of the susceptibility of corresponding biological systems to cadmium toxicity.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19399438
Regression analysis is indispensible for quantitative understanding of biological systems and for developing accurate computational models. By applying regression analysis, one can validate models and quantify components of the system, including ones that cannot be observed directly. Global (simultaneous) analysis of all experimental data available for the system produces the most informative results. To quantify components of a complex system, the dataset needs to contain experiments of different types performed under a broad range of conditions. However, heterogeneity of such datasets complicates implementation of the global analysis. Computational models continuously evolve to include new knowledge and to account for novel experimental data, creating the demand for flexible and efficient analysis procedures. To address these problems, we have developed gfit software to globally analyze many types of experiments, to validate computational models, and to extract maximum information from the available experimental data.
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 DNA Binding Kinetics Reveal a Mechanism of Targeting Sites for DNA Mismatch Repair
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20080735
The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) identifies replication errors and damaged bases in DNA and functions to preserve genomic integrity. MutS performs the task of locating mismatched base pairs, loops and lesions and initiating MMR, and the fundamental question of how this protein targets specific sites in DNA is unresolved. To address this question, we examined the interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6, a eukaryotic MutS homolog, and DNA in real time. The reaction kinetics reveal that Msh2-Msh6 binds a variety of sites at similarly fast rates (k (ON) approximately 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)), and its selectivity manifests in differential dissociation rates; e.g., the protein releases a 2-Aminopurine:T base pair approximately 90-fold faster than a G:T mismatch. On releasing the 2-Ap:T site, Msh2-Msh6 is able to move laterally on DNA to locate a nearby G:T site. The long-lived Msh2-Msh6.G:T complex triggers the next step in MMR--formation of an ATP-bound clamp--more effectively than the short-lived Msh2-Msh6.2-Ap:T complex. Mutation of Glu in the conserved Phe-X-Glu DNA binding motif stabilizes Msh2-Msh6(E339A).2-Ap:T complex, and the mutant can signal 2-Ap:T repair as effectively as wild-type Msh2-Msh6 signals G:T repair. These findings suggest a targeting mechanism whereby Msh2-Msh6 scans DNA, interrogating base pairs by transient contacts and pausing at potential target sites, and the longer the pause the greater the likelihood of MMR.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21937421
The mechanics of hMSH2-hMSH6 ATP binding and hydrolysis are critical to several proposed mechanisms for mismatch repair (MMR), which in turn rely on the detailed coordination of ATP processing between the individual hMSH2 and hMSH6 subunits. Here we show that hMSH2-hMSH6 is strictly controlled by hMSH2 and magnesium in a complex with ADP (hMSH2(magnesium-ADP)-hMSH6). Destabilization of magnesium results in ADP release from hMSH2 that allows high affinity ATP binding by hMSH6, which then enhances ATP binding by hMSH2. Both subunits must be ATP-bound to efficiently form a stable hMSH2-hMSH6 hydrolysis-independent sliding clamp required for MMR. In the presence of magnesium, the ATP-bound sliding clamps remain on the DNA for ∼8 min. These results suggest a precise stepwise kinetic mechanism for hMSH2-hMSH6 functions that appears to mimic G protein switches, severely constrains models for MMR, and may partially explain the MSH2 allele frequency in Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.
