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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (159)

Articles by Ming Zhong in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Real-time Analyses of Retinol Transport by the Membrane Receptor of Plasma Retinol Binding Protein

1Department of Physiology, Jules Stein Eye Institute and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles


JoVE 50169

Here we describe an optimized technique to produce high-quality vitamin A/RBP complex and two real-time monitoring techniques to study vitamin A transport by STRA6, the RBP receptor.

Other articles by Ming Zhong on PubMed

[Molecular-ecological Technology of Microorganisms and Its Application to Research on Environmental Pollution]

Nucleicacid probe detection, PCR technique using primer, DNA sequential analysis, and electrophoresis separation and display were summarized and the application of these techniques to research on environmental pollution and future developing directions were discussed. It was pointed out that molecular-ecological technology of microorganisms are playing an important role in studying on relationships between microorganisms and contaminated environment. There are some important advances such as genetic adaptation and evolutionary mechanisms of microorganisms in contaminated environment, the positioning of pollutant-degrading genes of microorganisms and the construction of microbiological engineering bacteria, thus promoting the development of molecular ecology for bioremediation of contaminated environment.

Variant-type PML-RAR(alpha) Fusion Transcript in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Use of a Cryptic Coding Sequence from Intron 2 of the RAR(alpha) Gene and Identification of a New Clinical Subtype Resistant to Retinoic Acid Therapy

The physiologic actions of retinoic acids (RAs) are mediated through RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). The RAR(alpha) gene has drawn particular attention because it is the common target in all chromosomal translocations in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a unique model in cancer research that responds to the effect of RA. In the great majority of patients with APL, RAR(alpha) is fused to the PML gene as a result of the t(15;17) translocation. Three distinct types of PML-RAR(alpha) transcripts, long (L), short (S), and variant (V), were identified. The V-type is characterized by truncation of exon 6 of PML and in some cases by the insertion of a variable "spacer" sequence between the truncated PML and RAR(alpha) mRNA fusion partners, although the precise mechanisms underlying formation of the V-type transcript remain unclear. To get further insights into the molecular basis of the t(15;17), we sequenced the entire genomic DNA region of RAR(alpha). Of note, all previously reported "spacer" sequences in V-type transcripts were found in intron 2 of the RAR(alpha) gene and most of these sequences were flanked by gt splice donor sites. In most cases, these "cryptic" coding sequences maintained the ORF of the chimeric transcript. Interestingly, two cases with a relatively long spacer sequence showed APL cellular and clinical resistance to RA treatment. In these cases, the aberrant V-type PML-RAR(alpha) protein displayed increased affinity to the nuclear corepressor protein SMRT, providing further evidence that RA exerts the therapeutic effect on APL through modulation of the RAR-corepressor interaction. Finally, among patients with the L- or S-type PML-RAR(alpha) fusion transcript, some consensus motifs were identified at the hotspots of the chromosome 17q breakpoints within intron 2 of RAR(alpha), strengthening the importance of this intron in the molecular pathogenesis of APL.

[RAPD Markers Linked to the Stripe Rust Resistance Gene Yr5 in the Wheat Variety Triticum Spelta Album]

A total of 520 10-mer random primers were used to identify the RAPD markers linked to the Yr5 gene between the near-isogenic line Yr5/6 x Avocet S and recurrent parent Avocet S. Three polymorphic DNA fragments, S1496(761), S1453(880) and S1418(1950), were found linked to the Yr5 gene. In which the genetic distance between S1496(761) and Yr5 gene was 2.7 cM. The fragment S1496(761) was recovered from the gel and cloned and sequenced. A pair of specific PCR primers was designed based on the sequence. The specific primers amplified the same fragment about 761bp as the random primer S1496 did. Because the primers could amplify another non-specific fragment, the PCR products must be analyzed by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels.

Research on Expression of Telomerase in Human Odontogenic Lesions

To study hTERT mRNA expression in ameloblastoma (AB) and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and to investigate genesis, development and biological characteristics of AB and OKC.

[Growth of Rifampin-dependent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Conditions Without Rifampin]

To study the growth of rifampin-dependent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in conditions without rifampin.

The Effect of Selective Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 on Acute Cardiac Allograft Rejection

Using a rat (Lewis-Wistar Furth) abdominal heterotopic transplantation model, we reported previously that the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is increased in parallel with that of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2 during cardiac allograft rejection.

[Determination of Chemical Components of Volatile Oil from Cuminum Cyminum L. by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry]

Volatile oil was extracted from Cuminum cyminum L. by using steam distillation. More than sixty peaks were separated and 49 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative amounts of the components were determined by area normalization method. Among the 49 compounds identified, there were 16 hydrocarbons and 32 oxygenated compounds. The main compnents were cuminal and safranal (accounting for 32.26% and 24.46% respectively in the components identified). The other nine compounds with contents all over 1%, were monterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic aldehydes and aromatic oxides etc. The other components with relatively small amounts were chiefly terpenes, terpenols, terpenals, terpenones, terpene esters and aromatic compounds. It is good to separate polar and apolar components in the volatile oil from Cuminum cyminum L. on the GC capillary column of moderate polarity.

[Otorhinolaryngological Neurofibromatosis]

To investigate the growth characteristic, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of neurofibromatosis (NF) in otorhinolaryngology.

[Feasibility Study of Controlled Hypotension Induced with Combination of Propofol and Desflurane in Craniotomy]

To evaluate the feasibility of controlled hypotension induced with combination of propofol and desflurane in craniotomy.

[Expression of Telomerase Activity and Cyclin A in Ameloblastoma]

To study relation of the expression of hTERT mRNA and cyclin A, p53 protein, proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in ameloblastoma (AB) and to investigate clinical biological characteristics of AB.

[Origin of SARS from Accelerated Evolution of a Virus by Combined Pollution]

The SARS virus origin which obviously differs from the theory of out-space origin and the theory of wildlife origin was theoretically discussed based on principles of pollution-evolution ecology, pathogenesis and infectant characteristics of SARS, and some relevant experimental evidence. It emphasizes on the fact that increasingly combined pollution in China provides a substantial basis for virus evolution. Gene recombination and fusion of more than one virus in ecosystems should take charge with the origin of a SARS virus. In particular, a common cold or influenza virus can acceleratedly changed into a superpower common cold or influenza virus through genetic mutation and gene recombination by increasingly combined pollution. This work can be useful for human beings to overcome SARS in theory.

[Expression of Telomerase and P53 in Ameloblastoma]

To detect the expression of p53 protein, hTR, and hTERT mRNA in ameloblastoma (AB) and to investigate the clinical biological characteristics of AB.

[Expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase and Bcl-2 in Ameloblastoma]

To study the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and bcl-2 in ameloblastoma (AB), METHODS: hTERT mRNA in 54 cases of AB (primary AB 31 cases, recurrent AB 17 cases, malignant AB 4 cases) and 7 cases of oral normal mucosa was detected by in situ hybridization, and bcl-2 by S-P method.

[Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase in Ameloblastoma]

To study the expression of matrix metalloproteinase(MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) in ameloblastoma (AB) and to determine the relationship between biological behavior of AB and clinical pathology.

[Effects of Bovine Plasma Fibronectin on the Proliferation of Rat Osteoblast in Vitro]

To investigate the effects of bovine plasma fibronectin on the proliferation of rat osteoblast in vitro.

[Expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in Human Ameloblastoma and Odontogenic Keratocyst]

To study the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human ameloblastoma (AB) and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and investigate the relation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 with the pathologic characteristic of AB and OKC.

[The Study of the Invasive Biologic Behavior of Ameloblastoma]

To investigate the invasive biologic behavior of ameloblastoma (AB) and to analyze its correlative factors.

[Treatment of Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Percutaneous Laser Ablation]

To introduce a newly developed procedure in the control of portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and evaluate the efficacy and indicate of this method.

[Infection of Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Acidic Fibroblasts Growth Factor Enhances Rabbit Corneal Endothelium Proliferation]

To transfer the gene encoding mammalian aFGF to rabbit corneal endothelial cell and determine transfection efficiency and the effect of Ad-aFGF on proliferation of RCEC.

[The Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Periodontal Membrane of the Rat]

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of static magnetic field on the expression of BMP-2 in the periodontal membrane of rat.

