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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
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Articles by Michael E. Werner in JoVE
صياغة النانوية Diblock البوليمر من خلال تقنيات Nanoprecipitation
Shrirang Karve1,2, Michael E. Werner1,2, Natalie D. Cummings1,2, Rohit Sukumar1,2, Edina C. Wang1,2, Ying-Ao Zhang1,2, Andrew Z. Wang1,2
1Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Carolina Center for Nanotechnology Excellence, University of North Carolina
توضح هذه المقالة أسلوب nanoprecipitation لتجميع جزيئات البوليمر المستندة إلى استخدام diblock شارك في البوليمرات. وسوف نناقش توليف diblock شارك في البوليمرات ، وتقنية nanoprecipitation والتطبيقات المحتملة.
Other articles by Michael E. Werner on PubMed
Crucial Role of the Specificity-determining Loop of the Integrin Beta4 Subunit in the Binding of Cells to Laminin-5 and Outside-in Signal Transduction
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12867433
Within each hemidesmosome, alpha6beta4 integrin plays a crucial role in hemidesmosome assembly by binding to laminin-5 in the basement membrane zone of epithelial tissue. Recent analyses have implicated "specificity-determining loops" (SDLs) in the I-like domain of beta integrin in regulating ligand binding. Here, we investigated the function of an SDL-like motif within the extracellular I-like domain of beta4 integrin. We generated point mutations within the SDL of beta4 integrin tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP-beta4K150A and GFP-beta4Q155L). We also generated a mutation within the I-like domain of the beta4 integrin, lying outside the SDL region (GFP-beta4V284E). We transfected constructs encoding the mutated beta4 integrins and a GFP-conjugated wild type beta4 integrin (GFP-beta4WT) into 804G cells, which assemble hemidesmosomes, and human endothelial cells, which express little endogenous beta4 integrin. In transfected 804G cells, GFP-beta4WT and GFP-beta4V284E colocalize with hemidesmosome proteins, whereas hemidesmosomal components in cells expressing GFP-beta4K150A and GFP-beta4Q155L are aberrantly localized. In endothelial cells, GFP-beta4WT and mutant proteins are co-expressed at the cell surface with alpha6 integrin. When transfected endothelial cells are plated onto laminin-5 matrix, GFP-beta4WT and GFP-beta4V284E localize with laminin-5, whereas GFP-beta4K150A and GFP-beta4Q155L do not. GFP-beta4WT and GFP-beta4V284E expressed in endothelial cells associate with the adaptor protein Shc when the cells are stimulated with laminin-5. However, GFP-beta4K150A and GFP-beta4Q155L fail to associate with Shc even when laminin-5 is present, thus impacting downstream signaling. These results provide evidence that the SDL segment of the beta4 integrin subunit is required for ligand binding and is involved in outside-in signaling.
The Small Heat Shock Protein Alpha B-crystallin is a Novel Inhibitor of TRAIL-induced Apoptosis That Suppresses the Activation of Caspase-3
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15653686
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor alpha family of cytokines that preferentially induces apoptosis in transformed cells, making it a promising cancer therapy. However, many neoplasms are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by mechanisms that are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the expression of the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin (but not other heat shock proteins or apoptosis-regulating proteins) correlates with TRAIL resistance in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Stable expression of wild-type alpha B-crystallin, but not a pseudophosphorylation mutant impaired in its assembly and chaperone function, protects cancer cells from TRAIL-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, selective inhibition of alpha B-crystallin expression by RNA interference sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL. In addition, wild-type alpha B-crystallin promotes xenograft tumor growth and inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis in vivo in nude mice, whereas a pseudophosphorylation alpha B-crystallin mutant impaired in its anti-apoptotic function inhibits xenograft tumor growth. Collectively, these findings indicate that alpha B-crystallin is a novel regulator of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and tumor growth. Moreover, these results demonstrate that targeted inhibition of alpha B-crystallin promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis, thereby suggesting a novel strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance in cancer.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16395408
Recent gene profiling studies have identified a new breast cancer subtype, the basal-like group, which expresses genes characteristic of basal epithelial cells and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, the genes responsible for the aggressive behavior observed in this group are largely unknown. Here we report that the small heat shock protein alpha-basic-crystallin (alphaB-crystallin) was commonly expressed in basal-like tumors and predicted poor survival in breast cancer patients independently of other prognostic markers. We also demonstrate that overexpression of alphaB-crystallin transformed immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). In 3D basement membrane culture, alphaB-crystallin overexpression induced luminal filling and other neoplastic-like changes in mammary acini, while silencing alphaB-crystallin by RNA interference inhibited these abnormalities. alphaB-Crystallin overexpression also induced EGF- and anchorage-independent growth, increased cell migration and invasion, and constitutively activated the MAPK kinase/ERK (MEK/ERK) pathway. Moreover, the transformed phenotype conferred by alphaB-crystallin was suppressed by MEK inhibitors. In addition, immortalized human MECs overexpressing alphaB-crystallin formed invasive mammary carcinomas in nude mice that recapitulated aspects of human basal-like breast tumors. Collectively, our results indicate that alphaB-crystallin is a novel oncoprotein expressed in basal-like breast carcinomas that independently predicts shorter survival. Our data also implicate the MEK/ERK pathway as a potential therapeutic target for these tumors.
