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In JoVE (1)
- Uso de uma armadilha óptica de Estudos de Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno para imagens de células dinâmica ao vivo
Other Publications (13)
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Current Opinion in Microbiology
- Infection and Immunity
- Infection and Immunity
- Infection and Immunity
- Eukaryotic Cell
- Infection and Immunity
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Infection and Immunity
- Integrative Biology : Quantitative Biosciences from Nano to Macro
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Articles by Michael K. Mansour in JoVE
Uso de uma armadilha óptica de Estudos de Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno para imagens de células dinâmica ao vivo
Jenny M. Tam1, Carlos E. Castro2, Robert J. W. Heath3, Michael K. Mansour1, Michael L. Cardenas1, Ramnik J. Xavier3, Matthew J. Lang4, Jatin M. Vyas1
1Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 3Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University
Um método é descrito para selecionar individualmente, manipular e patógenos imagem ao vivo usando uma armadilha óptica acoplada a um microscópio disco giratório. A armadilha óptica fornece controle espacial e temporal dos organismos e os coloca ao lado células hospedeiras. Microscopia de fluorescência captura dinâmica interações intercelulares com perturbação mínima para as células.
Other articles by Michael K. Mansour on PubMed
Optimal T Cell Responses to Cryptococcus Neoformans Mannoprotein Are Dependent on Recognition of Conjugated Carbohydrates by Mannose Receptors
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11884457
Cryptococcosis is a leading cause of death among individuals with compromised T cell function. Soluble Cryptococcus neoformans mannoproteins (MP) have emerged as promising vaccine candidates due to their capacity to elicit delayed-type hypersensitivity and Th type 1-like cytokines, both critical to the clearance of this pathogenic yeast. In this study, the mechanisms responsible for the potent immunostimulatory properties of MP were explored. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), we determined that MP is a MMR ligand. Functionally, competitive blockade of multilectin mannose receptors (MR) on APCs diminished MP-dependent stimulation of primary T cells from immunized mice and the MP-reactive CD4(+) T cell hybridoma, P1D6, by 72 and 99%, respectively. Removal of O-linked saccharides from MP by beta-elimination inhibited MP-dependent stimulation of P1D6 and primary T cells by 89 and 90%, respectively. In addition, MP-dependent stimulation of P1D6 was abrogated after digestion with proteinase K, suggesting the protein core of MP contributed the antigenic moiety presented by APC. Stimulation of P1D6 by MP also was abolished using APC obtained from invariant chain-deficient mice, demonstrating Ag presentation was MHC class II restricted. Our data suggest that MP is a ligand for the MMR and that T cell stimulation is functionally inhibited either by competitive blockade of MR or by removal of carbohydrate residues critical for recognition. The demonstration that efficient T cell responses to MP require recognition of terminal mannose groups by MMR provides both a molecular basis for the immunogenicity of cryptococcal MP and support for vaccination strategies that target MR.
Current Opinion in Microbiology. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12160853
Recent advances have broadened our knowledge of the unique role that dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils play in protecting the host against fungal infections and the mechanisms by which fungal pathogens attempt to subvert phagocytic defenses. In this article, the interplay between phagocytes and fungi is reviewed.
Purification and Characterization of a Second Immunoreactive Mannoprotein from Cryptococcus Neoformans That Stimulates T-Cell Responses
Infection and Immunity. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12228274
Although T-cell responses are known to be critical for effective host defenses against the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, the antigens that stimulate protective responses are poorly characterized but are thought to be comprised, at least in part, of mannoproteins. Recently, we created a panel of murine CD4(+)-T-cell hybridomas that react with C. neoformans antigens. A mannoprotein antigen, MP98, that stimulated one of the hybridomas was purified, and the gene encoding MP98 was cloned. In the present study, the cryptococcal antigen, MP88, that stimulated a second T-cell hybridoma, X5A3, to secrete interleukin-2 was characterized. MP88 was purified from supernatants of glass bead-disrupted C. neoformans by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. A single band with an apparent molecular mass of 88 kDa was resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subjected to partial internal amino acid sequencing. The gene encoding MP88 was cloned and sequenced. MP88 features a C-terminal serine/threonine-rich region, which presumably serves as a site for extensive O glycosylation, followed by a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor site. A search of C. neoformans genomic databases revealed that MP88 shares this feature with at least 11 other genes, including MP98. The mannoprotein nature of MP88 was established based upon the capacity of (i) the mannoprotein fraction of C. neoformans supernatants to stimulate X5A3 and (ii) mannosylated ligands to competitively inhibit this stimulation. Thus, a second cryptococcal mannoprotein has been identified which stimulates T-cell responses and is a vaccine candidate.