N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine is the Preferred Retinoid Substrate for the Photoreceptor-specific ABC Transporter ABCA4 (ABCR)

ABCA4, a member of the family of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins found in rod and cone photoreceptors, has been implicated in the transport of retinoid compounds across the outer segment disk membrane following the photoactivation of rhodopsin. Mutations in the ABCA4 gene are responsible for Stargardt macular dystrophy and related retinal degenerative diseases that cause a loss in vision. To identify the retinoid substrate that interacts with ABCA4, we have isolated ABCA4 from rod outer segment disk membranes on an immunoaffinity matrix and analyzed retinoid compounds that bind to ABCA4 using high performance liquid chromatography and radiolabeling methods. When all-trans-retinal was added to ABCA4 in the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, approximately 0.9 mol of N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine and 0.3 mol of all-trans-retinal were bound per mol of ABCA4 with an apparent K(d) of 2-5 microm. ATP and GTP released these retinoids from ABCA4, whereas ADP, GDP, and nonhydrolyzable derivatives, adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate and guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate, were ineffective. One mole of N-retinyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, the reduced form of N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine, bound per mol of ABCA4, whereas 0.3 mol of all-trans-retinal were bound in the absence of phosphatidylethanolamine. No binding of all-trans-retinol to ABCA4 was observed. Our results indicate that ABCA4 preferentially binds N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine with high affinity in the absence of ATP. Our studies further suggest that ATP binding and hydrolysis induces a protein conformational change that causes N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine to dissociate from ABCA4.

[Expression of PRb and E2F-1 and Telomerase Activity in Ameloblastoma]

To investigate the expression of pRb and E2F-1, and the association between their expression and the activity of telomerase (hTERT) or cyclin E in human ameloblastoma (AB), and to explore the clinical biological characteristics of AB.

[Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Proliferation and Cell Cycle of Osteoblast Cell.]

Rat calvarias osteoblasts were cultured and put in the static magnetic field of 0 Gs, 400 Gs, 620 Gs, 830 Gs and 1080 Gs for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. MTT method was used for detecting osteoblast proliferation and flow cytometry for detecting cell cycle. When the magnetic exposure time extended to 48 h or 72 h, the corresponding OD value of osteoblast with magnetic treatment of 400 Gs or 620 Gs increased obviously with significant difference as compared with 0 Gs group (P<0.05), but such proliferative effect was not shown in the 1080 Gs group (P>0.05). After magnetic exposure with intensity of 620 Gs, G0/G1 phase percentage decreased, but S phase and G2/M phase percentage was significantly higher as compared with control. Proliferation index (PI) increased as well and there was significant difference in contrast to control (P<0.05). Within a certain range of magnetic intensity, magnetic field enhances cell growth in a dose-dependent pattern. And static magnetic field can activate static G1 phase into S phase, increase DNA synthesis, and accelerate cell proliferation.

[Research on the Expression of C-myc MRNA in Ameloblastoma]

To study the expression of c-myc mRNA in ameloblastoma (AB) and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and to investigate the genesis, development and biological characteristics of AB and OKC.

[Expression of Telomerase Activity and C-myc and Stimulatory Protein 1 in Human Ameloblastoma]

To study the oncogene transcriptor c-myc, stimulatory protein 1 (SP1) expression in ameloblastoma (AB) and their relation with telomerase reverse transcripase (hTERT), and to investigate the clinical biological characteristics of AB.

[Anti-proliferation Effect of Genistein on Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cell Line SACC-83 in Vitro]

To investigate the anti-proliferation effect of tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor, genistein (4'-5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), on human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line SACC-83 in vitro, and its effect on cell cycle.

[Expression of Interleukin-8 in KB Cells Infected with Candida Albicans]

To investigate the change of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in oral epithelial cells (KB cells) infected with Candida albicans.

[Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Tissue Inhibitor-1 of Metalloproteinase Expression on Atrial Structural Remodeling During Chronic Atrial Fibrillation]

To investigate the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor-1 of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) mRNA and protein expression in chronic fibrillating human atria and to evaluate the influence of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression on the progress of atrial structural remodeling.

[Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Periodontal Membrane of Experimental Periodontitis Rat]

To evaluate the effect of static magnetic field on expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2(BMP-2) in the periodontal membrane of experimental periodontitis rat.

[Expression of P21WAF1, P27KIP1 and Cyclin E in Ameloblastoma]

To investigate the expression of cyclin E mRNA, p21(WAF1) mRNA and p27(KIP1) protein in human ameloblastoma (AB), and to explore the clinical and biological characteristics of AB.

In Vitro Augmentation of Natural Killer Activity and Interferon-gamma Production in Murine Spleen Cells with Agaricus Blazei Fruiting Body Fractions

Aqueous extracts of the Agaricus blazei fruiting body prepared at different temperatures were fractionated by ethanol precipitation with various ethanol concentrations. The original aqueous extracts of A. blazei failed to stimulate natural killer (NK) cell activity in murine spleen cells in vitro, but the strongest effect was observed in a 30% ethanol-soluble-50% ethanol-insoluble fraction prepared from the extract at 40 degrees C (fraction A-50). Fraction A-50 also showed the strongest augmenting effect on interferon (IFN)-gamma production. This augmentation of NK activity and IFN-gamma production by fraction A-50 was completely abrogated by a heat treatment.

[Effect of Bite Force Lost on the Expression of INOS in the Rat Periodontium]

To investigate the molecular mechanism of the effect of bite force loss on periodontium remodeling.

[Changes of Neutrophil Myeloperoxidase in Coronary Circulation Among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome]

To investigate the changes of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) blood concentration gradient between the systemic circulation and the coronary circulation among patients with acute coronary syndrome and its clinical value.

[Effects of Genistein on the Expressions of Cell Cycle Proteins in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cell Line SACC-83]

To investigate the molecular mechanism of cell cycle arrest induced by tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor, genistein, in human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line SACC-83.

Changes in Metalloproteinase and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase During Tachycardia-induced Cardiomyopathy by Rapid Atrial Pacing in Dogs

It was the aim of this study to investigate the variation in metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) connexin levels during tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC).

[Effect of Valsartan on Tribble 3 Gene Expression in Rats with Experimental Diabetic Cardiomyopathy]

Tribbles, a protein family controlling mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, might contribute to the remodeling process in dilated cardiomyopathy. We investigated the gene expression of Tribble 3 (TRB(3)), cardiac function and collagen changes in rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and the modulating effects of valsartan on them.

[The Role of Glucose/TSP-1/TGFbeta1 Signal Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy]

Hyperglycemia could upregulate transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta(1)) via thrombospondin (TSP-1) and induce fibrotic renal disease in the rat in vivo and myocardial fibrosis was related to cardiac dysfunction in diabetic patients. We explored the role of glucose/TSP-1/TGFbeta(1) signal pathways in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM).

[Mechanism of Reversion of Myocardial Interstitial Fibrosis in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Valsartan]

To investigate the mechanism of reversion of myocardial interstitial fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) by valsartan.

The Status of Pesticide Residues in the Drinking Water Sources in Meiliangwan Bay, Taihu Lake of China

The study was carried out to assess the levels of pesticide residues in the water of Meiliangwan Bay, Taihu Lake of China. The most commonly employed organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and herbicide atrazine were analyzed. The water samples were collected seasonally from Meiliangwan Bay within a period of one year. The pesticides were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with microECD or NPD after solid-phase extraction (SPE), which was confirmed by GC with an ion trap mass spectrometry (MS). The mean concentrations were 1.98 ng/l for lindane, 0.378 ng/l for heptachlor epoxide, 0.367 ng/l for p,p'-DDE, 0.496 ng/l for p,p'-DDD, 1.06 ng/l for p,p'-DDT and 51.6 ng/l for dichlorvos, 39.0 ng/l for demeton, 346 ng/l for dimethoate, 4.12 ng/l for methyl parathion, 11.6 ng/l for malathion, 2.17 ng/l for parathion and 217 ng/l for atrazine. Generally, low concentrations of OCP were found, whereas the concentrations of the OPPs and atrazine in the water of Taihu Lake were relatively high. Heptachlor epoxide and lindane were the two most commonly encountered OCPs while dichlorvos, demeton and dimethoate were found to have much higher concentrations and occurrences than other OPPs.

[Expression of Telomerase Genes HTRTmRNA in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas]

To investigate the expression of telomerase genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas(OSCC).

