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In JoVE (1)
- Эндотелиальных клеток со-культуры посредником Созревание эмбриональных стволовых клеток человека в поджелудочной железы инсулин продуцирующих клеток в направленной дифференцировки подход
Other Publications (13)
- International Journal of Food Microbiology
- Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
- Biomédica : Revista Del Instituto Nacional De Salud
- Experimental Cell Research
- Molecular Systems Biology
- Cancer Biology & Therapy
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cancer Letters
- BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
- Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
- PloS One
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Articles by Maria Jaramillo in JoVE
Эндотелиальных клеток со-культуры посредником Созревание эмбриональных стволовых клеток человека в поджелудочной железы инсулин продуцирующих клеток в направленной дифференцировки подход
Maria Jaramillo1, Ipsita Banerjee1,2
1Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh
Данное исследование описывает направленной дифференцировки подход в стимулировании панкреатической дифференциации эмбриональных стволовых клеток человека. Большое значение имеет вывод, что эндотелиальных клеток со-культуры посредником созревания человеческих эмбриональных стволовых клеток, полученных в поджелудочной предшественников инсулина экспрессирующие клетки.
Other articles by Maria Jaramillo on PubMed
Antibacterial Activity of Capsicum Extract Against Salmonella Typhimurium and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Inoculated in Raw Beef Meat
International Journal of Food Microbiology. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12745238
The inhibitory effect of the extract of Capsicum annuum bell pepper type was evaluated against Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inoculated in minced beef meat mixed with different concentrations of the extract, and stored at 7 degrees C for 7 days. The combined effect of C. annuum extract and sodium chloride on the bacterial growth was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract to prevent the growth of S. typhimurium in minced beef was 1.5 ml/100 g of meat; the addition of 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% w/w of sodium chloride did not have any additional inhibitory effect on Salmonella. In the case of P. aeruginosa, a concentration of 0.3 ml of the extract/100 g of meat showed a bacteriostatic effect, while a concentration of 3 ml/100 g of meat showed a bactericidal effect. When 1% w/w of sodium chloride was added to the meat together with the extract, the concentration needed to kill P. aeruginosa was reduced.
Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15536047
The potency test for the anthrax vaccine currently licensed for human use in the United States (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) involves the protection of actively immunized guinea pigs from a lethal challenge with a virulent strain of Bacillus anthracis. Lethal challenge tests entail the use of specialized containment facilities for the safe and secure handling of the challenge strain. This potential difficulty, plus humane considerations, have prompted us to investigate non-lethal, alternative immunogenicity assays that could be considered as potency tests not only for the current vaccine, but also for vaccines under development. Immunogenicity tests will require suitable measurement of an antibody response to relevant antigens, by methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or a toxin neutralization assay. Any assay chosen for this purpose should be adequately validated and reproducible by other laboratories. Validation of an analytical procedure requires the demonstration that the assay is suitable for its intended purpose. The objective of this work was to study the performance of an anti-PA-ELISA designed to assess the antibody response to anthrax vaccines in mice. Validation studies were performed according to the guidelines of the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH), and we have established the working range of the assay (37-1159 EU/mL) on the bases of the following parameters: linearity (20-1159 EU/mL; r2=0.99; p-value=0.21), accuracy (91-118% recovery), precision (< or =20%CV, repeatability; < or =9 and < or =21%CV, intermediate precision per day and per analyst, respectively), detection limit (5 EU/mL), and quantification limit (37 EU/mL). We believe that assay specificity and the above characteristics are adequate to allow this ELISA to be considered for use in a mouse immunogenicity (potency) test of anthrax vaccines, and for the standardization of reagents.
Biomédica : Revista Del Instituto Nacional De Salud. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16022376
Iron and folic acid deficiencies are the major causes of health problems among pregnant women and children, with a significant negative impact on economic and social development.
Adenovirus-delivered Antisense RNA and ShRNA Exhibit Different Silencing Efficiencies for the Endogenous Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta) Type II Receptor
Oligonucleotides. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16584291
Gene silencing is an essential tool in gene discovery and gene therapy. Traditionally, viral delivery of antisense RNA and, more recently, small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules in the form of small hairpin RNAs (shRNA) has been used as a strategy to achieve gene silencing. Nevertheless, the enduring challenge is to identify molecules that specifically and optimally silence a given target gene. In this study, we tested a set of adenovirus-delivered antisense RNA fragments and adenovirus-delivered shRNA molecules for their ability to target human transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor (TGFbetaRII). We used a dicistronic reporter, consisting of the coding sequences for TGFbetaRII and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to screen for optimal silencing agents targeting TGFbetaRII. Our results show, for both antisense RNA and shRNA molecules, that their effectiveness in the GFP screen correlated directly with their ability to reduce exogenously expressed TGFbetaRII. Unexpectedly, the antisense RNAs were unable to silence endogenous TGFbetaRII. In contrast, the shRNAs were able to silence endogenous TGFbetaRII. The shRNA that demonstrated the most pronounced effect on the dicistronic TGFbetaRII/GFP reporter reduced endogenous TGFbetaRII protein expression by 70% in A549 cells and reduced TGFbeta signaling by >80% in HeLa cells.
