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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (18)

Articles by Michelle Hampson in JoVE

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Real-time fMRI Biofeedback Targeting the Orbitofrontal Cortex for Contamination Anxiety

1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 4Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University School of Medicine


JoVE 3535

Here we present a method for training people to control a brain area involved in contamination anxiety and for probing the relationship between contamination anxiety and brain connectivity patterns.

Other articles by Michelle Hampson on PubMed

Detection of Functional Connectivity Using Temporal Correlations in MR Images

Functional connectivity among brain regions has been investigated via an analysis of correlations between regional signal fluctuations recorded in magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in a steady state. In comparison with studies of functional connectivity that utilize task manipulations, the analysis of correlations in steady state data is less susceptible to confounds arising when functionally unrelated brain regions respond in similar ways to changes in task. A new approach to identifying interregional correlations in steady state data makes use of two independent data sets. Regions of interest (ROIs) are defined and hypotheses regarding their connectivity are generated in one data set. The connectivity hypotheses are then evaluated in the remaining (independent) data set by analyzing low frequency temporal correlations between regions. The roles of the two data sets are then reversed and the process repeated, perhaps multiple times. This method was illustrated by application to the language system. The existence of a functional connection between Broca's area and Wernicke's area was confirmed in healthy subjects at rest. An increase in this functional connection when the language system was actively engaged (when subjects were continuously listening to narrative text) was also confirmed. In a second iteration of analyses, a correlation between Broca's area and a region in left premotor cortex was found to be significant at rest and to increase during continuous listening. These findings suggest that the proposed methodology can reveal the presence and strength of functional connections in high-level cognitive systems.

Changes in Functional Connectivity of Human MT/V5 with Visual Motion Input

The neural basis of human mental function is characterized by interactions between brain regions. Temporal correlations in MR signals between areas may provide one method for investigating these interactions. This approach was used to examine functional connectivity in the motion processing system of the human brain. Correlations between MT/V5 and other brain regions were examined in a resting state (without visual stimulation) and in an active state produced by viewing moving concentric circles. A network of regions consistent with the known functional anatomy of visual processing was correlated with MT/V5 during rest. When subjects were viewing motion, a more limited network was correlated with MT/V5, suggesting MT/V5 was acting in concert with a smaller network specific to the task.

Connectivity-behavior Analysis Reveals That Functional Connectivity Between Left BA39 and Broca's Area Varies with Reading Ability

Correlations between temporal fluctuations in MRI signals may reveal functional connectivity between brain regions within individual subjects. Such correlations would be especially useful indices of functional connectivity if they covary with behavioral performance or other subject variables. This study investigated whether such a relationship could be demonstrated in the context of the reading circuit in the brain. The method proved sufficiently powerful to reveal significant correlations between the reading abilities of subjects and the strength of their functional connection between left Brodmann's area 39 and Broca's area during reading. This suggests that the disconnection of the angular gyrus previously reported for dyslexic readers is part of a larger continuum in which poor (but nonimpaired readers) also show reduced connectivity to the region. In addition, it illustrates the potential power of paradigms that examine correlations between behavior and functional brain connections.

Brain Connectivity Related to Working Memory Performance

Several brain areas show signal decreases during many different cognitive tasks in functional imaging studies, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and a medial frontal region incorporating portions of the medial frontal gyrus and ventral anterior cingulate cortex (MFG/vACC). It has been suggested that these areas are components in a default mode network that is engaged during rest and disengaged during cognitive tasks. This study investigated the functional connectivity between the PCC and MFG/vACC during a working memory task and at rest by examining temporal correlations in magnetic resonance signal levels between the regions. The two regions were functionally connected in both conditions. In addition, performance on the working memory task was positively correlated with the strength of this functional connection not only during the working memory task, but also at rest. Thus, it appears these regions are components of a network that may facilitate or monitor cognitive performance, rather than becoming disengaged during cognitive tasks. In addition, these data raise the possibility that the individual differences in coupling strength between these two regions at rest predict differences in cognitive abilities important for this working memory task.

