JoVE   
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Biology

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Neuroscience

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Bioengineering

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Applied Physics

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Chemistry

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Behavior

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Environment

|   

JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Model Organisms I

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Model Organisms II

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Essentials of
Neuroscience

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Essentials of Developmental Biology

You have subscription access to videos in this collection through your user account.

In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (10)

Articles by Mathew Thayer in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Chromosome Replicating Timing Combined with Fluorescent In situ Hybridization

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University


JoVE 4400

A quantitative method for the analysis of chromosome replication timing is described. The method utilizes BrdU incorporation in combination with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to assess replication timing of mammalian chromosomes. This technique allows for the direct comparison of rearranged and un-rearranged chromosomes within the same cell.

Other articles by Mathew Thayer on PubMed

Silencing of Mouse Aprt is a Gradual Process in Differentiated Cells

Mouse Aprt constructs that are highly susceptible to DNA methylation-associated inactivation in embryonal carcinoma cells were transfected into differentiated cells, where they were expressed. Construct silencing was induced by either whole-cell fusion of the expressing differentiated cells with embryonal carcinoma cells or by treatment of the differentiated cells with the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Induction of silencing was enhanced significantly by the presence of a methylation center fragment positioned upstream of a truncated promoter comprised of two functional Sp1 binding sites. Initial silencing of the Aprt constructs was unstable, as evidenced by high spontaneous reversion frequencies ( approximately 10(-2)). Stably silenced subclones with spontaneous reversion frequencies of <10(-5) were isolated readily from the unstably silenced clones. These reversion frequencies were enhanced significantly by treatment of the cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. A bisulfite sequence analysis demonstrated that CpG methylation initiated within the methylation center region on expressing alleles and that the induction of silencing allowed methylation to spread towards and eventually into the promoter region. Combined with the induction of revertants by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, this result suggested that stabilization of silencing was due to an increased density of CpG methylation. All allelic methylation patterns were variegated, which is consistent with a gradual and evolving process. In total, our results demonstrate that silencing of mouse Aprt is a gradual process in the differentiated cells.

Regulation of MyoD Activity and Muscle Cell Differentiation by MDM2, PRb, and Sp1

Muscle cell differentiation is controlled by a complex set of interactions between tissue restricted transcription factors, ubiquitously expressed transcription factors, and cell cycle regulatory proteins. We previously found that amplification of MDM2 in rhabdomyosarcoma cells interferes with MyoD activity and consequently inhibits overt muscle cell differentiation (1). Recently, we found that MDM2 interacts with Sp1 and inhibits Sp1-dependent transcription and that pRb can restore Sp1 activity by displacing MDM2 from Sp1 (2). In this report, we show that forced expression of Sp1 can restore MyoD activity and restore overt muscle cell differentiation in cells with amplified MDM2. Furthermore, we show that pRb can also restore MyoD activity and muscle cell differentiation in cells with amplified MDM2. Surprisingly, we found that the MyoD-interacting domain of pRb is dispensable for this activity. We show that the C-terminal, MDM2-interacting domain of pRb is both necessary and sufficient to restore muscle cell differentiation in cells with amplified MDM2. We also show that the C-terminal MDM2-interacting domain of pRb can promote premature differentiation of proliferating myoblast cells. Our data support a model in which the pRb-MDM2 interaction modulates Sp1 activity during normal muscle cell differentiation.

Gene Disruption by Regulated Short Interfering RNA Expression, Using a Two-adenovirus System

Specific gene ablation by RNA inference (RNAi) involves the binding of short interfering RNA (siRNA), 21 to 22 nucleotides long, to complementary mRNA sequences, leading to sequence-specific posttranslational gene silencing, thus providing a powerful tool for studying gene function with potential therapeutic applications. Here we describe the development of a two-vector adenovirus system for efficient, tightly controlled hairpin siRNA expression (shRNA). Regulated expression of the shRNA is conferred within an adenoviral vector by a modified RNA polymerase III promoter containing a Tet operator element adjacent to the transcription start site. In the presence of the tetracycline repressor protein (TetR), encoded in a second adenovirus, shRNA expression is repressed. Addition of tetracycline abolishes TetR binding, allowing shRNA transcription to proceed, and leading to reduced mRNA and protein expression. Here we establish the efficacy of this system by delivering siRNA targeted against the transcriptional coactivator p300. Our results show tetracycline-mediated inhibition of p300 mRNA and protein accumulation in the presence of both viruses, but no effect in the absence of antibiotic. Regulated adenoviral shRNA vectors offer the advantages of being able to infect a wide array of replicating and nonreplicating cells and of allowing temporal control of gene silencing.

