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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (10)
Articles by Margaret E. Ackerman in JoVE
Determining the Phagocytic Activity of Clinical Antibody Samples
Elizabeth G. McAndrew1, Anne-Sophie Dugast1, Anna F. Licht1, Justin R. Eusebio1, Galit Alter1, Margaret E. Ackerman2
1Massachusetts General Hospital, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, 2Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College
We present a high-throughput flow cytometric assay to determine the phagocytic activity of antigen-specific antibodies from clinical samples, utilizing fluorescent antigen-coated beads and a monocytic cell line expressing multiple Fc receptors—providing receptor usage and phagocytic activity determinations in a standardized and reproducible fashion for any antigen of interest.
Other articles by Margaret E. Ackerman on PubMed
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18236042
The A33 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein of the small intestine and colonic epithelium with homology to tight junction-associated proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily, including CAR and JAM. Its restricted tissue localization and high level of expression have led to its use as a target in colon cancer immunotherapy. Although the antigen is also present in normal intestine, radiolabeled antibodies against A33 are selectively retained by tumors in the gut as well as in metastatic lesions for as long as 6 weeks. Accordingly, we have studied the trafficking and kinetic properties of the antigen to determine its promise in two-step, pretargeted therapies. The localization, mobility, and persistence of the antigen were investigated, and this work has demonstrated that the antigen is both highly immobile and extremely persistent-retaining its surface localization for a turnover halflife of greater than 2 days. In order to explain these unusual properties, we explored the possibility that A33 is a component of the tight junction. The simple property of surface persistence, described here, may contribute to the prolonged retention of the clinically administered antibodies, and their uncommon ability to penetrate solid tumors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18645032
Poor tissue penetration is a significant obstacle to the development of successful antibody drugs for immunotherapy of solid tumors, and diverse alterations to the properties of antibody drugs have been made to improve penetration and homogeneity of exposure. However, in addition to properties of the antibody drug, mathematical models of antibody transport predict that the antigen expression level and turnover rate significantly influence penetration. As intrinsic antigen properties are likely to be difficult to modify, they may set inherent limits to penetration. Accordingly, in this study, we assess their contribution by evaluating the distance to which antibodies penetrate spheroids when these antigen properties are systematically varied. Additionally, the penetration profiles of antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen and A33, two targets of clinical interest, are compared. The results agree well with the quantitative predictions of the model and show that localizing antibody to distal regions of tumors is best achieved by selecting slowly internalized targets that are not expressed above the level necessary for recruiting a toxic dose of therapeutic. Each antibody-bound antigen molecule that is turned over or present in excess incurs a real cost in terms of penetration depth-a limiting factor in the development of effective therapies for treating solid tumors.
Protein Engineering, Design & Selection : PEDS. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20019028
Here we present a bispecific antibody (bsAb) format in which a disulfide-stabilized scFv is fused to the C-terminus of the light chain of an IgG to create an IgG-scFv bifunctional antibody. When expressed in mammalian cells and purified by one-step protein A chromatography, the bsAb retains parental affinities of each binding domain, exhibits IgG-like stability and demonstrates in vivo IgG-like tumor targeting and blood clearance. The extension of the C-terminus of the light chain of an IgG with an scFv or even a smaller peptide does appear to disrupt disulfide bond formation between the light and heavy chains; however, this does not appear to affect binding, stability or in vivo properties of the IgG. Thus, we demonstrate here that the light chain of an IgG can be extended with an scFv without affecting IgG function and stability. This format serves as a standardized platform for the construction of functional bsAbs.
Journal of Molecular Biology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20540948
The rugged protein sequence-function landscape complicates efforts, both in nature and in the laboratory, to evolve protein function. Protein library diversification must strike a balance between sufficient variegation to thoroughly sample alternative functionality versus the probability of mutant destabilization below an expressible threshold. In this work, we explore the sequence-function landscape in the context of screening for molecular recognition from an Ig scaffold library. The fibronectin type III domain is used to explore the impact of two sequence diversification strategies: (a) partial wild-type conservation at structurally important positions within the paratope region and (b) tailored amino acid composition mimicking antibody binding-site composition at putative paratope positions. Structurally important positions within the paratope region were identified through stability, structural, and phylogenetic analyses and partially or fully conserved in sequence. To achieve tailored antibody-like diversity, we designed a set of skewed nucleotide mixtures yielding codons approximately matching the distribution observed in antibody complementarity-determining regions without incurring the expense of triphosphoramidite-based construction. These design elements were explored via comparison of three library designs: a random library, a library with wild-type bias in the DE loop only and tyrosine-serine diversity elsewhere, and a library with wild-type bias at 11 positions and the antibody-inspired amino acid distribution. Using pooled libraries for direct competition in a single tube, selection and maturation of binders to seven targets yielded 19 of 21 clones that originated from the structurally biased, tailored-diversity library design. Sequence analysis of the selected clones supports the importance of both tailored compositional diversity and structural bias. In addition, selection of both well and poorly expressed clones from two libraries further elucidated the impact of structural bias.