Determination of Phthalates in Water Samples Using Polyaniline-based Solid-phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography

A simple solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device, coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), was developed to detect trace levels of phthalates in environmental water samples. Polyaniline (PANI) was chosen as the sorbent for the SPME device and was electrochemically deposited on a stainless steel wire to achieve high thermal and mechanical stability. The porous structure of the PANI film, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), suggested large extraction capability. Key parameters were optimized and five phthalates were selected to evaluate the SPME-GC procedures. The method was also applied to the analysis of lake and river water samples. Control experiments were carried out using commercial polyacrylate (PA) fiber. The new PANI-SPME-GC method offers high accuracy, precision and sensitivity and low detection limits. Thus, the method developed could be used as a new way to monitor the trace levels of phthalates in water medium. A possible extraction mechanism was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

Binding of N-retinylidene-PE to ABCA4 and a Model for Its Transport Across Membranes

[Isolation and Identification of a Phenanthrene-degrading Bacterial Strain]

Through selective enriched culture, a phenanthrene-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from the oil-contaminated soil in Shenfu irrigation area of Shenyang, Northeast China. The morphological and physiological-biochemical identification, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and phylogenetic study showed that this strain was belonged to genus Acinetobacter and named as Acinetobacter sp. L2, and closest to Acinetobacter sp. DG880 [AY258108]. It could use phenanthrene as the sole carbon source. After 7 days culture, the degradation rate of phenanthrene was 96.3%. According to the activity of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, the strain probably had phenanthrene-degrading genes.

[Expression of Cyclin D1 and Its Inhibitors and HTERT in Ameloblastoma]

To investigate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcripase (hTERT), cyclin D1 mRNA, p16(INK4), p21(WAF1) mRNA and p27(KIP1) protein in human ameloblastoma (ABs).

[Expression and Significance of HTERT, C-fos and C-jun in Ameloblastoma]

To investigate the expression of c-fos, c-jun and hTERT mRNA in human ameloblastoma (AB) and to determine their clinicobiological significance.

Changes in Connexin 43, Metalloproteinase and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase During Tachycardia-induced Cardiomyopathy in Dogs

To study changes in connexin, metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase levels during tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC).

Diagnostic Value of CTA and MRA in Intracranial Traumatic Aneurysms

To investigate the diagnostic value of computerized tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for intracranial traumatic aneurysms (TAs).

[Expression of HOXC13 in Ameloblastoma]

To study the expression of HOXC13 mRNA in ameloblastoma (AB), and to investigate its biological significance.

[Effects of Genistein on the Proliferation and Expression of Survivin in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cell Line SACC-83]

To investigate the anti-proliferation effect of tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor, Genistein, on human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line SACC-83, and its effect on Survivin expression.

[Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 and Collagen Type I of Osteoblast Cell]

To study the effect of static magnetic field on osteoblast,and to explore the possibility of osteogenesis of static magnetic field.

[Activation of Transforming Growth Factor-beta1/Smads Signal Pathway in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Effects of Valsartan Thereon: Experiment with Rats]

To study the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1)/Smads signal pathway in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and effects of valsartan thereon.

Direct Patterning of Composite Biocompatible Microstructures Using Microfluidics

This study demonstrates a versatile and fast method for patterning three-dimensional (3D) monolithic microstructures made of multiple (up to 24 demonstrated) types of materials, all spatially aligned, inside a microchannel. This technique uses confocal scanning or conventional fluorescence microscopy to polymerize selected regions of a photocurable material, and microfluidics to automate the delivery of a series of washes and photocurable reagents. Upon completion of lithographic cycles, the aligned 3D microstructures are suitable for microfluidic manipulation and analysis. We demonstrated the fabrication of composite 3D microstructures with various geometries, size scales (up to 1 mm2), spatial resolution (down to 3 microm), and materials. For a typical multi-cycle process, the total fabrication time was tens of minutes, compared to tens of hours for conventional methods. In the case of 3D hydrogels, a potential use is the direct patterning of inhomogeneous 3D microenvironments for studying cell behavior.

[Detection of Gingipian Gene of Porphyromonas Gingivalis in Subgingival Plaque]

The purpose of this study was to detect two genes (kgp-cd and rgpB-cd) of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque, and determine the relationship between the two genes and the periodontal clinical indexes.

[The Ultrastructure and Activities of Free Radical Scavenger in Discolored Gingiva Adjacent to Porcelain Fused to Metal Crowns]

This study was designed to study the discolored gingiva adjacent to porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crowns in terms of ultrastructure , SOD and GSH activities in 40 cases.

Expression Change of Interleukin-8 Gene in Rabbit Basilar Artery After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

To study the expression change of interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene in the basilar artery of rabbit and the effect of IL-8 on the development of cerebral vasospasm induced by experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

[DNA Methylation of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Promoter Region in Human Ameloblastoma]

To study the DNA methylation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter in ameloblastoma (AB) and investigate its clinical biological significance.

[Clinical Features and Outcome of Infection of Type 2 Streptococcus Suis in Human]

To analysis the clinical features and efficacy of treatment for patients with type 2 Streptococcus suis (S. suis 2) infection, and to inform better diagnosis and treatment of S. suis 2.

Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Peptide Release from Neuronal Cells Within Microfluidic Devices

Microfluidic devices are well suited for manipulating and measuring mass limited samples. Here we adapt a microfluidic device containing functionalized surfaces to chemically stimulate a small number of neurons (down to a single neuron), collect the release of neuropeptides, and characterize them using mass spectrometry. As only a small fraction of the peptides present in a neuron are released with physiologically relevant stimulations, the amount of material available for measurement is small, thereby requiring minimal sample loss and high-sensitivity detection. Although a number of detection schemes are used with microfluidic devices, mass spectrometric detection is used here because of its high information content, allowing the characterization of the released peptide complement. Rather than using an on-line approach, off-line analysis is used; after collection of the peptides onto a surface, mass spectrometric imaging interrogates that surface to determine the peptides released from the cell. The overall utility of this scheme is demonstrated using several device formats with measurement of neuropeptides released from Aplysia californica bag cell neurons.

Impaired Left Ventricular Systolic Synchronicity in Hypertensive Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias

Left ventricular (LV) systolic synchronicity is impaired in hypertensive patients. Ventricular arrhythmias often co-exist in hypertensive patients; hypertension and ventricular arrhythmias have an adverse impact on cardiac function. However, the influence of ventricular arrhythmias on LV synchronicity was not clear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of ventricular arrhythmias on LV synchronicity in hypertensive patients. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) was performed in 136 subjects. Group 1 consisted of 74 hypertensives without any arrhythmias; group 2 consisted of 30 hypertensive patients with ventricular arrhythmias; and the control group consisted of 32 normal subjects. Using three apical views, LV synchronicity was assessed by the maximal differences in time to peak myocardial systolic contraction (T(s)) and early diastolic relaxation (T(e)) between any two of the LV segments (T(s)-max, T(e)-max) and the standard deviation of T(s) (T(s)-SD) and T(e) (T(e)-SD) of all 12 segments. T(s)-max was significantly prolonged in group 2 compared with group 1 and the control group (93.70 +/- 20.97 ms vs. 79.48 +/- 25.46 ms [p<0.01] or 53.83 +/- 15.42 ms [p<0.001], respectively). T(s)-SD was also significantly prolonged in group 2 compared with group 1 and the control group (38.16 +/- 5.82 ms vs. 33.37 +/- 6.04 ms [p<0.05] or 24.01 +/- 3.58 ms [p<0.001], respectively). In conclusion, LV systolic synchronicity was impaired in hypertensive patients with ventricular arrhythmias, and TDI was shown to be useful for the detection of myocardial abnormalities in such patients.

Differentiation of Murine B Cells Induced by Chondroitin Sulfate B

A two-step culture system was used to investigate the role of chondroitin sulfate (CS) B, which is mitogenic to B cells, in differentiation of B cells. Mouse spleen B cells were incubated for 3 days with CSB in the presence of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5. After washing, the cells were replated at 10(5) viable cells/well and recultured without CSB in the presence of IL-4 and IL-5. CSB dose-dependently increased IgM production, the greatest enhancement being 450%. Dextran sulfate had a similar effect, whereas other glycosaminoglycans, CSA, CSC, heparin and hyaluronic acid, were marginally effective. Treatment of B cells with CSB resulted in increases in the number of IgM-secreting cells and numbers of CD138-positive cells and CD45R/B220-negative cells. CSB-induced IgM production was inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X but not by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin. These results demonstrated that CSB promoted differentiation of B cells in the presence of IL-4 and IL-5 and suggested that PKC but not PI3K is crucial for CSB-induced IgM production.

[Expression of HOX C13 in Odontogenic Tumors]

To study the expression of HOXC13 mRNA in odontogenic tumors.

Strain Rate Imaging for Noninvasive Functional Quantification of the Left Atrium in Hypertensive Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

Strain rate (SR) imaging has been applied to the detection of regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction but not as much to the assessment of left atrial (LA) function. We aimed to assess atrial myocardial properties during atrial fibrillation (AF) by myocardial velocity, SR and strain, focusing on the effects of hypertension and atrial arrhythmias, especially paroxysmal AF.