Probing the Pathophysiology of Auditory/verbal Hallucinations by Combining Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Functional magnetic resonance imaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were used to explore the pathophysiology of auditory/verbal hallucinations (AVHs). Sixteen patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder were studied with continuous or near continuous AVHs. For patients with intermittent hallucinations (N = 8), blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activation maps comparing hallucination and nonhallucination periods were generated. For patients with continuous hallucinations (N = 8) correlations between BOLD signal time course in Wernicke's area, and other regions were used to map functional coupling to the former. These maps were used to identify 3-6 cortical sites per patient that were probed with 1-Hz rTMS and sham stimulation. Delivering rTMS to left temporoparietal sites in Wernicke's area and the adjacent supramarginal gyrus was accompanied by a greater rate of AVH improvement compared with sham stimulation and rTMS delivered to anterior temporal sites. For intermittent hallucinators, lower levels of hallucination-related activation in Broca's area strongly predicted greater rate of response to left temporoparietal rTMS. For continuous hallucinators, reduced coupling between Wernicke's and a right homologue of Broca's area strongly predicted greater left temporoparietal rTMS rate of response. These findings suggest that dominant hemisphere temporoparietal areas are involved in expressing AVHs, with higher levels of coactivation and/or coupling involving inferior frontal regions reinforcing underlying pathophysiology.

Measuring Brain Connectivity: Diffusion Tensor Imaging Validates Resting State Temporal Correlations

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting state temporal correlations (RSTC) are two leading techniques for investigating the connectivity of the human brain. They have been widely used to investigate the strength of anatomical and functional connections between distant brain regions in healthy subjects, and in clinical populations. Though they are both based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) they have not yet been compared directly. In this work both techniques were employed to create global connectivity matrices covering the whole brain gray matter. This allowed for direct comparisons between functional connectivity measured by RSTC with anatomical connectivity quantified using DTI tractography. We found that connectivity matrices obtained using both techniques showed significant agreement. Connectivity maps created for a priori defined anatomical regions showed significant correlation, and furthermore agreement was especially high in regions showing strong overall connectivity, such as those belonging to the default mode network. Direct comparison between functional RSTC and anatomical DTI connectivity, presented here for the first time, links two powerful approaches for investigating brain connectivity and shows their strong agreement. It provides a crucial multi-modal validation for resting state correlations as representing neuronal connectivity. The combination of both techniques presented here allows for further combining them to provide richer representation of brain connectivity both in the healthy brain and in clinical conditions.

Time Course of Regional Brain Activation Associated with Onset of Auditory/verbal Hallucinations

The time course of brain activation prior to onset of auditory/verbal hallucinations was characterised using functional magnetic resonance imaging in six dextral patients with schizophrenia. Composite maps of pre-hallucination periods revealed activation in the left anterior insula and in the right middle temporal gyrus, partially replicating two previous case reports, as well as deactivation in the anterior cingulate and parahippocampal gyri. These findings may reflect brain events that trigger or increase vulnerability to auditory/verbal hallucinations.

Brain Areas Coactivating with Motor Cortex During Chronic Motor Tics and Intentional Movements

Chronic tic disorders are characterized by motor tics that are often preceded by premonitory urges to tic. Functional neuroimaging studies have documented brain activity patterns prior to and during tics, but these studies have not examined whether the activation patterns differ from those seen in normal control subjects performing similar acts.

Alterations in Neural Connectivity in Preterm Children at School Age

Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke's area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600-1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC-III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found that PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (p<0.009), the PIAT-R Reading Comprehension test (p=0.013), and the PPVT-R (p=0.001) compared to term subjects. Connectivity analyses revealed significantly stronger neural circuits in PT children between Wernicke's area and the right inferior frontal gyrus (R IFG, Broca's area homologue) and both the left and the right supramarginal gyri (SMG) components of the inferior parietal lobules (p

Toward Discovery Science of Human Brain Function

Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations in the fMRI signal that are temporally correlated across functionally related areas. Referred to as functional connectivity, these correlations yield detailed maps of complex neural systems, collectively constituting an individual's "functional connectome." Reproducibility across datasets and individuals suggests the functional connectome has a common architecture, yet each individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships, will require multicenter collaborative datasets. Here we initiate this endeavor by gathering R-fMRI data from 1,414 volunteers collected independently at 35 international centers. We demonstrate a universal architecture of positive and negative functional connections, as well as consistent loci of inter-individual variability. Age and sex emerged as significant determinants. These results demonstrate that independent R-fMRI datasets can be aggregated and shared. High-throughput R-fMRI can provide quantitative phenotypes for molecular genetic studies and biomarkers of developmental and pathological processes in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/.