Effect of the Anti-receptor Ligand-blocking 225 Monoclonal Antibody on EGF Receptor Endocytosis and Sorting
Experimental Cell Research. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16806168
The anti-receptor antibody, 225 mAb, is known to block binding of ligand to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the effect of this neutralizing antibody on EGFR endocytosis, trafficking and degradation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endocytosis of (125)I-225 mAb occurs, albeit with a slower rate than that of EGF. Using pulse chase assays, we show that internalized (125)I-225 mAb is recycled to the surface much more efficiently than internalized (125)I-EGF. Also, we found that internalization of (125)I-225 mAb, in contrast to that of EGF, is independent of receptor tyrosine kinase activity, as evidenced by its insensitivity to AG1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Analysis of the levels of cell surface and total EGFR showed that treatment with 225 mAb results in a 30-40% decrease in surface EGFR and a relatively slow downregulation of total EGFR. Taken together, these data indicate that 225 mAb induces internalization and downregulation of EGFR via a mechanism distinct from that underlying EGF-induced EGFR internalization and downregulation.
Molecular Systems Biology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18091723
We conducted a comprehensive analysis of a manually curated human signaling network containing 1634 nodes and 5089 signaling regulatory relations by integrating cancer-associated genetically and epigenetically altered genes. We find that cancer mutated genes are enriched in positive signaling regulatory loops, whereas the cancer-associated methylated genes are enriched in negative signaling regulatory loops. We further characterized an overall picture of the cancer-signaling architectural and functional organization. From the network, we extracted an oncogene-signaling map, which contains 326 nodes, 892 links and the interconnections of mutated and methylated genes. The map can be decomposed into 12 topological regions or oncogene-signaling blocks, including a few 'oncogene-signaling-dependent blocks' in which frequently used oncogene-signaling events are enriched. One such block, in which the genes are highly mutated and methylated, appears in most tumors and thus plays a central role in cancer signaling. Functional collaborations between two oncogene-signaling-dependent blocks occur in most tumors, although breast and lung tumors exhibit more complex collaborative patterns between multiple blocks than other cancer types. Benchmarking two data sets derived from systematic screening of mutations in tumors further reinforced our findings that, although the mutations are tremendously diverse and complex at the gene level, clear patterns of oncogene-signaling collaborations emerge recurrently at the network level. Finally, the mutated genes in the network could be used to discover novel cancer-associated genes and biomarkers.
Differential Sensitivity of A549 Non-small Lung Carcinoma Cell Responses to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway Inhibitors
Cancer Biology & Therapy. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18296914
It has been demonstrated that A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells are sensitive to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in in vivo xenograft animal models, but are relatively resistant in conventional in vitro monolayer growth assays. Here, we utilized anchorage-independent cell growth/survival assays as well as motility assays and demonstrated that these tests detect the effects of two EGFR inhibitors, the small molecule inhibitor AG1478 and the ligand-blocking antibody 225 mAb, on A549 cells more sensitively than monolayer growth assays. AG1478 was more effective than 225 mAb at inhibiting EGF-stimulated anchorage-independent cell growth, in part due to its pronounced ability to inhibit cell survival, whereas 225 mAb and AG1478 were both able to inhibit cell motility. In order to determine which EGFR signalling pathway components were most strongly associated with these cell responses, we analyzed in parallel the phosphorylation levels of EGFR itself as well as several downstream pathway elements. We found that the limited ability of 225 mAb to inhibit MAPK, PI3K and STAT3 phosphorylation correlated with its inability to promote anchorage independent apoptosis, but did not correlate with its ability to inhibit motility. Based on our results in A549 cells, we propose that EGF stimulates tumour progression of NSCLC largely through effects on anchorage-independent growth and survival, as well as motility.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18445651
Gadd45 proteins are recognized as tumor and autoimmune suppressors whose expression can be induced by genotoxic stresses. These proteins are involved in cell cycle control, growth arrest, and apoptosis through interactions with a wide variety of binding partners. We report here the crystal structure of Gadd45gamma, which reveals a fold comprising an alphabetaalpha sandwich with a central five-stranded mixed beta-sheet with alpha-helices packed on either side. Based on crystallographic symmetry we identified the dimer interface of Gadd45gamma dimers by generating point mutants that compromised dimerization while leaving the tertiary structure of the monomer intact. The dimer interface comprises a four-helix bundle involving residues that are the most highly conserved among Gadd45 isoforms. Cell-based assays using these point mutants demonstrate that dimerization is essential for growth inhibition. This structural information provides a new context for evaluation of the plethora of protein-protein interactions that govern the many functions of the Gadd45 family of proteins.
