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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (15)
- Lab on a Chip
- Lab on a Chip
- Biomedical Microdevices
- Lab on a Chip
- Lab on a Chip
- Lab on a Chip
- Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
- Lab on a Chip
- Lab on a Chip
- Annals of Biomedical Engineering
- Advanced Materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
- Journal of Laboratory Automation
- Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
- Applied Physics Letters
Articles by Michelle Khine in JoVE
Shrinky-Dink Hanging Drops: A Simple Way to Form and Culture Embryoid Bodies
Chi-Shuo Chen, Jonathan Pegan, Jesus Luna, Bing Xia, Kara McCloskey, Wei-chun Chin, Michelle Khine
School of Engineering, University of California Merced - UC Merced
We show a simple and rapid method to load pre-defined numbers of cells into microfabricated wells and maintain them for embryoid body development.
Other articles by Michelle Khine on PubMed
Lab on a Chip. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15616738
Increasing the cell membrane's permeability can be accomplished via single cell electroporation. Polar substances that cannot otherwise permeate the plasma membrane (such as dyes, drugs, DNA, proteins, peptides, and amino acids) can thus be introduced into the cell. We developed a polymeric chip that can selectively immobilize and locally electroporate single cells. This easy-to-use chip focuses the electric field, eliminating the need to manipulate electrodes or glass pipettes. Moreover, this device allows parallel single cell electroporation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our device design by electroporating HeLa cells using low applied voltages (< 1 V). We found the average transmembrane potential required for electroporation of HeLa cells to be 0.51 +/- 0.13 V. Membrane permeation is assessed electrically by measuring characteristic 'jumps' in current that correspond to drops in cell resistance, and microscopically by recording either the escape of cytoplasmic dye Calcein AM or the entrance of Trypan blue stain.
Lab on a Chip. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17389961
Rapid well-controlled intracellular delivery of drug compounds, RNA, or DNA into a cell--without permanent damage to the cell--is a pervasive challenge in basic cell biology research, drug discovery, and gene delivery. To address this challenge, we have developed a bench-top system comprised of a control interface, that mates to disposable 96-well-formatted microfluidic devices, enabling the individual manipulation, electroporation and real-time monitoring of each cell in suspension. This is the first demonstrated real-time feedback-controlled electroporation of an array of single-cells. Our computer program automatically detects electroporation events and subsequently releases the electric field, precluding continued field-induced damage of the cell, to allow for membrane resealing. Using this novel set-up, we demonstrate the reliable electroporation of an array (n = 15) of individual cells in suspension, using low applied electric fields (<1 V) and the rapid and localized intracellular delivery of otherwise impermeable compounds (Calcein and Orange Green Dextran). Such multiplexed electrical and optical measurements as a function of time are not attainable with typical electroporation setups. This system, which mounts on an inverted microscope, obviates many issues typically associated with prototypical microfluidic chip setups and, more importantly, offers well-controlled and reproducible parallel pressure and electrical application to individual cells for repeatability.
Biomedical Microdevices. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17828458
Single-cell electroporation, in which a focused electric field is applied to permeabilize an individual target cell using relatively low applied voltages, has demonstrated improved cell viability and transfection rates over conventional bulk electroporation set-ups. Here, we introduce a new strategy, in conjunction with single-cell electroporation, to enhance exogenous transport efficiency: electrophoresis delivery of compounds subsequent to electroporation. Electrophoresis is used to assist loading of otherwise impermeable exogenous anionic fluorescent molecules Calcein (Invitrogen, MW = 622) and Oregon Green Dextran (OGD, Invitrogen, MW = 70,000). For the larger dextran molecules, we demonstrate a protocol of first pre-concentrating at the cell-microfluidic channel interface. Then, the electric field is used to drive these molecules into the cell post-electroporation using 50-200 mV. We demonstrate delivery rate enhancements of more than an order of magnitude using electrophoresis compared to diffusion alone subsequent to electroporation.