Journal of Immunological Methods. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21192942
Phagocytosis can be induced via the engagement of Fcγ receptors by antibody-opsonized material. Furthermore, the efficiency of antibody-induced effector functions has been shown to be dramatically modulated by changes in antibody glycosylation. Because infection can modulate antibody glycans, which in turn modulate antibody functions, assays capable of determining the induction of effector functions rather than neutralization or titer provide a valuable opportunity to more fully characterize the quality of the adaptive immune response. Here we describe a robust and high-throughput flow cytometric assay to define the phagocytic activity of antigen-specific antibodies from clinical samples. This assay employs a monocytic cell line that expresses numerous Fc receptors: including inhibitory and activating, and high and low affinity receptors--allowing complex phenotypes to be studied. We demonstrate the adaptability of this high-throughput, flow-based assay to measure antigen-specific antibody-mediated phagocytosis against an array of viruses, including influenza, HIV, and dengue. The phagocytosis assay format further allows for simultaneous analysis of cytokine release, as well as determination of the role of specific Fcγ-receptor subtypes, making it a highly useful system for parsing differences in the ability of clinical and vaccine induced antibody samples to recruit this critical effector function.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21494692
Chimeric proteins boast widespread use in areas ranging from cell biology to drug delivery. Post-translational protein fusion using the bacterial transpeptidase sortase A provides an attractive alternative when traditional gene fusion fails. We describe use of this enzyme for in vitro protein ligation and report the successful fusion of 10 pairs of protein domains with preserved functionality--demonstrating the robust and facile nature of this reaction.
Genetically Engineered Alginate Lyase-PEG Conjugates Exhibit Enhanced Catalytic Function and Reduced Immunoreactivity
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21340021
Alginate lyase enzymes represent prospective biotherapeutic agents for treating bacterial infections, particularly in the cystic fibrosis airway. To effectively deimmunize one therapeutic candidate while maintaining high level catalytic proficiency, a combined genetic engineering-PEGylation strategy was implemented. Rationally designed, site-specific PEGylation variants were constructed by orthogonal maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. In contrast to random PEGylation of the enzyme by NHS-ester mediated chemistry, controlled mono-PEGylation of A1-III alginate lyase produced a conjugate that maintained wild type levels of activity towards a model substrate. Significantly, the PEGylated variant exhibited enhanced solution phase kinetics with bacterial alginate, the ultimate therapeutic target. The immunoreactivity of the PEGylated enzyme was compared to a wild type control using in vitro binding studies with both enzyme-specific antibodies, from immunized New Zealand white rabbits, and a single chain antibody library, derived from a human volunteer. In both cases, the PEGylated enzyme was found to be substantially less immunoreactive. Underscoring the enzyme's potential for practical utility, >90% of adherent, mucoid, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were removed from abiotic surfaces following a one hour treatment with the PEGylated variant, whereas the wild type enzyme removed only 75% of biofilms in parallel studies. In aggregate, these results demonstrate that site-specific mono-PEGylation of genetically engineered A1-III alginate lyase yielded an enzyme with enhanced performance relative to therapeutically relevant metrics.
Decreased Fc Receptor Expression on Innate Immune Cells is Associated with Impaired Antibody-mediated Cellular Phagocytic Activity in Chronically HIV-1 Infected Individuals
Virology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21565376
In addition to neutralization, antibodies mediate other antiviral activities including antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as well as complement deposition. While it is established that progressive HIV infection is associated with reduced ADCC and ADCP, the underlying mechanism for this loss of function is unknown. Here we report considerable changes in FcR expression over the course of HIV infection on both mDCs and monocytes, including elevated FcγRI expression in acute HIV infection and reduced expression of FcγRII and FcγRIIIa in chronic HIV infection. Furthermore, selective blockade of FcγRII alone was associated with a loss in ADCP activity, suggesting that FcγRII plays a central role in modulating ADCP. Overall, HIV infection is associated with a number of changes in FcR expression on phagocytic cells that are associated with changes in their ability to respond to antibody-opsonized targets, potentially contributing to a failure in viral clearance in progressive HIV-1 infection.
Protein Engineering, Design & Selection : PEDS. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21908549
Non-immune human antibody fragment libraries have generated antigen-binding proteins useful as prospective research, imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic agents. However, because the generation of such libraries relies on cloning antibody sequences from the circulating immune repertoire rather than truly naïve, germline sequences, their composition may reflect the deletion of autoreactive sequences, making them less suited for isolating binding clones to human antigens, but perhaps useful in applications where an in vitro handle on representative circulating antibody diversity is desired. Here we demonstrate that a large non-immune human scFv library is relatively depleted of sequences capable of recognizing human antigens as compared with orthologs antigens. Additionally, because this non-naïve, non-immune library may capture a representative section of antibody diversity, we explore its possible utility in conducting early pre-screens to predict the antigenicity of prospective therapeutics and find a correlation between the clinical immunogenicity of a small panel of protein therapeutics with their propensity for interacting with the library.
Annual Review of Medicine. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22077718
While neutralizing antibodies can provide sterilizing protection from HIV infection via their variable domains, the antibody constant domain provides a functional link between innate and adaptive immunity and offers a means to harness the potent antiviral properties of a wide spectrum of innate immune effector cells. There has been a growing appreciation of the role of these effector mechanisms across fields from cancer immunotherapy to autoimmunity and infectious disease, as well as speculation that this mechanism may be responsible for the protection observed in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial. This review summarizes these extraneutralizing humoral immune activities, progress in defining the importance of these effector mechanisms during progression in HIV infection, and the potential impact that such vaccine-induced immune responses may have on protection from infection.