Cancer Letters. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19716651
The large molecular size of antibody drugs is considered one major factor preventing them from becoming more efficient therapeutics. Variable regions of heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs), or single-domain antibodies (sdAbs), are ideal building blocks for smaller antibodies due to their molecular size and enhanced stability. In the search for better antibody formats for in vivo imaging and/or therapy of cancer, three types of sdAb-based molecules directed against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were constructed, characterized and tested. Eleven sdAbs were isolated from a phage display library constructed from the sdAb repertoire of a llama immunized with a variant of EGFR. A pentameric sdAb, or pentabody, V2C-EG2 was constructed by fusing one of the sdAbs, EG2, to a pentamerization protein domain. A chimeric HCAb (cHCAb), EG2-hFc, was constructed by fusing EG2 to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) of human IgG1. Whereas EG2 and V2C-EG2 localized mainly in the kidneys after i.v. injection, EG2-hFc exhibited excellent tumor accumulation, and this was largely attributed to its long serum half life, which is comparable to that of IgGs. The moderate size (approximately 80 kDa) and intact human Fc make HCAbs a unique antibody format which may outperform whole IgGs as imaging and therapeutic reagents.
Electrophoresis. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20690146
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) represents a powerful approach to manipulate and study living cells. Hitherto, several approaches have used 2-D DEP chips. With the aim to increase sample volume, in this study we used a 3-D carbon-electrode DEP chip to trap and release bacterial cells. A continuous flow was used to plug an Escherichia coli cell suspension first, to retain cells by positive DEP, and thereafter to recover them by washing with peptone water washing solution. This approach allows one not only to analyze DEP behavior of living cells within the chip, but also to further recover fractions containing DEP-trapped cells. Bacterial concentration and flow rate appeared as critical parameters influencing the separation capacity of the chip. Evidence is presented demonstrating that the setup developed in this study can be used to separate different types of bacterial cells.
Antitumor Activity Against Murine Lymphoma L5178Y Model of Proteins from Cacao (Theobroma Cacao L.) Seeds in Relation with in Vitro Antioxidant Activity
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20961452
Recently, proteins and peptides have become an added value to foodstuffs due to new knowledge about its structural analyses as related to antioxidant and anticancer activity. Our goal was to evaluate if protein fractions from cacao seeds show antitumor activity on lymphoma murine L5178Y model. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was also evaluated with the aim of finding a correlation with the antitumor activity.
Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22196225
Type 1 diabetes affects more than a million people in the United States and many more across the world. While pharmaceutical interventions and insulin supplementation are the most commonplace treatment of diabetes, these are not essentially cures and can potentially lead to long-term complications. Transplantation of insulin-producing Islets of Langerhans from donor pancreas has been established as a promising alternative to diabetes therapy. While successful islet transplantation has the potential of providing a cure, the primary hurdles to be overcome for it to be clinically viable are the scarcity of donor islets and immune rejection of transplanted islets. Recent advances in stem cell culture and differentiation techniques have established stem cells as a likely source of transplantable islets. Different stem cell sources have been induced toward pancreatic differentiation using specific chemical perturbations along with use of specific substrates. An approach to overcoming the second hurdle of immune rejection of transplantable islets is to encapsulate the islets in specific biomaterials. In this review, we discuss the extensive use of various substrates for pancreatic differentiation of different stem cell sources, along with different biomaterial designs used for islet transplantation.
Population Based Model of Human Embryonic Stem Cell (hESC) Differentiation During Endoderm Induction
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22427920
The mechanisms by which human embryonic stem cells (hESC) differentiate to endodermal lineage have not been extensively studied. Mathematical models can aid in the identification of mechanistic information. In this work we use a population-based modeling approach to understand the mechanism of endoderm induction in hESC, performed experimentally with exposure to Activin A and Activin A supplemented with growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)). The differentiating cell population is analyzed daily for cellular growth, cell death, and expression of the endoderm proteins Sox17 and CXCR4. The stochastic model starts with a population of undifferentiated cells, wherefrom it evolves in time by assigning each cell a propensity to proliferate, die and differentiate using certain user defined rules. Twelve alternate mechanisms which might describe the observed dynamics were simulated, and an ensemble parameter estimation was performed on each mechanism. A comparison of the quality of agreement of experimental data with simulations for several competing mechanisms led to the identification of one which adequately describes the observed dynamics under both induction conditions. The results indicate that hESC commitment to endoderm occurs through an intermediate mesendoderm germ layer which further differentiates into mesoderm and endoderm, and that during induction proliferation of the endoderm germ layer is promoted. Furthermore, our model suggests that CXCR4 is expressed in mesendoderm and endoderm, but is not expressed in mesoderm. Comparison between the two induction conditions indicates that supplementing FGF2 and BMP4 to Activin A enhances the kinetics of differentiation than Activin A alone. This mechanistic information can aid in the derivation of functional, mature cells from their progenitors. While applied to initial endoderm commitment of hESC, the model is general enough to be applicable either to a system of adult stem cells or later stages of ESC differentiation.