Lab on a Chip. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18094775
We present a rapid and non-photolithographic approach to microfluidic pattern generation by leveraging the inherent shrinkage properties of biaxially oriented polystyrene thermoplastic sheets. This novel approach yields channels deep enough for mammalian cell assays, with demonstrated heights up to 80 microm. Moreover, we can consistently and easily achieve rounded channels, multi-height channels, and channels as thin as 65 microm in width. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of this simple microfabrication approach by fabricating a functional gradient generator. The whole process--from device design conception to working device--can be completed within minutes.
Lab on a Chip. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18369519
We present a novel approach for the ultra-rapid direct patterning of complex three-dimensional, stacked polystyrene (PS) microfluidic chips. By leveraging the inherent shrinkage properties of biaxially pre-stressed thermoplastic sheets, microfluidic channels become thinner and deeper upon heating. Design conception to fully functional chips can thus be completed within minutes.
Lab on a Chip. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19904398
Embryoid body (EB) formation closely recapitulates early embryonic development with respect to lineage commitment. Because it is greatly affected by cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, the ability to control the initial number of cells in the aggregates and to provide an appropriate substrate are crucial parameters for uniform EB formation. Here we report of an ultra-rapid fabrication and culture method utilizing a laser-jet printer to generate closely arrayed honeycomb microwells of tunable sizes for the induction of uniform EBs from single cell suspension. By printing various microwell patterns onto pre-stressed polystyrene sheets, and through heat induced shrinking, high aspect micromolds are generated. Notably, we achieve rounded bottom polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wells not easily achievable with standard microfabrication methods, but critical to achieve spherical EBs. Furthermore, by simply controlling the size of the microwells and the concentration of the cell suspension we can control the initial size of the cell aggregate, thus influencing lineage commitment. In addition, these microwells are easily adaptable and scalable to most standard well plates and easily integrated into commercial liquid handling systems to provide an inexpensive and easy high throughput compound screening platform.
Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20448766
We present a theory for the multiple scattering of light by obstacles situated over a rough surface. This problem is important for applications in biological and chemical sensors. To keep the formulation of this theory simple, we study scalar waves. This theory requires knowledge of the scattering operator (t-matrix) for each of the obstacles as well as the reflection operator for the rough surface. The scattering operator gives the field scattered by the obstacle due to an exciting field incident on the scatterer. The reflection operator gives the field reflected by the rough surface due to an exciting field incident on the rough surface. We apply this general theory for the special case of point scatterers and a slightly rough surface with homogeneous Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. We show examples that demonstrate the utility of this theory.
Lab on a Chip. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20517559
Polyolefins are finding increased popularity in microfluidic applications due to their attractive mechanical, processing, and optical properties. While intricate features are typically realized in these thermoplastics by hot embossing and injection molding, such fabrication approaches are expensive and slow. Here, we apply our shrink-induced approach-first demonstrated with polystyrene 'Shrinky-Dink' sheets-to create micro- and nanostructures with cross-linked polyolefin thin films. These multi-layered films shrink by 95% and with greater uniformity than the Shrinky-Dinks. With such significant reduction in size, along with attractive material properties, such commodity films could find important applications in low cost microfluidic prototyping as well as in point-of-care diagnostics. In this technical note, we demonstrate the ability to rapidly and easily create unique microstructures, increase microarray feature density, and even induce self-assembled integrated metallic nanostructures with these shrink wrap films.
Shrink Film Patterning by Craft Cutter: Complete Plastic Chips with High Resolution/high-aspect Ratio Channel
Lab on a Chip. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20680207
This paper presents a rapid, ultra-low-cost approach to fabricate microfluidic devices using a polyolefin shrink film and a digital craft cutter. The shrinking process (with a 95% reduction in area) results in relatively uniform and consistent microfluidic channels with smooth surfaces, vertical sidewalls, and high aspect ratio channels with lateral resolutions well beyond the tool used to cut them. The thermal bonding of the layers results in strongly bonded devices. Complex microfluidic designs are easily designed on the fly and protein assays are also readily integrated into the device. Full device characterization including channel consistency, optical properties, and bonding strength are assessed in this technical note.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21152984
The potential of rapid, quantitative, and sensitive diagnosis has led to many innovative 'lab on chip' technologies for point of care diagnostic applications. Because these chips must be designed within strict cost constraints to be widely deployable, recent research in this area has produced extremely novel non-conventional micro- and nano-fabrication innovations. These advances can be leveraged for other biological assays as well, including for custom assay development and academic prototyping. The technologies reviewed here leverage extremely low-cost substrates and easily adoptable ways to pattern both structural and biological materials at high resolution in unprecedented ways. These new approaches offer the promise of more rapid prototyping with less investment in capital equipment as well as greater flexibility in design. Though still in their infancy, these technologies hold potential to improve upon the resolution, sensitivity, flexibility, and cost-savings over more traditional approaches.