Infection and Immunity. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14977983
Infections due to the encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with impaired T-cell function, particularly those with AIDS. Presumably then, T-cell responses to cryptococcal antigens are critical for protection against this ubiquitous fungus. To test the protective efficacy of these antigens as vaccine candidates, secreted cryptococcal antigens were separated by concanavalin A affinity chromatography into adherent (mannoprotein [MP]) and nonadherent (flowthrough [FT]) fractions, and the fractions were tested in murine models of disseminated cryptococcosis. Compared with adjuvant alone, C57BL/6 mice that received two inoculations of MP and FT exhibited prolonged survival and reduced brain and kidney fungal loads following intravenous challenge with C. neoformans strain B3501. MP-immunized animals had increased brain levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon, and interleukin-2. Histopathologic examination revealed that compared with organs from mice that received only adjuvant, MP-immunized mice were able to recruit a stronger cellular infiltrate in brain, kidney, and liver in response to cryptococcal infection. Conjugated O-linked glycans were necessary for optimal MP-mediated protection, because chemical O deglycosylation reduced the protective efficacy of MP immunization. FT and MP immunization protected B-cell-deficient, but not T-cell-deficient mice, suggesting that protection was T-cell mediated. CBA/J mice also benefited from immunization with FT and MP, although the benefits were more modest than those seen with C57BL/6 mice. Thus, both MP and FT fractions of C. neoformans contain components that protect mice from disseminated cryptococcosis, and this protection appears to be T-cell mediated.
Involvement of CD14, Toll-like Receptors 2 and 4, and MyD88 in the Host Response to the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Neoformans in Vivo
Infection and Immunity. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15322035
The major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), is recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CD14. In these studies, mice deficient in CD14, TLR2, TLR4, and the TLR-associated adaptor protein, MyD88, were utilized to investigate the contribution of TLRs and CD14 to in vivo host defenses against C. neoformans. MyD88(-/-) mice had significantly reduced survival compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice after intranasal (i.n.) and intravenous (i.v.) infection with live C. neoformans. CD14(-/-) mice had reduced survival when infected i.v., while TLR2(-/-) mice died significantly earlier after i.n. infection. Mortality was similar comparing TLR4 mutant C3H/HeJ mice and control C3H/HeOuJ mice following i.v. or i.n. challenge with C. neoformans. The course of pulmonary cryptococcosis was studied in more detail in the CD14(-/-), TLR2(-/-), and MyD88(-/-) mice. MyD88(-/-) mice infected i.n. had higher numbers of CFU in the lungs as well as higher GXM levels in the sera and lungs 7 days after infection than wild-type mice did. Surprisingly, there were no major differences in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, IL-12p70, or gamma interferon in the lungs of C. neoformans-infected knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. Histopathologic analysis of the lungs on day 7 postinfection revealed minimal inflammation in all mouse groups. These studies demonstrate a major role for MyD88 and relatively minor roles for CD14 and TLR2 in the response to cryptococcal infection, with the decreased survival of MyD88(-/-) mice correlating with increased numbers of lung CFU and serum and lung GXM levels.
KRE5 Gene Null Mutant Strains of Candida Albicans Are Avirulent and Have Altered Cell Wall Composition and Hypha Formation Properties
Eukaryotic Cell. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15590817
The UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT) is an endoplasmic reticulum sensor for quality control of glycoprotein folding. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the only eukaryotic organism so far described lacking UGGT-mediated transient reglucosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides. The only gene in S. cerevisiae with similarity to those encoding UGGTs is KRE5. S. cerevisiae KRE5 deletion strains show severely reduced levels of cell wall beta-1,6-glucan polymer, aberrant morphology, and extremely compromised growth or lethality, depending on the strain background. Deletion of both alleles of the Candida albicans KRE5 gene gives rise to viable cells that are larger than those of the wild type (WT), tend to aggregate, have enlarged vacuoles, and show major cell wall defects. C. albicans kre5/kre5 mutants have significantly reduced levels of beta-1,6-glucan and more chitin and beta-1,3-glucan and less mannoprotein than the WT. The remaining beta-1,6-glucan, about 20% of WT levels, exhibits a beta-1,6-endoglucanase digestion pattern, including a branch point-to-linear stretch ratio identical to that of WT strains, suggesting that Kre5p is not a beta-1,6-glucan synthase. C. albicans KRE5 is a functional homologue of S. cerevisiae KRE5; it partially complements both the growth defect and reduced cell wall beta-1,6-glucan content of S. cerevisiae kre5 viable mutants. C. albicans kre5/kre5 homozygous mutant strains are unable to form hyphae in several solid and liquid media, even in the presence of serum, a potent inducer of the dimorphic transition. Surprisingly the mutants do form hyphae in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine. Finally, C. albicans KRE5 homozygous mutant strains exhibit a 50% reduction in adhesion to human epithelial cells and are completely avirulent in a mouse model of systemic infection.