Five Years Follow-up of Invasive Prolactinomas with Special Reference to the Control of Cavernous Sinus Invasion

Few data are presently available on the effective control of cavernous sinus (CS) invasion of invasive prolactinomas. The aim of this retrospective study, through a mean period of 5 years follow up, is to observe the tumor shrinkage of CS invasive prolactinomas, as well as PRL normalization with bromocriptine therapy.

Bivariate Combined Linkage and Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci

In this paper, bivariate/multivariate variance component models are proposed for high-resolution combined linkage and association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), based on combinations of pedigree and population data. Suppose that a quantitative trait locus is located in a chromosome region that exerts pleiotropic effects on multiple quantitative traits. In the region, multiple markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms are typed. Two regression models, "genotype effect model" and "additive effect model", are proposed to model the association between the markers and the trait locus. The linkage information, i.e., recombination fractions between the QTL and the markers, is modeled in the variance and covariance matrix. By analytical formulae, we show that the "genotype effect model" can be used to model the additive and dominant effects simultaneously; the "additive effect model" only takes care of additive effect. Based on the two models, F-test statistics are proposed to test association between the QTL and markers. By analytical power analysis, we show that bivariate models can be more powerful than univariate models. For moderate-sized samples, the proposed models lead to correct type I error rates; and so the models are reasonably robust. As a practical example, the method is applied to analyze the genetic inheritance of rheumatoid arthritis for the data of The North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium, Problem 2, Genetic Analysis Workshop 15, which confirms the advantage of the proposed bivariate models.

Induction of Cytolytic Activity and Interferon-gamma Production in Murine Natural Killer Cells by Polymyxins B and E

Natural killer (NK) cells are the primary effector cells of the innate immune system and have well-established roles in tumor rejection and resistance to viruses, bacteria and certain parasites. There is a need for more specific immune modulators of NK cell activity that lack the wide-ranging side effects of NK cell-stimulatory interleukins. The polycationic antibiotic polymyxin B (PMB) has been shown to have a unique ability to enhance activities of some immune cells, independent of its antibiotic properties. Here we report that both PMB and its analog polymyxin E (PME) markedly enhanced the activity of NK cells enriched from the murine spleen. Maximal activation of NK cell activity was obtained after 24 h of incubation with PMB at a dose of 300 mug/ml. PMB nonapeptide, one of the two PMB domains, and PME methanesulfonate, the negatively charged derivative of PME, had little effect on NK cell activity. PMB induced interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in NK cells. Proliferation of NK cells in vitro was significantly stimulated by being incubated with PMB. Administration of PMB to mice for 7 consecutive days stimulated splenic NK cell activity and increased NK cell populations in the spleen. These results suggest that the polycationic antibiotics PMB and PME may up-regulate innate and adaptive immune responses by induction of NK cell activity and IFN-gamma production.

Impaired Left Ventricular Synchronicity in Hypertensive Patients with Ventricular Hypertrophy

The influence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on left ventricular synchronicity, and the prevalence of left ventricular dyssynchrony in hypertensive patients with LVH are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of LVH on left ventricular synchronicity in hypertensive subjects.

Combined Linkage and Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci with Missing Completely at Random Genotype Data

In genetics study, the genotypes or phenotypes can be missing due to various reasons. In this paper, the impact of missing genotypes is investigated for high resolution combined linkage and association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). We assume that the genotype data are missing completely at random (MCAR). Two regression models, "genotype effect model" and "additive effect model", are proposed to model the association between the markers and the trait locus. If the marker genotype is not missing, the model is exactly the same as those of our previous study, i.e., the number of genotype or allele is used as weight to model the effect of the genotype or allele in single marker case. If the marker genotype is missing, the expected number of genotype or allele is used as weight to model the effect of the genotype or allele. By analytical formulae, we show that the "genotype effect model" can be used to model the additive and dominance effects simultaneously, and the "additive effect model" can only be used to model the additive effect. Based on the two models, F-test statistics are proposed to test association between the QTL and markers. The non-centrality parameter approximations of F-test statistics are derived to calculate power and to compare power, which show that the power of the F-tests is reduced due to the missingness. By simulation study, we show that the two models have reasonable type I error rates for a dataset of moderate sample size. However, the type I error rates can be very slightly inflated if all individuals with missing genotypes are removed from analysis. Hence, the proposed method can help to get correct type I error rates although it does not improve power. As a practical example, the method is applied to analyze the angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) data.

Possible Beneficial Effect of Olmesartan Medoxomil on Left Atrial Function in Patients with Hypertension : Noninvasive Assessment by Acoustic Quantification

Hypertension alters the diastolic properties of the left ventricle and results in deterioration in the structure and function of the left atrium. We aimed to evaluate whether olmesartan medoxomil has an effect on left atrial function in hypertensive patients.

Increased Serum Visfatin in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Carotid Atherosclerosis

Visfatin is a newly identified adipocytokine and recent studies indicated that visfatin may have potential proinflammatory effect. However, its pathophysiological role in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not fully understood. In this study we investigated whether serum visfatin levels is altered in patients with the MetS, and compared the levels of visfatin between patients with and without carotid plaques.

[The Study on the Cushioning Function of PDL's Microvasculature by Vascular Cast Technique in Dogs]

To investigate the cushioning function of periodontal ligament (PDL)'s microvasculature by studying the microvascular architecture of PDL and its surrounding alveolar bone in dogs.

[Effects of Genistein on the Expressions of Cell Apoptosis-related Proteins in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cell Line SACC-83]

To investigate the molecular mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor, genistein, in human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line SACC-83.

Felodipine Reduces Cardiac Expression of IL-18 and Perivascular Fibrosis in Fructose-fed Rats

Metabolic syndrome is associated with accelerated macrovascular and microvascular coronary disease, cardiomyopathy, and elevated inflammatory status. To determine whether metabolic syndrome-associated elevation of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) in serum and cardiac tissue, and its potential sequelae could be attenuated pharmacologically, we studied fructose-fed rats. The fructose-fed rats exhibited increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP), body weight, heart weight, left ventricular weight, and blood insulin. Serum IL-18 levels in these rats were also elevated significantly. These changes were significantly different compared to those in control rats. Perivascular fibrosis around coronary arterioles was evident in the fructose-fed rats, accompanied by a paralleled increase in IL-18 by immunohistochemical analysis and real time polymerase chain reaction. Felodipine attenuated the increased levels in serum IL-18 and cardiac IL-18 mRNA as well as coronary perivascular fibrosis. Thus, augmented IL-18 in serum and cardiac tissue in metabolic syndrome may contribute to the coronary perivascular fibrosis; felodipine administration can attenuate the inflammatory and fibrosis process.

In Situ Collagen Assembly for Integrating Microfabricated Three-dimensional Cell-seeded Matrices

Microscale fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) can be used to mimic the often inhomogeneous and anisotropic properties of native tissues and to construct in vitro cellular microenvironments. Cellular contraction of fibrous natural ECMs (such as fibrin and collagen I) can detach matrices from their surroundings and destroy intended geometry. Here, we demonstrate in situ collagen fibre assembly (the nucleation and growth of new collagen fibres from preformed collagen fibres at an interface) to anchor together multiple phases of cell-seeded 3D hydrogel-based matrices against cellular contractile forces. We apply this technique to stably interface multiple microfabricated 3D natural matrices (containing collagen I, Matrigel, fibrin or alginate); each phase can be seeded with cells and designed to permit cell spreading. With collagen-fibre-mediated interfacing, microfabricated 3D matrices maintain stable interfaces (the individual phases do not separate from each other) over long-term culture (at least 3 weeks) and support spatially restricted development of multicellular structures within designed patterns. The technique enables construction of well-defined and stable patterns of a variety of 3D ECMs formed by diverse mechanisms (including temperature-, ion- and enzyme-mediated crosslinking), and presents a simple approach to interface multiple 3D matrices for biological studies and tissue engineering.

Electrodeposited Polyaniline As a Fiber Coating for Solid-phase Microextraction of Organochlorine Pesticides from Water

The study on the performance of polyaniline as a fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) purposes has been reported. Polyaniline coatings were directly electrodeposited on the surface of a stainless steel wire and applied for the extraction of some organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from water samples. Analyses were performed using GC-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results obtained show that polyaniline fiber coating is suitable for the successful extraction of organochlorine compounds. This behavior is most probably due to the porous surface structure of polyaniline film, which provides large surface areas and allowed for high extraction efficiency. Experimental parameters such as adsorption and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. The optimized method has an acceptable linearity, with a concentration range of 1-5000 ng/L. Single fiber repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were less than 12 and 17%, respectively. High environmental resistance and lower cost are among the advantages of polyaniline fibers over commercially available SPME fibers. The developed method was applied to the analysis of real water samples from Yangtse River and Tianmu Lake.