Shrink-film Configurable Multiscale Wrinkles for Functional Alignment of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Their Cardiac Derivatives
Advanced Materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.). Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22065428
A biomimetic substrate for cell-culture is fabricated by plasma treatment of a prestressed thermoplastic shrink film to create tunable multiscaled alignment "wrinkles". Using this substrate, the functional alignment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes is demonstrated.
Journal of Laboratory Automation. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22093302
The ability to interrogate and track single cells over time in a high-throughput format would provide critical information for fundamental biological understanding of processes and for various applications, including drug screening and toxicology. We have developed an ultrarapid and simple method to create single-cell wells of controllable diameter and depth with commodity shrink-wrap film and tape. Using a programmable CO(2) laser, we cut hole arrays into the tape. The tape then serves as a shadow mask to selectively etch wells into commodity shrink-wrap film by O(2) plasma. When the shrink-wrap film retracts upon briefly heating, high-aspect plastic microwell arrays with diameters down to 20 μm are readily achieved. We calibrated the loading procedure with fluorescent microbeads. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the wells by loading fluorescently labeled single human embryonic stem cells into the wells.
Multiscale Biomimetic Topography for the Alignment of Neonatal and Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Heart Cells
Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21235325
Nano- and microscale topographical cues play critical roles in the induction and maintenance of various cellular functions, including morphology, adhesion, gene regulation, and communication. Recent studies indicate that structure and function at the heart tissue level is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical cues at the nano-scale as well as at the microscale level. Although fabrication methods exist for generating topographical features for cell culture, current techniques, especially those with nanoscale resolution, are typically complex, prohibitively expensive, and not accessible to most biology laboratories. Here, we present a tunable culture platform comprised of biomimetic wrinkles that simulate the heart's complex anisotropic and multiscale architecture for facile and robust cardiac cell alignment. We demonstrate the cellular and subcellular alignment of both neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes as well as those derived from human embryonic stem cells. By mimicking the fibrillar network of the extracellular matrix, this system enables monitoring of protein localization in real time and therefore the high-resolution study of phenotypic and physiologic responses to in-vivo like topographical cues.
Biomicrofluidics. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21799715
As advances in microfluidics continue to make contributions to diagnostics and life sciences, broader awareness of this expanding field becomes necessary. By leveraging low-cost microfabrication techniques that require no capital equipment or infrastructure, simple, accessible, and effective educational modules can be made available for a broad range of educational needs from middle school demonstrations to college laboratory classes. These modules demonstrate key microfluidic concepts such as diffusion and separation as well as "laboratory on-chip" applications including chemical reactions and biological assays. These modules are intended to provide an interdisciplinary hands-on experience, including chip design, fabrication of functional devices, and experiments at the microscale. Consequently, students will be able to conceptualize physics at small scales, gain experience in computer-aided design and microfabrication, and perform experiments-all in the context of addressing real-world challenges by making their own lab-on-chip devices.
Applied Physics Letters. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21863126
Endeavoring to push the boundaries of microfabrication with shrinkable polymers, we have developed a sequential shrink photolithography process. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by rapidly fabricating plastic microlens arrays. First, we create a mask out of the children's toy Shrinky Dinks by simply printing dots using a standard desktop printer. Upon retraction of this pre-stressed thermoplastic sheet, the dots shrink to a fraction of their original size, which we then lithographically transfer onto photoresist-coated commodity shrink wrap film. This shrink film reduces in area by 95% when briefly heated, creating smooth convex photoresist bumps down to 30 µm. Taken together, this sequential shrink process provides a complete process to create microlenses, with an almost 99% reduction in area from the original pattern size. Finally, with a lithography molding step, we emboss these bumps into optical grade plastics such as cyclic olefin copolymer for functional microlens arrays.