Ionizing Radiation Induces Frequent Translocations with Delayed Replication and Condensation

Certain chromosome rearrangements display a significant delay in replication timing that is associated with a delay in mitotic chromosome condensation. Chromosomes with delay in replication timing/delay in mitotic chromosome condensation participate in frequent secondary rearrangements, indicating that cells with delay in replication timing/delay in mitotic chromosome condensation display chromosomal instability. In this report, we show that exposing cell lines or primary blood lymphocytes to ionizing radiation results in chromosomes with the delay in replication timing/delay in mitotic chromosome condensation phenotype, and that the delay in replication timing/delay in mitotic chromosome condensation phenotype occurs predominantly on chromosome translocations. In addition, exposing mice to ionizing radiation also induces cells with delay in replication timing/delay in mitotic chromosome condensation chromosomes that persist for as long as 2 years. Cells containing delay in replication timing/delay in mitotic chromosome condensation chromosomes frequently display hyperdiploid karyotypes, indicating that delay in replication timing/delay in mitotic chromosome condensation is associated with aneuploidy. Finally, using a chromosome engineering strategy, we show that only a subset of chromosome translocations displays delay in replication timing/delay in mitotic chromosome condensation. Our results indicate that specific chromosome rearrangements result in the generation of the delay in replication timing/delay in mitotic chromosome condensation phenotype and that this phenotype occurs frequently in cells exposed to ionizing radiation both in vitro and in vivo.

Engineering Translocations with Delayed Replication: Evidence for Cis Control of Chromosome Replication Timing

Certain chromosome rearrangements, found in cancer cells or in cells exposed to ionizing radiation, exhibit a chromosome-wide delay in replication timing (DRT) that is associated with a delay in mitotic chromosome condensation (DMC). We have developed a chromosome engineering strategy that allows the generation of chromosomes with this DRT/DMC phenotype. We found that approximately 10% of inter-chromosomal translocations induced by two distinct mechanisms, site-specific recombination mediated by Cre or non-homologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks induced by I-Sce1, result in DRT/DMC. Furthermore, on certain balanced translocations only one of the derivative chromosomes displays the phenotype. Finally, we show that the engineered DRT/DMC chromosomes acquire gross chromosomal rearrangements at an increased rate when compared with non-DRT/DMC chromosomes. These results indicate that the DRT/DMC phenotype is not the result of a stochastic process that could occur at any translocation breakpoint or as an epigenetic response to chromosome damage. Instead, our data indicate that the replication timing of certain derivative chromosomes is regulated by a cis-acting mechanism that delays both initiation and completion of DNA synthesis along the entire length of the chromosome. Because chromosomes with DRT/DMC are common in tumor cells and in cells exposed to ionizing radiation, we propose that DRT/DMC represents a common mechanism responsible for the genomic instability found in cancer cells and for the persistent chromosomal instability associated with cells exposed to ionizing radiation.

P300 Regulates P63 Transcriptional Activity

The transcriptional co-activator p300 has been reported to regulate the tumor suppressor p53 and its ortholog p73. Here we describe a study showing that this coactivator also regulates the transcriptional function of p63. p300 bound to the N-terminal domain of p63gamma, and p63gamma bound to the N terminus of p300 in vitro and in cells. p300, but not its acetylase-defective mutant AT2, stimulated p63gamma-dependent transcription and induction of p21 in cells, consequently leading to G1 arrest. Inversely, the deltaN-p63gamma isoform as well as p300AT2 inhibited the induction of p21 by p63gamma. These results suggest that p300 regulates p63-dependent transcription of p21.