Infection and Immunity. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16299344
Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) is shed during cryptococcosis and taken up by macrophages. The roles of the putative GXM receptors CD14, CD18, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 in GXM clearance from serum and deposition in the liver and spleen in receptor-deficient mice were studied. While alterations in the kinetics of GXM redistribution were seen in the mutant mice, none of the receptors was absolutely required for serum clearance or hepatosplenic accumulation.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16301657
Ag mannosylation represents a promising strategy to augment vaccine immunogenicity by targeting Ag to mannose receptors (MRs) on dendritic cells. Because fungi naturally mannosylate proteins, we hypothesized that Ags engineered in fungi would have an enhanced capacity to stimulate T cell responses. Using the model Ag OVA, we generated proteins that differentially expressed N- and O-linked mannosylation in the yeast Pichia pastoris and compared them to their unglycosylated counterparts produced in Escherichia coli. We found that yeast-derived OVA proteins containing N-linkages, extensive O-linkages, or both were more potent than the unmannosylated Ags at inducing OVA-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation. This elevated response to fungal Ags was inhibited by mannan, suggesting involvement of MRs. However, the macrophage MR (CD206) was not essential, because macrophage MR-deficient dendritic cells were fully competent in presenting yeast-derived OVA Ags. Thus, the use of fungal glycosylation to provide N-linked and/or extensive O-linked mannosylation increased the capacity of the model Ag OVA to stimulate Ag-specific T cell responses in an MR-dependent manner. These data have implications for vaccine design by providing proof of principle that yeast-derived mannosylation can enhance immunogenicity.
Cryptococcus Neoformans Glycoantigens Are Captured by Multiple Lectin Receptors and Presented by Dendritic Cells
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16493064
Cell-mediated immune responses to glycoantigens have been largely uncharacterized. Protective T cell responses to the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans are dependent on heavily mannosylated Ags termed mannoproteins. In the work presented, the innate immune response to mannoprotein was determined. Purified murine splenic dendritic cells (DC), B cells, and macrophages were used to stimulate mannoprotein-specific T cells. Only DC were capable of any measurable stimulation. Depletion of DC resulted in the abrogation of the T cell response. Human and murine DC rapidly captured fluorescent-labeled mannoprotein by a mannose receptor-mediated process. Using transfected cell lines, the type II C-type lectin receptor DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (CD209) was determined to have affinity for mannoprotein. Taken together with prior work demonstrating that mannoprotein was captured by the macrophage mannose receptor (CD206), these data suggest that multiple mannose receptors on DC recognize mannoprotein. Pulsing experiments demonstrated that DC captured sufficient mannoprotein over 2 h to account for 50% of total stimulation. Capture appeared dependent on mannose receptors, as competitive mannosylated inhibitors and calcium chelators each interfered with T cell stimulation. By confocal microscopy, intracellular mannoprotein trafficked to an endo-lysosomal compartment in DC, and at later time points extended into tubules in a similar fashion to the degradation marker DQ-OVA. Mannoprotein colocalized intracellularly with CD206 and CD209. These data suggest that DC provide the crucial link between innate and adaptive immune responses to C. neoformans via a process that is dependent upon the efficient uptake of mannoprotein by mannose receptors.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21051598
Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.