[Management of Primary Angle-closure Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Foldable Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation]

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens(PC-IOL) implantation in the management of acute or chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma(APACG or CPACG) with cataract.

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9/tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase-1 Expression and Atrial Structural Remodeling in a Dog Model of Atrial Fibrillation: Inhibition with Angiotensin-converting Enzyme

Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases regulate extracellular matrix turnover in cardiac tissues. However, alteration of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases during atrial fibrillation is unclear. This study aims to determine (a) the relationship between altered expressions of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and atrial structural remodeling; (b) the role of changes in the atrial angiotensin system and in calcium concentration; and (c) the effect of captopril on the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 and atrial structural remodeling.

Felodipine Attenuates Vascular Inflammation in a Fructose-induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Via the Inhibition of NF-kappaB Activation

Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased incidence of atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have shown that calcium channel blockers (CCB) inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated the inhibitory effect of felodipine on adhesion molecular expression and macrophage infiltration in the aorta of high fructose-fed rats (FFR).

Assessment of Regional Systolic and Diastolic Functions Affected by Atorvastatin in Coronary Artery Disease Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

Several studies have shown regional left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic changes associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Statins may have beneficial pleiotropic effects in addition to their lipid-lowering properties.

[Effect of Selenium-protein Polysaccharide Extracted from Se-rich Cordyceps Militaris on Tumor-bearing Mice]

To extract and analysis the active components of Se-protein polysaccharide from Se-rich Cordyceps militaris, and to discuss the anti-tumor effect of Se-protein polysaccharide.

Role of the Calpain System in Pulmonary Vein Connexin Remodeling in Dogs with Atrial Fibrillation

Changes in connexins and calpains of the myocardial sleeve of the pulmonary vein and the left atrium were investigated in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) animal models.

Inhibition of Phosphate-induced Apoptosis in Resting Zone Chondrocytes by Thrombin Peptide 508

Growth plate chondrocytes are susceptible to apoptosis. Terminally differentiated chondrocytes are deleted via apoptosis, which primes the growth plate to vascular invasion and subsequent bone formation. Whether less differentiated resting zone chondrocytes are subject to the same mechanism that governs the apoptotic pathway of more differentiated growth zone chondrocytes is not known. In our current study, we demonstrated that inorganic phosphate, a key inducer of growth plate chondrocyte apoptosis, also causes apoptosis in resting zone chondrocytes, via a pathway similar to the one in growth zone chondrocytes. Our results demonstrated that the conditions that cause growth plate chondrocyte apoptosis lie in the external environment, instead of the differences in differentiation state.

Role of the C Terminus of the Photoreceptor ABCA4 Transporter in Protein Folding, Function, and Retinal Degenerative Diseases

ABCA4 is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that is expressed in rod and cone photoreceptor cells and implicated in the removal of retinal derivatives from outer segments following photoexcitation. Mutations in the ABCA4 gene are responsible for a number of related retinal degenerative diseases, including Stargardt macular degeneration, cone-rod dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, and age-related macular degeneration. In order to determine the role of the C terminus of ABCA4 in protein structure and function and understand mechanisms by which C-terminal mutations cause retinal degenerative diseases, we have expressed and purified a series of deletion and substitution mutants of ABCA4 and ABCA1 in HEK 293T cells for analysis of their cellular localization and biochemical properties. Removal of the C-terminal 30 amino acids of ABCA4, including a conserved VFVNFA motif, resulted in a loss in N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine substrate binding, ATP photoaffinity labeling, and retinal-stimulated ATPase activity. This mutant was also retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells. Replacement of the VFVNFA motif with alanine residues also resulted in loss in function and cellular mislocalization. In contrast, C-terminal deletion mutants that retain the VFVNFA motif were functionally active and localized to intracellular vesicles similar to wild-type ABCA4. Our studies indicated that the VFVNFA motif is required for the proper folding of ABCA4 into a functionally active protein. This motif also contributes to the efficient folding of ABCA1 into an active protein. Our results provide a molecular based rationale for the disease phenotype displayed by individuals with mutations in the C terminus of ABCA4.

Impaired Left Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Function in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome As Assessed by Strain and Strain Rate Imaging

The present study aimed to investigate cardiac structural and functional alterations in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to compare those with control subjects. Strain and strain rate (SR) imaging were preformed in 200 patients with MS and 197 normal subjects. The patients were further divided into Group 1 (with three metabolic disorders) and Group 2 (with four metabolic disorders) to elucidate the influence of different metabolic components on left ventricular (LV) functions. LV diastolic and systolic functions were determined by the mean systolic strain, SR-LVs and SR-LVe. There were no differences in LVEF among the three groups. However, the mean systolic strain, SR-LVs and SR-LVe, were significantly decreased in Group 1 and Group2 when compared with control subjects (all P<0.001). The mean systolic strain and SR-LVe were lower in Group 2 than Group 1 (all P<0.05). Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the W-H ratio was an independent predictor of the LV systolic function, whereas W-H ratio, HDL cholesterol and SBP were independent predictors of LV diastolic function. In summary, our results demonstrated that LV systolic and diastolic functions were impaired in patients with metabolic syndrome even if they have normal LVEF. Strain and SR imaging would be a sensitive and feasible method to detect subclinical abnormalities in those populations.

Promotion of IL-4- and IL-5-dependent Differentiation of Anti-mu-primed B Cells by Ascorbic Acid 2-glucoside

The stable ascorbic acid derivative 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) was used to investigate the role of ascorbic acid (AA) in B cell differentiation in vitro. AA-2G is stable in a solution unlike AA but is hydrolyzed by cellular alpha-glucosidase to release AA. Mouse spleen B cells were primed for 2 days with an anti-mu antibody in the presence of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 and then washed and recultured with AA-2G in the presence of IL-4 and IL-5. AA-2G, but not AA, dose-dependently increased IgM production, the greatest enhancement being 150% at concentrations of more than 0.5mM. In the absence of IL-4 and IL-5, primed B cells produced a negligible amount of IgM, and AA-2G had no effect. AA-2G-induced IgM production in the presence of IL-4 and IL-5 was inhibited by the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor castanospermine. Intracellular AA content, depleted during the priming period, increased by adding AA-2G at the start of reculture. Treatment of B cells with AA-2G resulted in an increase in the number of IgM-secreting cells, CD138-positive cells and CD45R/B220-negative cells. The number of viable cells in untreated cultures decreased gradually, but the decrease was significantly attenuated by AA-2G, resulting in about 70% more viable cells in AA-2G-treated cultures. AA-2G caused a slight but reproducible enhancement of DNA synthesis and a slight decrease in the number of cells with a sub-G1 DNA content. These results demonstrated that AA released from AA-2G enhanced cytokine-dependent IgM production in anti-mu-primed B cells and suggest that its effect is caused through promoting the differentiation of B cells to plasma cells and attenuating the gradual decrease in the number of viable cells.

The Role of the Photoreceptor ABC Transporter ABCA4 in Lipid Transport and Stargardt Macular Degeneration

ABCA4 is a member of the ABCA subfamily of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters that is expressed in rod and cone photoreceptors of the vertebrate retina. ABCA4, also known as the Rim protein and ABCR, is a large 2,273 amino acid glycoprotein organized as two tandem halves, each containing a single membrane spanning segment followed sequentially by a large exocytoplasmic domain, a multispanning membrane domain and a nucleotide binding domain. Over 500 mutations in the gene encoding ABCA4 are associated with a spectrum of related autosomal recessive retinal degenerative diseases including Stargardt macular degeneration, cone-rod dystrophy and a subset of retinitis pigmentosa. Biochemical studies on the purified ABCA4 together with analysis of abca4 knockout mice and patients with Stargardt disease have implicated ABCA4 as a retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine transporter that facilitates the removal of potentially reactive retinal derivatives from photoreceptors following photoexcitation. Knowledge of the genetic and molecular basis for ABCA4 related retinal degenerative diseases is being used to develop rationale therapeutic treatments for this set of disorders.