Caspase Proteolysis of the Integrin Beta4 Subunit Disrupts Hemidesmosome Assembly, Promotes Apoptosis, and Inhibits Cell Migration
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17178732
Caspases are a conserved family of cell death proteases that cleave intracellular substrates at Asp residues to modify their function and promote apoptosis. In this report we identify the integrin beta4 subunit as a novel caspase substrate using an expression cloning strategy. Together with its alpha6 partner, alpha6beta4 integrin anchors epithelial cells to the basement membrane at specialized adhesive structures known as hemidesmosomes and plays a critical role in diverse epithelial cell functions including cell survival and migration. We show that integrin beta4 is cleaved by caspase-3 and -7 at a conserved Asp residue (Asp(1109)) in vitro and in epithelial cells undergoing apoptosis, resulting in the removal of most of its cytoplasmic tail. Caspase cleavage of integrin beta4 produces two products, 1) a carboxyl-terminal product that is unstable and rapidly degraded by the proteasome and 2) an amino-terminal cleavage product (amino acids 1-1109) that is unable to assemble into mature hemidesmosomes. We also demonstrate that caspase cleavage of integrin beta4 sensitizes epithelial cells to apoptosis and inhibits cell migration. Taken together, we have identified a previously unrecognized proteolytic truncation of integrin beta4 generated by caspases that disrupts key structural and functional properties of epithelial cells and promotes apoptosis.
Specific Tyrosine Phosphorylations Mediate Signal-dependent Stimulation of SHIP2 Inositol Phosphatase Activity, While the SH2 Domain Confers an Inhibitory Effect to Maintain the Basal Activity
Biochemistry. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19518129
SH2 domain-containing 5-inositol phosphatase (SHIP2) is implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and cancer. Tyrosine phosphorylation of SHIP2 is shown to enhance its phosphatase activity. Using IP4 as a substrate, we show here that tyrosines 986, 987, and 1135 are critical for EGF-induced stimulation of SHIP2 activity. SHIP2 with a disrupted SH2 domain (R47G mutation) displays higher constitutive activity than wild-type SHIP2. Deletion of the C-terminus region similarly activates SHIP2. Thus, the SH2 domain of SHIP2, in conjunction with the C-terminus, confers an inhibitory effect to maintain a low basal activity, and signal-induced tyrosine phosphorylations overcome this effect to activate SHIP2.
Regulation of Cortical Contractility and Spindle Positioning by the Protein Phosphatase 6 PPH-6 in One-cell Stage C. Elegans Embryos
Development (Cambridge, England). Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20040490
Modulation of the microtubule and the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for proper cell division. Protein phosphorylation is known to be an important regulatory mechanism modulating these cytoskeletal networks. By contrast, there is a relative paucity of information regarding how protein phosphatases contribute to such modulation. Here, we characterize the requirements for protein phosphatase PPH-6 and its associated subunit SAPS-1 in one-cell stage C. elegans embryos. We establish that the complex of PPH-6 and SAPS-1 (PPH-6/SAPS-1) is required for contractility of the actomyosin network and proper spindle positioning. Our analysis demonstrates that PPH-6/SAPS-1 regulates the organization of cortical non-muscle myosin II (NMY-2). Accordingly, we uncover that PPH-6/SAPS-1 contributes to cytokinesis by stimulating actomyosin contractility. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PPH-6/SAPS-1 is required for the proper generation of pulling forces on spindle poles during anaphase. Our results indicate that this requirement is distinct from the role in organizing the cortical actomyosin network. Instead, we uncover that PPH-6/SAPS-1 contributes to the cortical localization of two positive regulators of pulling forces, GPR-1/2 and LIN-5. Our findings provide the first insights into the role of a member of the PP6 family of phosphatases in metazoan development.