P300/CREB-binding Protein Interacts with ATR and is Required for the DNA Replication Checkpoint

The highly related acetyltransferases, p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) are coactivators of signal-responsive transcriptional activation. In addition, recent evidence suggests that p300/CBP also interacts directly with complexes that mediate DNA replication and repair. In this report, we show that loss of p300/CBP in mammalian cells results in a defect in the cell cycle arrest induced by stalled DNA replication. We demonstrate that complexes containing p300/CBP and ATR can be detected in mammalian cells, and that the downstream kinase CHK1 fails to be phosphorylated in response to stalled DNA replication in cells that lack p300/CBP. These observations broaden the roles for the p300/CBP acetyltransferases to include the modulation of chromatin structure and function during DNA metabolic events as well as for transcription.

Transvection Mediated by the Translocated Cyclin D1 Locus in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

In mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and some cases of multiple myeloma (MM), cyclin D1 expression is deregulated by chromosome translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus. To evaluate the mechanisms responsible, gene targeting was used to study long-distance gene regulation. Remarkably, these targeted cell lines lost the translocated chromosome (t(11;14)). In these MCL and MM cells, the nonrearranged cyclin D1 (CCND1) locus reverts from CpG hypomethylated to hypermethylated. Reintroduction of the translocated chromosome induced a loss of methylation at the unrearranged CCND1 locus, providing evidence of a transallelic regulatory effect. In these cell lines and primary MCL patient samples, the CCND1 loci are packaged in chromatin-containing CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) and nucleophosmin (NPM) at the nucleolus. We show that CTCF and NPM are bound at the IgH 3' regulatory elements only in the t(11;14) MCL cell lines. Furthermore, NPM short hairpin RNA produces a specific growth arrest in these cells. Our data demonstrate transvection in human cancer and suggest a functional role for CTCF and NPM.

An Autosomal Locus That Controls Chromosome-wide Replication Timing and Mono-allelic Expression

Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times, following a temporal replication program. Homologous alleles typically replicate synchronously; however, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes and genes on the female X chromosome replicate asynchronously. We have used a chromosome engineering strategy to identify a human autosomal locus that controls this replication timing program in cis. We show that Cre/loxP-mediated rearrangements at a discrete locus at 6q16.1 result in delayed replication of the entire chromosome. This locus displays asynchronous replication timing that is coordinated with other mono-allelically expressed genes on chromosome 6. Characterization of this locus revealed mono-allelic expression of a large intergenic non-coding RNA, which we have named asynchronous replication and autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, ASAR6. Finally, disruption of this locus results in the activation of the previously silent alleles of linked mono-allelically expressed genes. We previously found that chromosome rearrangements involving eight different autosomes display delayed replication timing, and that cells containing chromosomes with delayed replication timing have a 30-80-fold increase in the rate at which new gross chromosomal rearrangements occurred. Taken together, these observations indicate that human autosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control chromosome-wide replication timing, mono-allelic expression and the stability of entire chromosomes.

Mammalian Chromosomes Contain Cis-acting Elements That Control Replication Timing, Mitotic Condensation, and Stability of Entire Chromosomes

Recent studies indicate that mammalian chromosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control replication timing, mitotic condensation, and stability of entire chromosomes. Disruption of the large non-coding RNA gene ASAR6 results in late replication, an under-condensed appearance during mitosis, and structural instability of human chromosome 6. Similarly, disruption of the mouse Xist gene in adult somatic cells results in a late replication and instability phenotype on the X chromosome. ASAR6 shares many characteristics with Xist, including random mono-allelic expression and asynchronous replication timing. Additional "chromosome engineering" studies indicate that certain chromosome rearrangements affecting many different chromosomes display this abnormal replication and instability phenotype. These observations suggest that all mammalian chromosomes contain "inactivation/stability centers" that control proper replication, condensation, and stability of individual chromosomes. Therefore, mammalian chromosomes contain four types of cis-acting elements, origins, telomeres, centromeres, and "inactivation/stability centers", all functioning to ensure proper replication, condensation, segregation, and stability of individual chromosomes.

Waiting
simple hit counter