TRB3, Upregulated by Ox-LDL, Mediates Human Monocyte-derived Macrophage Apoptosis

Tribble3 (TRB3), a mammalian homolog of Drosophila tribbles, slows cell-cycle progression, and its expression is increased in response to various stresses. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the TRB3 gene in macrophage apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). We found that, in human monocyte-derived macrophages, TRB3 is upregulated by ox-LDL in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cell viability of TRB3-overexpressing macrophages was decreased, but apoptosis was increased and the level of activated caspase-3 increased. Factorial analyses revealed no significant interaction between TRB3 overexpression and ox-LDL stimulation with respect to macrophage apoptosis. Furthermore, TRB3-silenced macrophages showed decreased apoptosis, and TRB3-silenced cells treated with ox-LDL showed significantly increased apoptosis. Silencing of TRB3 and ox-LDL stimulation showed significant interaction for macrophage apoptosis, suggesting that TRB3 knockdown resisted the macrophage apoptosis induced by ox-LDL. Therefore, TRB3 in part mediates the macrophage apoptosis induced by ox-LDL, which suggests that TRB3 might be involved in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque progression.

TRIB3 Functional Q84R Polymorphism is a Risk Factor for Metabolic Syndrome and Carotid Atherosclerosis

To determine the association of TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and carotid atherosclerosis.

Impaired Elastic Properties of the Aorta in Fat-fed, Streptozotocin-treated Rats. Vascular Remodeling in Diabetic Arteries

Vascular complications associated with diabetes are the major cause for the increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. However, the progression of vascular complications in diabetes is not well understood. We aimed to investigate the biomechanical and biochemical changes associated with vascular dysfunction in diabetic rats.

Impaired Left Ventricular Synchronicity in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome, Regardless of Hypertension

To assess the left ventricular (LV) diastolic and systolic synchronicity in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Impaired Atrial Synchronicity in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Associated with Insulin Resistance and Independent of Hypertension

The risk of developing atrial fibrillation is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome, but atrial conduction properties are uncharacterized in patients who have metabolic syndrome without atrial arrhythmia. We used tissue Doppler imaging to evaluate intra- and interatrial synchronicity in such patients. The imaging was performed in 145 patients with metabolic syndrome and 110 controls. Atrial synchronicity was determined from the intervals between the onset of the P-wave to the onset of the A-wave at the left atrial free wall (P-LA), interatrial septum (P-IAS) and right atrial free wall (P-RA). Intra-atrial synchronicity was defined as the differences between P-IAS and P-RA (RA synchronicity) and between P-LA and P-IAS (LA synchronicity). Interatrial synchronicity was defined as the difference between P-LA and P-RA. P-LA and P-IAS were significantly prolonged in the metabolic syndrome group relative to the control group (P-LA: 64.34+/-13.99 vs. 55.35+/-12.67, P<0.001; P-IAS: 36.49+/-12.39 vs. 31.55+/-11.61, P=0.001), whereas P-RA showed no difference. As a result, this caused impaired intra- and interatrial synchronicity in patients with metabolic syndrome. Stepwise multivariate linear analysis revealed insulin resistance as an independent predictor of impaired intra- and interatrial synchronicity. Subgroup analysis indicated that there was no difference in atrial asynchrony between non-hypertensive and hypertensive subgroups in metabolic syndrome patients. In conclusion, patients with metabolic syndrome without atrial arrhythmia have impaired intra- and interatrial synchronicity. Insulin resistance has an important role in impaired atrial conduction in these patients.

Notch-1 Signalling is Activated in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Humans

A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that, compared with control brain vascular tissue, Notch-1 signalling was activated in smooth muscle and endothelial cells of the lesional tissue. Western blotting showed an activated form of Notch-1 in brain arteriovenous malformations, irrespective of clinical presentation and with or without preoperative embolization, but not in normal cerebral vessels from controls. In addition, the Notch-1 ligands Jagged-1 and Delta-like-4 and the downstream Notch-1 target Hes-1 were increased in abundance and activated in human brain arteriovenous malformations. Finally, increased angiogenesis was found in adult rats treated with a Notch-1 activator. Our findings suggest that activation of Notch-1 signalling is a phenotypic feature of brain arteriovenous malformations, and that activation of Notch-1 in normal vasculature induces a pro-angiogenic state, which may contribute to the development of vascular malformations.

Assessment of Arterial Stiffness Affected by Atorvastatin in Coronary Artery Disease Using Pulse Wave Velocity

Several studies have shown arterial stiffness changes associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, statins were reported to improve arterial stiffness. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on arterial stiffness in CAD patients using pulse wave velocity (PWV).

A Genome-wide Association Scan for Rheumatoid Arthritis Data by Hotelling's T2 Tests

ABSTRACT : We performed a genome-wide association scan on the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) data using Hotelling's T2 tests, i.e., TH based on allele coding and TG based on genotype coding. The objective was to identify associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or markers and rheumatoid arthritis. In specific candidate gene regions, we evaluated the performance of Hotelling's T2 tests. Then Hotelling's T2 tests were used as a tool to identify new regions that contain SNPs showing strong associations with disease. As expected, the strongest association evidence was found in the region of the HLA-DRB1 locus on chromosome 6. In the region of the TRAF1-C5 genes, we identified two SNPs, rs2900180 and rs3761847, with the largest and the second largest TH and TG scores among all SNPs on chromosome 9. We also identified one SNP, rs2476601, in the region of the PTPN22 gene that had the largest TH score and the second largest TG score among all SNPs on chromosome 1. In addition, SNPs with the largest TH score on each chromosome were identified. These SNPs may be located in the regions of genes that have modest effects on rheumatoid arthritis. These regions deserve further investigation.

[Extract Human DNA from Maggot Crop Contents by Phenol-chloroform Method Coupled with Paramagnetic Particle Method]

To establish an effective phenol-chloroform method coupled with paramagnetic particle method for human DNA extraction from maggot crop contents in STR genotyping.

Tribble 3, a Novel Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein-inducible Gene, is Induced Via the Activating Transcription Factor 4-C/EBP Homologous Protein Pathway

1. C/EBP homologueueueous protein (CHOP), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible protein, has a critical role in regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis by forming heterodimers with other C/EBP proteins. However, how CHOP function is regulated remains to be determined. The human homologue of Drosophila tribbles (TRIB3) is associated with CHOP and is upregulated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CHOP in ox-LDL-induced TRIB3 expression in macrophages. 2. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were treated with various concentrations of ox-LDL (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 and 50 microg/mL) or 2 microg/mL tunicamycin for 0, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h or were transfected with CHOP or TRIB3 expression plasmid and TRIB3 targeting short interference RNA (siRNA). The expression of CHOP and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) mRNA in treated cells was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 3. The expression of CHOP and ATF4 mRNA increased with increasing concentrations of ox-LDL and duration of time. The ox-LDL-induced expression of TRIB3 mRNA was upregulated later than the expression of CHOP and ATF4 mRNA. Overexpression of CHOP increased the mRNA expression of TRIB3, which was further increased in CHOP-overexpressing macrophages treated with ox-LDL. Overexpression of TRIB3 suppressed the expression of CHOP, whereas TRIB3 silencing increased CHOP expression following ox-LDL stimulation by a negative feedback mechanism. 4. In conclusion, the expression of ATF4 and CHOP is upregulated by ox-LDL in a dose- and time-dependent manner in naturally differentiated human macrophages. Oxidized LDL induces TRIB3 expression via an ATF4/CHOP-dependent ER stress pathway.

IL-18 Overexpression Promotes Vascular Inflammation and Remodeling in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

Although considerable evidence implicates the cytokine interlukin-18 (IL-18) in metabolic syndrome (MetS), the direct effect of IL-18 on vascular changes of MetS remains unknown. We investigated the chronic in vivo effect of IL-18 on development of MetS and vascular inflammation and remodeling by overexpressing IL-18 protein in fructose-fed rats (FFR), a model of MetS using intravenous administration of an adenovirus encoding rat IL-18. Increased serum IL-18 and vascular inflammatory response were found in FFR. Overexpression of IL-18 aggravated insulin resistance and enhance vascular inflammation and remodeling, which can be reflected by increased aortic expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and enhanced infiltration of macrophages and increased aortic wall thickness and wall-to-lumen ratio. Interestingly, the levels of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and the activity of nucleus factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were also significantly increased. Together, these results indicated that chronic elevated IL-18 levels at a supraphsiological concentration aggravated insulin resistance, enhanced vascular inflammation and remodeling, probably by increasing the level of IRAK1 and the activity of NF-kappaB. Targeting expression of IL-18 or its specific downstream mediators may retard the progression of MetS and its complications.