Folate-targeted Nanoparticle Delivery of Chemo- and Radiotherapeutics for the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer Peritoneal Metastasis
Biomaterials. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21843904
Peritoneal metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in ovarian cancer. While intraperitoneal chemotherapy and radiotherapy have shown favorable clinical results, both are limited by their non-targeted nature. We aimed to develop a biologically targeted nanoparticle therapeutic for the treatment of ovarian cancer peritoneal metastasis. Folate-targeted nanoparticles encapsulating chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy were engineered. Paclitaxel (Ptxl) was used as the chemotherapeutic and yittrium-90 ((90)Y) was employed as the therapeutic radioisotope. Folate was utilized as the targeting ligand as most ovarian cancers overexpress the folate receptor. Nanoparticle characterization studies showed monodispersed particles with controlled Ptxl release. Folate targeting ligand mediated the uptake of NPs into tumor cells. In vitro efficacy studies demonstrated folate-targeted NPs containing chemoradiotherapy was the most effective therapeutic compared to folate-targeted NPs containing a single therapeutic or any non-targeted NP therapeutics. In vivo efficacy studies using an ovarian peritoneal metastasis model showed that folate-targeted NP therapeutics were significantly more effective than non-targeted NP therapeutics. Among the folate-targeted therapeutics, the NP containing chemoradiotherapy appeared to be the most effective. Our results suggest that folate-targeted nanoparticles containing chemoradiotherapy have the potential as a treatment for ovarian peritoneal metastasis.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21949415
Planar cell polarization represents the ability of cells to orient within the plane of a tissue orthogonal to the apical basal axis. The proper polarized function of multiciliated cells requires the coordination of cilia spacing and cilia polarity as well as the timing of cilia beating during metachronal synchrony. The planar cell polarity pathway and hydrodynamic forces have been shown to instruct cilia polarity. In this paper, we show how intracellular effectors interpret polarity to organize cellular morphology in accordance with asymmetric cellular function. We observe that both cellular actin and microtubule networks undergo drastic reorganization, providing differential roles during the polarized organization of cilia. Using computational angular correlation analysis of cilia orientation, we report a graded cellular organization downstream of cell polarity cues. Actin dynamics are required for proper cilia spacing, global coordination of cilia polarity, and coordination of metachronic cilia beating, whereas cytoplasmic microtubule dynamics are required for local coordination of polarity between neighboring cilia.
Folate-targeted Polymeric Nanoparticle Formulation of Docetaxel is an Effective Molecularly Targeted Radiosensitizer with Efficacy Dependent on the Timing of Radiotherapy
ACS Nano. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22011071
Nanoparticle (NP) chemotherapeutics hold great potential as radiosensitizers. Their unique properties, such as preferential accumulation in tumors and their ability to target tumors through molecular targeting ligands, are ideally suited for radiosensitization. We aimed to develop a molecularly targeted nanoparticle formulation of docetaxel (Dtxl) and evaluate its property as a radiosensitizer. Using a biodegradable and biocompatible lipid-polymer NP platform and folate as a molecular targeting ligand, we engineered a folate-targeted nanoparticle (FT-NP) formulation of Dtxl. These NPs have sizes of 72 ± 4 nm and surface charges of -42 ± 8 mV. Using folate receptor overexpressing KB cells and folate receptor low HTB-43 cells, we showed folate-mediated intracellular uptake of NPs. In vitro radiosensitization studies initially showed FT-NP is less effective than Dtxl as a radiosensitizer. However, the radiosensitization efficacy is dependent on the timing of radiotherapy. In vitro radiosensitization conducted with irradiation given at the optimal time (24 h) showed FT-NP Dtxl is as effective as Dtxl. When FT-NP Dtxl is compared to Dtxl and nontargeted nanoparticle (NT-NP) Dtxl in vivo, FT-NP was found to be significantly more effective than Dtxl or NT-NP Dtxl as a radiosensitizer. We also confirmed that radiosensitization is dependent on timing of irradiation in vivo. In summary, FT-NP Dtxl is an effective radiosensitizer in folate-receptor overexpressing tumor cells. Time of irradiation is critical in achieving maximal efficacy with this nanoparticle platform. To the best of our knowledge, our report is the first to demonstrate the potential of molecularly targeted NPs as a promising new class of radiosensitizers.