Toll-like Receptor 9 Modulates Macrophage Antifungal Effector Function During Innate Recognition of Candida Albicans and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Infection and Immunity. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21947771
Phagocytic responses are critical for effective host defense against opportunistic fungal pathogens. Macrophages sample the phagosomal content and orchestrate the innate immune response. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes unmethylated CpG DNA and is activated by fungal DNA. Here we demonstrate that specific triggering of TLR9 recruitment to the macrophage phagosomal membrane is a conserved feature of fungi of distinct phylogenetic origins, including Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Malassezia furfur, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The capacity to trigger phagosomal TLR9 recruitment was not affected by a loss of fungal viability or cell wall integrity. TLR9 deficiency has been linked to increased resistance to murine candidiasis and to restriction of fungal growth in vivo. Macrophages lacking TLR9 demonstrate a comparable capacity for phagocytosis and normal phagosomal maturation compared to wild-type macrophages. We now show that TLR9 deficiency increases macrophage tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production in response to C. albicans and S. cerevisiae, independent of yeast viability. The increase in TNF-α production was reversible by functional complementation of the TLR9 gene, confirming that TLR9 was responsible for negative modulation of the cytokine response. Consistently, TLR9 deficiency enhanced the macrophage effector response by increasing macrophage nitric oxide production. Moreover, microbicidal activity against C. albicans and S. cerevisiae was more efficient in TLR9 knockout (TLR9KO) macrophages than in wild-type macrophages. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that TLR9 is compartmentalized selectively to fungal phagosomes and negatively modulates macrophage antifungal effector functions. Our data support a model in which orchestration of antifungal innate immunity involves a complex interplay of fungal ligand combinations, host cell machinery rearrangements, and TLR cooperation and antagonism.
Dynamic Virulence: Real-time Assessment of Intracellular Pathogenesis Links Cryptococcus Neoformans Phenotype with Clinical Outcome
MBio. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21954307
While a myriad of studies have examined host factors that predispose persons to infection with the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, comparatively little has been done to examine how virulence factor differences among cryptococcal isolates may impact outcome. In the recent report by Alanio et al. (A. Alanio, M. Desnos-Ollivier, and F. Dromer, mBio 2:e00158-11, 2011), novel flow cytometry-based techniques were employed to demonstrate an association between the phenotype of C. neoformans-macrophage interactions, as measured by phagocytosis and intracellular replication, and patient outcomes, as determined by positive cultures on therapy and survival. These experiments establish that the prognosis of patients with cryptococcosis is influenced by the phenotypic properties of the infecting fungal isolate.
Use of Fungal Derived Polysaccharide-conjugated Particles to Probe Dectin-1 Responses in Innate Immunity
Integrative Biology : Quantitative Biosciences from Nano to Macro. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22200052
The number of life-threatening fungal infections has risen in immunocompromised patients, and identification of the rules that govern an appropriate immune response is essential to develop better diagnostics and targeted therapeutics. The outer cell wall component on pathogenic fungi consists of β-1,3-glucan, and Dectin-1, a pattern recognition receptor present on the cell surface of innate immune cells, binds specifically to this carbohydrate. A barrier in understanding the exact immunological response to pathogen-derived carbohydrate epitopes is the presence of multiple types of carbohydrate moieties on fungal cell walls. To dissect the immunological mechanisms used to recognize pathogens, a system of "fungal like particles" was developed that consisted of polystyrene beads, which mimicked the three dimensional shape of the fungus, coated covalently with purified β-1,3-glucan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The morphology of the β-1,3-glucan layer was examined by immunofluorescence, flow cytometery, and immuno-transmission electron microscopy. The covalent linkages of the β-1,3-glucan to the polystyrene surface were stable after subjecting the beads to detergents. By pre-treating β-1,3-glucan beads with laminarinase, a specific β-1,3-gluconase, the reactivity of the anti-β-1,3-glucan antibody was abrogated in comparison to treatment with proteinase K indicating that the coating of these beads was predominantly β-1,3-glucan. TNF-α was also measured by stimulating bone-marrow derived macrophages with the β-1,3-glucan beads, and showed a dose dependent response compared to soluble β-glucan, insoluble β-1,3-glucan, uncoated beads, and soluble β-1,3-glucan mixed with uncoated beads. Finally, β-1,3-glucan beads were incubated with GFP-Dectin-1 expressing macrophages and imaged using confocal microscopy. β-1,3-beads were taken up within minutes and retained Dectin-1 recruitment to the phagosome as compared to uncoated beads. These data describe a unique fungal-like particle system that will permit immunologists to probe the critical steps in early recognition of pathogen-derived fungal carbohydrate antigens by innate immune cells.