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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (12)
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Genes & Development
- Nature Genetics
- Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
- Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
- Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- BMC Neurology
- PloS One
- International Journal of Oncology
Articles by Michael K. Cooper in JoVE
Intracranial Orthotopic Allografting of Medulloblastoma Cells in Immunocompromised Mice
Xi Huang1, Anuraag Sarangi2, Tatiana Ketova1, Ying Litingtung1, Michael K. Cooper2, Chin Chiang1
1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University
This protocol describes the isolation and dissociation of mouse medulloblastoma tissue, and subsequent allografting of the tumor cells into immunocompromised recipient mice in order to initiate secondary medulloblastoma.
Other articles by Michael K. Cooper on PubMed
Science (New York, N.Y.). Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12202832
Constitutive Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activity is associated with initiation of neoplasia, but its role in the continued growth of established tumors is unclear. Here, we investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the Hh pathway antagonist cyclopamine in preclinical models of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Cyclopamine treatment of murine medulloblastoma cells blocked proliferation in vitro and induced changes in gene expression consistent with initiation of neuronal differentiation and loss of neuronal stem cell-like character. This compound also caused regression of murine tumor allografts in vivo and induced rapid death of cells from freshly resected human medulloblastomas, but not from other brain tumors, thus establishing a specific role for Hh pathway activity in medulloblastoma growth.
Genes & Development. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12414725
The steroidal alkaloid cyclopamine has both teratogenic and antitumor activities arising from its ability to specifically block cellular responses to vertebrate Hedgehog signaling. We show here, using photoaffinity and fluorescent derivatives, that this inhibitory effect is mediated by direct binding of cyclopamine to the heptahelical bundle of Smoothened (Smo). Cyclopamine also can reverse the retention of partially misfolded Smo in the endoplasmic reticulum, presumably through binding-mediated effects on protein conformation. These observations reveal the mechanism of cyclopamine's teratogenic and antitumor activities and further suggest a role for small molecules in the physiological regulation of Smo.
Nature Genetics. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12652302
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), desmosterolosis and lathosterolosis are human syndromes caused by defects in the final stages of cholesterol biosynthesis. Many of the developmental malformations in these syndromes occur in tissues and structures whose embryonic patterning depends on signaling by the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins. Here we report that response to the Hh signal is compromised in mutant cells from mouse models of SLOS and lathosterolosis and in normal cells pharmacologically depleted of sterols. We show that decreasing levels of cellular sterols correlate with diminishing responsiveness to the Hh signal. This diminished response occurs at sterol levels sufficient for normal autoprocessing of Hh protein, which requires cholesterol as cofactor and covalent adduct. We further find that sterol depletion affects the activity of Smoothened (Smo), an essential component of the Hh signal transduction apparatus.
Angiogenesis. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17762973
The Hedgehog intercellular signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. This pathway has been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer and in embryonic blood vessel development. In the current study, Hedgehog signaling in tumor related vasculature and microenvironment was examined using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and B16F0 (murine melanoma) tumors models. Use of exogenous Sonic hedgehog (Shh) peptide significantly increased BrdU incorporation in endothelial cells in vitro by a factor of 2 (P < 0.001). The Hedgehog pathway antagonist cyclopamine effectively reduced Shh-induced proliferation to control levels. To study Hedgehog signaling in vivo a hind limb tumor model with the B16F0 cell line was used. Treatment with 25 mg/kg cyclopamine significantly attenuated BrdU incorporation in tumor cells threefold (P < 0.001), in tumor related endothelial cells threefold (P = 0.004), and delayed tumor growth by 4 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the Hedgehog receptor Patched was localized to the tumor stroma and that B16F0 cells expressed Shh peptide. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts required the presence of B16F0 cells to express Patched in a co-culture assay system. These studies indicate that Shh peptide produced by melanoma cells induces Patched expression in fibroblasts. To study tumor related angiogenesis a vascular window model was used to monitor tumor vascularity. Treatment with cyclopamine significantly attenuated vascular formation by a factor of 2.5 (P < 0.001) and altered vascular morphology. Furthermore, cyclopamine reduced tumor blood vessel permeability to FITC labeled dextran while having no effect on normal blood vessels. These studies suggest that Hedgehog signaling regulates melanoma related vascular formation and function.
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18316228
Analyze the distribution of polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) gene, which was previously reported as a susceptibility risk for essential tremor (ET), in a large cohort of ET.
Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18973247
The presence of bilateral arm tremor is a key diagnostic feature of essential tremor (ET). We analyzed the presence of unilateral arm tremor in familial ET cohort of 133 autosomal dominant ET kindreds with 412 affected individuals. Inclusion criteria in patients with unilateral arm postural and/or kinetic tremor required the duration of tremor for at least 5 years, without hypokinetic-rigid syndrome, dystonic posturing, or history of sudden onset of tremor. Only subjects with at least one living first degree relative who met diagnostic criteria for definite ET were included. Eighteen subjects met the inclusion criteria and five had postural tremor only, while the majority (13/18) had a combination of postural and kinetic tremor. Our data shows that unilateral tremor associated with ET is relatively rare and can be identified in 4.4% patients in a cohort of familial ET.
Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19795470
Previous reports have suggested that essential tremor (ET) represents a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with long-standing ET who develop PD tend to have a tremor-dominant subtype. To further clarify this association, we examined patients from kindreds with autosomal dominant ET who had signs of isolated PD but did not meet criteria for overlapping ET. We identified 22 patients with PD meeting these diagnostic criteria, and 90% (20 of 22) had tremor-predominant subtype of PD. Unilateral rest tremor was the presenting symptom in 15 of 22 patients, bradykinesia or rigidity in 5 of 22, and gait problems in 2 of 22. Postural tremor was relatively mild, and the severity of kinetic tremor tightly correlated with rest tremor (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). Tremor-dominant subtype of PD in patients with a positive family history of ET suggests that these patients have inherited a genetic susceptibility factor for tremor, which affects the motor phenotype of PD.
Neuro-oncology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20223881
Pilocytic astrocytoma is commonly viewed as a benign lesion. However, disease onset is most prevalent in the first two decades of life, and children are often left with residual or recurrent disease and significant morbidity. The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates the growth of higher WHO grade gliomas, and in this study, we have evaluated the activation and operational status of this regulatory pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas. Expression levels of the Hh pathway transcriptional target PTCH were elevated in 45% of tumor specimens analyzed (ages 1-22 years) and correlated inversely with patient age. Evaluation of a tissue array revealed oligodendroglioma-like features, pilomyxoid features, infiltration, and necrosis more commonly in specimens from younger patients (below the median patient age of 10 years). Immunohistochemical staining for the Hh pathway components PTCH and GLI1 and the proliferation marker Ki67 demonstrated that patients diagnosed before the age of 10 had higher staining indices than those diagnosed after the age of 10. A significant correlation between Ki67 and PTCH and GLI1 staining indices was measured, and 86% of Ki67-positive cells also expressed PTCH. The operational status of the Hh pathway was confirmed in primary cell culture and could be modulated in a manner consistent with a ligand-dependent mechanism. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hh pathway activation is common in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and may be associated with younger age at diagnosis and tumor growth.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20400693
Cerebellar neurons are generated from two germinal neuroepithelia: the ventricular zone (VZ) and rhombic lip. Signaling mechanisms that maintain the proliferative capacity of VZ resident progenitors remain elusive. We reveal that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is active in the cerebellar VZ and essential to radial glial cell proliferation and expansion of GABAergic interneurons. We demonstrate that the cerebellum is not the source of Shh that signals to the early VZ, and suggest a transventricular path for Shh ligand delivery. In agreement, we detected the presence of Shh protein in the circulating embryonic cerebrospinal fluid. This study identifies Shh as an essential proliferative signal for the cerebellar ventricular germinal zone, underscoring the potential contribution of VZ progenitors in the pathogenesis of cerebellar diseases associated with deregulated Shh signaling, and reveals a transventricular source of Shh in regulating neural development.
Clustering of Dystonia in Some Pedigrees with Autosomal Dominant Essential Tremor Suggests the Existence of a Distinct Subtype of Essential Tremor
BMC Neurology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20670416
There is an ongoing debate whether essential tremor (ET) represents a monosymptomatic disorder or other neurologic symptoms are compatible with the diagnosis of ET. Many patients with clinically definite ET develop dystonia. It remains unknown whether tremor associated with dystonia represent a subtype of ET. We hypothesized that ET with dystonia represents a distinct subtype of ET.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21747935
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling regulates cell growth during embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Concentration-dependent cellular responses to secreted Shh protein are essential for tissue patterning. Shh ligand is covalently modified by two lipid moieties, cholesterol and palmitate, and their hydrophobic properties are known to govern the cellular release and formation of soluble multimeric Shh complexes. However, the influences of the lipid moieties on cellular reception and signal response are not well understood.
Identification of Blood Protein Biomarkers That Aid in the Clinical Assessment of Patients with Malignant Glioma
International Journal of Oncology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22307528
Analyzing molecular biomarkers using blood is an important approach for clinical assessment of malignant glioma. We investigated a molecular proteomic biomarker-based approach for glioblastoma using patients' blood samples. The expression levels of a list of candidate proteins were quantified in plasma and serum samples from two different cohorts of patients with malignant glioma and normal controls. The biological function was studied for one of the identified markers. Additionally, the prognostic significance of protein marker expression was measured by survival analysis. As a result, protein biomarkers associated with malignant glioma were identified from the blood specimens and five of the protein biomarkers were common to both cohorts. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that many of the protein biomarkers identified in peripheral blood specimens were expressed in malignant gliomas. Staining levels for one of the biomarkers, MIP-1α, was found to correlate with WHO grade among invasive gliomas, and we demonstrate that MIP-1α promotes human glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration. Additionally, four prognostic protein biomarkers were identified. In conclusion, we demonstrate that both peripheral blood plasma and serum specimens are highly valuable and complementary to each other in the quest for protein biomarkers of malignant glioma. Sets of novel protein biomarkers were identified that may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with malignant glioma.