Pleiotropic Effects of Atorvastatin on Monocytes in Atherosclerotic Patients

The objective of this study was to investigate the gene expression signature of monocyte/macrophages and the pleiotropic effects of atorvastatin on monocytes in atherosclerotic patients. Forty patients with coronary heart diseases were randomly assigned to double-blind therapy with either 20 or 80 mg per day of atorvastatin. Follow-up visits occurred at weeks 6 and 12, including complete chemistry and lipid analyses and quantification of 14 target genes in monocytes. After 12 weeks of therapy, both groups gained beneficial alterations in lipid profiles. Both groups experienced significant reductions in gene expression of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, CD13, leptin receptor, matrix metalloproteases-1, legumain, and prolyl oligopeptidase after 12 weeks of therapy. Only tumor protein 53 was increased in the atorvastatin 80-mg group. Moreover, nonsignificant interactions between dosage and duration of therapy were found. The pleiotropic effects of statins in atherosclerotic patients include increased expression of genes involved in apoptosis of monocyte/macrophage, inhibition of inflammatory responses, antioxidant properties, prevention of foam cell formation, and stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. This property fuels potential clinical significance.

New MSPQC-PLS Method for the Early Clinic Identification of Commonly Encountered Candida Species

The early clinic identification of commonly encountered Candida species became more important with the increasing human candidiasis. In this paper, a new MSPQC-PLS (multi-channel series piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensor combined with partial least square) method was proposed for early identification of the most frequent Candida species encountered in human pathology. This method was based on these fact that (1) MSPQC method is a real-time monitoring method based on the sensitive frequency response to the change of electric parameters of the culture media caused by the growth of microorganisms; (2) various Candida species produce significantly different types of frequency curves in 1 or 2 days' culture period; (3) this difference can be identified by the partial least square technique. Using the proposed method, three species (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis) from a collection of 53 clinical strains of Candida, isolated from hospitalized patients, were identified with a classification rate of 98.1%. New proposed MSPQC-PLS method is simple, rapid and convenient to perform. It can identify clinical Candida species directly without passing through pure culture process. This will save identification time greatly. It could be popularized in clinical microbiology laboratories.

Evaluation of Left Ventricular Synchronicity in Hypertensive Patients with Overweight or Obesity

The left ventricular synchronicity in hypertensive patients with overweight or obesity has not been well elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate the left ventricular synchronicity in these patients. Tissue Doppler imaging was performed in 126 hypertensive patients and 25 control subjects. The hypertensive patients were divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight group (BMI <25 kg/m(2), n = 32, H-NW group), overweight group (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2), n = 64, H-OW group), and obese group (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2), n = 30, H-OB group). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic synchronicity were determined by measuring the maximal differences in time to peak myocardial systolic contraction (T(s)-diff) and early diastolic relaxation (T(e)-diff) between any two of the left ventricular segments and the standard deviation of time to peak myocardial systolic contraction (T(s)-SD) and early diastolic relaxation (T(e)-SD) of all 12 segments. Compared with the control group, the indexes of synchronicity including T(s)-diff, T(s)-SD, T(e)-diff, and T(e)-SD were significantly prolonged in the hypertensive patients. Furthermore, although the indexes of blood pressure had no difference among the hypertensive groups, the impaired systolic and diastolic synchronicity including T(s)-diff, T(s)-SD, and T(e)-SD was obviously aggravated with the increasing BMI. Stepwise multivariate analysis revealed BMI as an independent predictor of T(s)-SD and T(e)-SD. Therefore, the impairment of left ventricular synchronicity was aggravated with increasing BMI in hypertensive patients. Overweight and obesity may be important factors to impact the left ventricular synchronicity.

Synthesis of Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Analogs Based on Carbohydrate Scaffolds

Gamma-aminobutyric acid analogs based on sugar scaffolds were prepared in six to nine steps starting from D-glucal and D-galactal. The key step in the synthesis is the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction that affords the corresponding 2-C-formyl glycal on treatment with DMF and POCl(3). Oxidation of the aldehyde and reduction of the 4-azido group provided the corresponding GABA analog. Acylamide and tetrazole analogs were also prepared as the bioisosteres of the carboxylic acid.

Expression of STAMP2 in Monocytes Associates with Cardiovascular Alterations

Metabolic and inflammatory pathways crosstalk at many levels. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of six-transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2) in macrophages and tried to search for the association between the decreased STAMP2 expression, if any, and carotid atherosclerosis as well as cardiac adaptations.

A Powerful Score Test to Detect Positive Selection in Genome-wide Scans

One of the surest signatures of recent positive selection is a local elevation of advantageous allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium (LD). We proposed to detect such hitchhiking effects by using extended stretches of homozygosity as a surrogate indicator of recent positive selection. An extended haplotype-based homozygosity score test (EHHST) was developed to detect excess homozygosity. The EHHST conditioned on existing LD and it tested the haplotype version of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Compared with existing popular tests, which usually lack clear distribution, the EHHST is asymptotically normal, which makes analysis and applications easier. In particular, the EHHST facilitates the computation of an asymptotic P-value instead of an empirical P-value, using simulations. We evaluated by simulation that the EHHST led to appropriate false-positive rates, and it had higher or similar power as the existing popular methods. The method was applied to HapMap Phase II data. We were able to replicate previous findings of strong positive selection in 17 autosome genomic regions out of 20 reported candidates. On the basis of high EHHST values and population differentiations, we identified 15 new candidate regions that could undergo recent selection.

Myocardial Ultrasonic Integrated Backscatter Analysis in Patients with Chronic Atrial Fibrillation

Ultrasonic tissue characterization has the potential to provide quantitative information which could characterize the functional and structural state of cardiac muscle. In this study we aimed to determine whether the integrated backscatter is measurable and quantifiable in left atrial posterior walls in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) and can be used to identify changes in atrial structure and contractility. In 26 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and 20 patients in sinus rhythm (SR), integrated backscatter signal (IBS) was analyzed by acoustic densitometry. Real time IBS was measured from the parasternal long axis view of the left atrial posterior walls. Cyclic variation of IBS (CVIB) was expressed as the difference between end-diastolic (peak) and end-systolic (nadir) IBS values averaged over all cardiac cycles. CVIB values obtained from left atrial posterior wall in atrial fibrillation group were statistically different from control group (P < 0.05). IBS of the left atrial posterior wall indexed by pericardium (IBS%) were higher in patients with AF than in patients with SR (P < 0.05). CVIB and mean IBS values which were obtained with IBS method may be useful to determine myocardial contractile performance and myocardial structural properties, respectively. IBS of the LA posterior wall indexed by pericardium provides an objective quantitative measure of atrial fibrosis.

Optimization of Microwave-assisted Extraction of Protopine and Allocryptopine from Stems of Macleaya Cordata (Willd) R. Br. Using Response Surface Methodology

The purpose of the research was to investigate the multiple response optimizations for the extraction of protopine and allocryptopine from the stems of Macleaya cordata (Willd) R. Br. by using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). A three-level, three-factor Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology was used to develop response model, and desirability function was employed to optimize the effects of main extraction parameters. Three variables, ethanol concentration (20-80%, v/v), extraction temperature (30-70 degrees C) and solvent/solid ratio (10:1 to 30:1, mL/g), were investigated in this study. The results showed that the optimum parameters of MAE were ethanol concentration of 45.2 % (v/v), extraction temperature of 54.7 degrees C and solvent/solid ratio of 20.4:1 (mL/g). Under these conditions, the extraction yields of protopine and allocryptopine were 89.4 and 102.0%, respectively, and the extracta sicca yield was 12.5%. The combination use of response surface methodology, Box-Behnken design and the appropriate desirability function could provide an insight into a lab-scale MAE process, and help to develop procedures for commercial production of active ingredients from medical plants.

Binding of Retinoids to ABCA4, the Photoreceptor ABC Transporter Associated with Stargardt Macular Degeneration

ABCA4 is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which has been implicated in the clearance of all-trans retinal derivatives from rod and cone photoreceptor cells following photoexcitation as part of the visual cycle. Mutations in ABCA4 are known to cause Stargardt macular degeneration and related disorders, associated with a severe loss in vision. Recently, a solid-phase binding assay has been developed to identify retinoids that likely serve as substrates for this transporter. In this procedure, monoclonal antibodies directed either against an epitope within ABCA4 (Rim 3F4 antibody) or against the 9 amino acid 1D4 epitope tag engineered onto the C-terminus of expressed ABCA4 (Rho 1D4 antibody) are covalently bound to a Sepharose matrix. This immunoaffinity matrix is then used to isolate ABCA4 from photoreceptor outer segments or transfected cells. All-trans retinal is added to immobilized ABCA4 in the presence of a phospholipid mixture containing phosphatidylethanolamine. The bound retinoid is then analyzed directly by spectrophotometry or identified by HPLC and/or mass spectrometry following extraction with organic solvents. Using this procedure, it has been shown that unprotonated N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine binds with high affinity to ABCA4 and is released by the addition of ATP. These procedures and related radiometric assays using titrated retinal have been used to study the binding of N-retinylidene-PE to wild-type and mutant ABCA4 in the absence and presence of nucleotides for structure-function studies.

