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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Michael R. King in JoVE
Rapid Isolation of Viable Circulating Tumor Cells from Patient Blood Samples
Andrew D. Hughes1, Jeff Mattison1, John D. Powderly2,3, Bryan T. Greene2,3, Michael R. King1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, 2BioCytics, Inc., 3Carolina BioOncology Institute, PLLC
Circulating tumor cells are isolated from the blood of cancer patients without inflicting cellular damage. Isolation of tumor cells is accomplished using a bimolecular surface of E-selectin in addition to antibodies against epithelial markers. A nanotube coating specifically promotes cancer cell adhesion resulting in high capture purities.
Other articles by Michael R. King on PubMed
Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17949112
Cell rolling is an important physiological and pathological process that is used to recruit specific cells in the bloodstream to a target tissue. This process may be exploited for biomedical applications to capture and separate specific cell types. One of the most commonly studied proteins that regulate cell rolling is P-selectin. By coating surfaces with this protein, biofunctional surfaces that induce cell rolling can be prepared. Although most immobilization methods have relied on physisorption, chemical immobilization has obvious advantages, including longer functional stability and better control over ligand density and orientation. Here we describe chemical methods to immobilize P-selectin covalently on glass substrates. The chemistry was categorized on the basis of the functional groups on modified glass substrates: amine, aldehyde, and epoxy. The prepared surfaces were first tested in a flow chamber by flowing microspheres functionalized with a cell surface carbohydrate (sialyl Lewis(x)) that binds to P-selectin. Adhesion bonds between P-selectin and sialyl Lewis(x) dissociate readily under shear forces, leading to cell rolling. P-selectin immobilized on the epoxy glass surfaces exhibited enhanced long-term stability of the function and better homogeneity as compared to that for surfaces prepared by other methods and physisorbed controls. The microsphere rolling results were confirmed in vitro with isolated human neutrophils. This work is essential for the future development of devices for isolating specific cell types based on cell rolling, which may be useful for hematologic cancers and certain metastatic cancer cells that are responsive to immobilized selectins.
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18195072
Precise spatial and temporal regulation of cell adhesion and de-adhesion is critical for dynamic lymphocyte migration. Although a great deal of information has been learned about integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 adhesion, the mechanism that regulates efficient LFA-1 de-adhesion from intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 during T lymphocyte migration is unknown. Here, we show that nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MyH9) is recruited to LFA-1 at the uropod of migrating T lymphocytes, and inhibition of the association of MyH9 with LFA-1 results in extreme uropod elongation, defective tail detachment, and decreased lymphocyte migration on ICAM-1, without affecting LFA-1 activation by chemokine CXCL-12. This defect was reversed by a small molecule antagonist that inhibits both LFA-1 affinity and avidity regulation, but not by an antagonist that inhibits only affinity regulation. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of the contact zone between migrating T lymphocytes and ICAM-1 substrate revealed that inactive LFA-1 is selectively localized to the posterior of polarized T lymphocytes, whereas active LFA-1 is localized to their anterior. Thus, during T lymphocyte migration, uropodal adhesion depends on LFA-1 avidity, where MyH9 serves as a key mechanical link between LFA-1 and the cytoskeleton that is critical for LFA-1 de-adhesion.
Infection and Immunity. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22104111
Neutrophils have recently been shown to release DNA-based extracellular traps that contribute to microbicidal killing and have also been implicated in autoimmunity. The role of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in the host response to nonbacterial pathogens has received much less attention. Here, we show that the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii elicits the production of NETs from human and mouse neutrophils. Tachyzoites of each of the three major parasite strain types were efficiently entrapped within NETs, resulting in decreased parasite viability. We also show that Toxoplasma activates a MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in neutrophils and that the inhibition of this pathway leads to decreased NET formation. To determine if Toxoplasma induced NET formation in vivo, we employed a mouse intranasal infection model. We found that the administration of tachyzoites by this route induced a rapid tissue recruitment of neutrophils with evidence of extracellular DNA release. Taken together, these data indicate a role for NETs in the host innate response to protozoan infection. We propose that NET formation limits infection by direct microbicidal effects on Toxoplasma as well as by interfering with the ability of the parasite to invade target host cells.