Functional Connectivity to a Right Hemisphere Language Center in Prematurely Born Adolescents

Prematurely born children are at increased risk for language deficits at school age and beyond, but the neurobiological basis of these findings remains poorly understood. Thirty-one PT adolescents (600-1250g birth weight) and 36 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) and the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) at 16years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (p<0.05) compared to term subjects, but there was no significant difference in PPVT-R scores between the groups. Functional connectivity (fcMRI) between Wernicke's area (left BA 22) and the right supramarginal gyrus (BA 40) was increased in preterm subjects relative to term controls (p=0.03), and the strength of this connection was inversely related to performance on both the PPVT-R (R(2)=0.553, p=0.002), and the verbal comprehension index (R(2)=0.439, p=0.019). Preterm adolescents engage a dorsal right hemisphere region for language at age 16years. Those with the greatest cognitive deficits demonstrate increasing reliance on this alternate pathway.

Functional Connectivity Between Task-positive and Task-negative Brain Areas and Its Relation to Working Memory Performance

Functional brain imaging studies have identified a set of brain areas typically activated during cognitive tasks (task-positive brain areas) and another set of brain areas typically deactivated during cognitive tasks (task-negative brain areas). Negative correlations, or anticorrelations, between task-positive and task-negative brain areas have been reported at rest. Furthermore, the strength of these anticorrelations appears to be related to cognitive function. However, studies examining anticorrelations have typically employed global regression or similar analysis steps that force anticorrelated relationships to exist between brain areas. Therefore the validity of these findings has been questioned. Here we examine anticorrelations between a task-negative region in the medial frontal gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a classic task-positive area, using an analysis that does not include global regression. Instead, we control for whole-brain correlations in the group-level analysis. Using this approach, we demonstrate that the strength of the functional connection between the medial frontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is related to cognitive function and that this relationship is not an artifact of global regression.

Functional Connectivity Between Ventral Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala at Low Frequency in the Resting State in Bipolar Disorder

Trait abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) within the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) and the amygdala suggest dysfunction in their connectivity. This study employed low frequency resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (LFRS-fMRI) to analyze functional connectivity between the vPFC and the amygdala in BD. LFRS-fMRI identified a negative correlation in vPFC-amygdala activity, and the magnitude of this correlation was greater in healthy participants than in subjects with BD. Additionally, whole-brain analysis revealed higher correlations between left and right vPFC in BD, as well as with ventral striatum.

Neurobiological Substrates of Tourette's Disorder

This article reviews the available scientific literature concerning the neurobiological substrates of Tourette's disorder (TD).

Preterm Birth Results in Alterations in Neural Connectivity at Age 16 Years

Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600-1250 g birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p=0.003), verbal (p=0.043), and performance IQ tests (p=0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p=0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p=0.01; right: p=0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p<0.001; right: p<0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p=0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p<0.001; right: p=0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r=0.314, p=0.038; right: r=0.336, p=0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r=0.424, p=0.004; right: r=0.301, p=0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in maturation or the engagement of alternative neural pathways for language in the developing PT brain.

Elevated Functional Connectivity Along a Corticostriatal Loop and the Mechanism of Auditory/verbal Hallucinations in Patients with Schizophrenia

Higher levels of inter-region functional coordination can facilitate emergence of neural activity as conscious percepts. We consequently tested the hypothesis that auditory/verbal hallucinations (AVHs) arise from elevated functional coordination within a speech processing network.

Microstructural and Functional Connectivity in the Developing Preterm Brain

Prematurely born children are at increased risk for cognitive deficits, but the neurobiological basis of these findings remains poorly understood. Because variations in neural circuitry may influence performance on cognitive tasks, recent investigations have explored the impact of preterm birth on connectivity in the developing brain. Diffusion tensor imaging studies demonstrate widespread alterations in fractional anisotropy, a measure of axonal integrity and microstructural connectivity, throughout the developing preterm brain. Functional connectivity studies report that preterm neonates, children and adolescents exhibit alterations in both resting state and task-based connectivity when compared with term control subjects. Taken together, these data suggest that neurodevelopmental impairment following preterm birth may represent a disease of neural connectivity.

Time Course of Regional Brain Activity Accompanying Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

The pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations remains poorly understood.

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