Biophysical Journal. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21961599
The multidomain protein Thermus aquaticus MutS and its prokaryotic and eukaryotic homologs recognize DNA replication errors and initiate mismatch repair. MutS actions are fueled by ATP binding and hydrolysis, which modulate its interactions with DNA and other proteins in the mismatch-repair pathway. The DNA binding and ATPase activities are allosterically coupled over a distance of ∼70 Å, and the molecular mechanism of coupling has not been clarified. To address this problem, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of ∼150 ns including explicit solvent were performed on two key complexes--ATP-bound and ATP-free MutS⋅DNA(+T bulge). We used principal component analysis in fluctuation space to assess ATP ligand-induced changes in MutS structure and dynamics. The molecular dynamics-calculated ensembles of thermally accessible structures showed markedly small differences between the two complexes. However, analysis of the covariance of dynamical fluctuations revealed a number of potentially significant interresidue and interdomain couplings. Moreover, principal component analysis revealed clusters of correlated atomic fluctuations linking the DNA and nucleotide binding sites, especially in the ATP-bound MutS⋅DNA(+T) complex. These results support the idea that allosterism between the nucleotide and DNA binding sites in MutS can occur via ligand-induced changes in motion, i.e., dynamical allosterism.
ATP Binding and Hydrolysis-Driven Rate-Determining Events in the RFC-Catalyzed PCNA Clamp Loading Reaction
Journal of Molecular Biology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22197378
The multi-subunit replication factor C (RFC) complex loads circular proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamps onto DNA where they serve as mobile tethers for polymerases and coordinate the functions of many other DNA metabolic proteins. The clamp loading reaction is complex, involving multiple components (RFC, PCNA, DNA, and ATP) and events (minimally: PCNA opening/closing, DNA binding/release, and ATP binding/hydrolysis) that yield a topologically linked clamp·DNA product in less than a second. Here, we report pre-steady-state measurements of several steps in the reaction catalyzed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae RFC and present a comprehensive kinetic model based on global analysis of the data. Highlights of the reaction mechanism are that ATP binding to RFC initiates slow activation of the clamp loader, enabling it to open PCNA (at ∼2 s(-1)) and bind primer-template DNA (ptDNA). Rapid binding of ptDNA leads to formation of the RFC·ATP·PCNA(open)·ptDNA complex, which catalyzes a burst of ATP hydrolysis. Another slow step in the reaction follows ATP hydrolysis and is associated with PCNA closure around ptDNA (8 s(-1)). Dissociation of PCNA·ptDNA from RFC leads to catalytic turnover. We propose that these early and late rate-determining events are intramolecular conformational changes in RFC and PCNA that control clamp opening and closure, and that ATP binding and hydrolysis switch RFC between conformations with high and low affinities, respectively, for open PCNA and ptDNA, and thus bookend the clamp loading reaction.
Journal of Molecular Biology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22197374
Replication factor C (RFC) is a five-subunit complex that loads proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamps onto primer-template DNA (ptDNA) during replication. RFC subunits belong to the AAA(+) superfamily, and their ATPase activity drives interactions between the clamp loader, the clamp, and the ptDNA, leading to topologically linked PCNA·ptDNA. We report the kinetics of transient events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae RFC-catalyzed PCNA loading, including ATP-induced RFC activation, PCNA opening, ptDNA binding, ATP hydrolysis, PCNA closing, and PCNA·ptDNA release. This detailed perspective enables assessment of individual RFC-A, RFC-B, RFC-C, RFC-D, and RFC-E subunit functions in the reaction mechanism. Functions have been ascribed to RFC subunits previously based on a steady-state analysis of 'arginine-finger' ATPase mutants; however, pre-steady-state analysis provides a different view. The central subunit RFC-C serves as a critical swivel point in the clamp loader. ATP binding to this subunit initiates RFC activation, and the clamp loader adopts a spiral conformation that stabilizes PCNA in a corresponding open spiral. The importance of RFC subunit response to ATP binding decreases as RFC-C>RFC-D>RFC-B, with RFC-A being unnecessary. RFC-C-dependent activation of RFC also enables ptDNA binding, leading to the formation of the RFC·ATP·PCNA(open)·ptDNA complex. Subsequent ATP hydrolysis leads to complex dissociation, with RFC-D activity contributing the most to rapid ptDNA release. The pivotal role of the RFC-B/C/D subunit ATPase core in clamp loading is consistent with the similar central location of all three ATPase active subunits of the Escherichia coli clamp loader.