Increased Serum Levels of Microvesicles in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Determinated by ELISA Using a Specific Monoclonal Antibody AD-1

Microvesicles are involved in different pathological processes such as inflammation, coagulation and tumor progression. We intended to establish an immunoaffinity capture method for detecting microvesicles and bioactive effectors carried on them using a specific homemade monoclonal antibody AD-1. By this method we investigated the association of inflammation with platelet activation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

Comparative Studies on the Interaction of Caffeic Acid, Chlorogenic Acid and Ferulic Acid with Bovine Serum Albumin

The substitution of the hydrogen on aromatic and esterification of carboxyl group of the phenol compounds plays an important role in their bio-activities. In this paper, caffeic acid (CaA), chlorogenic acid (ChA) and ferulic acid (FA) were selected to investigate the binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the methoxyl group substituting for the 3-hydroxyl group of CaA decreased the affinity for BSA and the esterification of carboxyl group of CaA with quinic acid increased the affinities. The affinities of ChA and FA with BSA were more sensitive to the temperature than that of CaA with BSA. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence indicated that the Stern-Volmer plots largely deviated from linearity at high concentrations and were caused by complete quenching of the tyrosine fluorescence of BSA.

[Isolation, Identification, and Degrading Characteristics of a High-efficient Pyrene-degrading Bacterial Strain]

By using selective enrichment culture with pyrene as the sole carbon source, a pyrene-degrading bacterial strain ZQ5 was isolated from the oil-contaminated soil in Shenfu Irrigation Area. The strain was identified as Stenotrophomonas sp., based on its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics, and similarity identification of 16S rDNA sequence. The pyrene-degrading characteristics and the effects of culture condition on the degrading efficiency of the strain were investigated by shaking flask culture. After shaking culture with the initial concentration of pyrene being 100 mg x L(-1) at 30 degrees C for 10 days, the degradation rate of pyrene was 91.2%. Adding 100 mg x L(-1) of alicylic acid into culture medium could enhance the degrading efficiency of the strain. For the degradation of pyrene by ZQ5, the optimal medium pH was 7-8, and the optimal salt concentration was lower than 2%.

[The Relationship Between Prevalence of Pathogenicity Islands Genes of Porphyromonas Gingivalis and Chronic Periodontitis]

To investigate PG0836, PG0838, and PG0839 genes of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) in subgingival plaque of the chronic periodontitis patients, and find out the relationship between the prevalence of these three genes and the periodontal clinical parameters.

The Role of Thrombospondin-1-mediated TGF-β1 on Collagen Type III Synthesis Induced by High Glucose

Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has been thought to play a major role during cardiac fibrosis in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy, and cardiac fibrosis mainly as a result of an increase of collagen type III occurs in the human hearts with diabetes. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been reported to activate the latent complex of TGF-β1. We examined the effects of TSP-1 on the expression of TGF-β1 and collagen type III by rat cardiac fibroblasts in high ambient glucose. We demonstrated that high glucose induces the mRNA and protein expression of collagen type III, TGF-β1, and TSP-1. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression of collagen type III induced by high glucose was downregulated after treatment with TGF-β1 antibody, or TSP-1 siRNA. The expression of TGF-β1 increased by high glucose was also reversed after treatment with TSP-1 siRNA. Our findings suggest that the TSP-1 participates in the upregulation of TGF-β1, collagen type III by high glucose and may provide new therapeutic strategies for diabetic cardiomyopathy.

Neurogenesis in Adult Human Brain After Traumatic Brain Injury

While much work has been conducted regarding the neurogenesis response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodents, it remains largely unknown whether neurogenesis in adult human brain also responds to TBI in a similar manner. Here, we performed immunocytochemistry on eleven brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury, who underwent surgical intervention. We found that expression of neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) protein markers including DCX, TUC4, PSA-NCAM, SOX2 and NeuroD were increased in the perilesional cortex of human brain after TBI, compared to normal brain. Confocal images showed that these NSC proteins were expressed in one single cell. We also found that proliferative markers were expressed in NSC protein-positive cells after TBI, and the number of proliferative NSCs was significantly increased after TBI. Our data suggest that TBI may also induce neurogenesis in human brain.

"Triple Therapy" Rather Than "triple Threat": a Meta-analysis of the Two Antithrombotic Regimens After Stent Implantation in Patients Receiving Long-term Oral Anticoagulant Treatment

An increasing number of patients with an indication for long-term oral anticoagulation (OAC) have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation (PCI-s). However, the optimal antithrombotic treatment for these patients is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the benefits and risks of triple antithrombotic therapy (combined aspirin, clopidogrel, and OAC) after stent implantation in patients under long-term OAC treatment compared with dual antiplatelet therapy (combined aspirin and clopidogrel).

Dysregulation of Claudin Family Genes in Colorectal Cancer in a Chinese Population

Claudins play an important role in tumor metastasis and in invasiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have evaluated the relationship between CRC and expression of the claudin genes in Chinese patients with CRC. We measured CLDN1 and CLDN7 mRNA using quantitative PCR, and protein levels with immunohistochemistry in cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissue. Cancer tissues had significantly higher levels of CLDN1, and significantly lower levels of CLDN3, CLDN4, and CLDN7 than did normal tissue. CLDN3, CLDN4, and CLDN7 expression levels were higher in CRC of the protruded type than in CRC of the infiltrative type. Expression of CLDN7 correlated with lymph node metastasis. Stage N0 cancer tissues had higher levels of CLDN7 than did stages N1 and N2, suggesting that CLDN7 expression was closely related to the extent of lymph node metastasis. CLDN1 protein was upregulated, but CLDN7 protein was downregulated in cancer tissues when compared with expression in adjacent normal tissues. In conclusion, CLDN3, CLDN4, and CLDN7 were significantly downregulated, whereas CLDN1 was significantly upregulated in CRC. The altered expression of claudin genes may play a role in the initiation and development of CRC.

Role of RANK-RANKL-OPG Axis in Cranial Suture Homeostasis

Craniosynostosis is a significant disorder affecting 1 in 2500 live births worldwide. Although a large body of work has focused on dural regulation and the contributions of molecular mediators such as fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, and transforming growth factor β, minimal attention has been directed toward osteoclast function in cranial suture biology. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) is an essential mediator of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. In this study, physiologic fusion of posterior frontal sutures in murine development correlated with decreasing protein expression of RANK in comparison to age-matched coronal and sagittal sutures via immunohistochemical survey. However, RANK mRNA did not exhibit a similar pattern suggesting that RANK is regulated at the protein level. Fused cranial sutures in nonsyndromic craniosynostotic children also showed decreased levels of RANK staining in immunohistochemistry in comparison to patent sutures from the same patients. Immunohistochemistry with a RANK ligand antibody did not show differences in fused or patent sutures. Moreover, RANK knockdown in calvarial strip suture cultures displayed increased bone density specifically in the suture line after infection with small interfering RANK viruses. Cranial suture biology, similar to bone biology in general, likely depends on a complex interplay between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. We now report a temporospatial correlation between RANK expression and suture morphology that suggests that osteoclast activity is important in maintenance of cranial suture patency in normal physiology and disease. Furthermore, RANK downregulation promoted suture fusion establishing a causal relationship between the presence of RANK and patency.

Computed Tomography Angiography Based Emergency Microsurgery for Massive Intracranial Hematoma Arising from Arteriovenous Malformations

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography are the imaging modalities for the detection of intracranial arteriovenous malformations. However, these modalities are time consuming and cannot be used in emergency conditions. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has also been shown to reliably detect vascular disorders such as cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

[Inhibitory Effects of Porphyromonas Endodontalis Lipopolysaccharides on Proliferation and Differentiation of Mouse Osteoblast]

To observe the effect of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe) on osteoblast cell proliferation and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion and to investigate the role of Pe-LPS in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.

The Effect of Pitavastatin Calcium on Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Hypercholesterolemia

To investigate whether endothelial function can be improved by the treatment of pitavastatin calcium via its antioxidant properties in hypercholesteremia patients.

Differential Gene Expression During Atrial Structural Remodeling in Human Left and Right Atrial Appendages in Atrial Fibrillation

Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling increases the vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF). Some gene expressions are crucial for the metabolism of ECM. The left atrium plays an important role in maintaining AF. However, most studies investigated only the right atrial tissue. We therefore chose human tissue samples from both the left and right atrial to detect the different gene expressions during structural remodeling in AF. The atrial appendages tissue samples from 24 patients with chronic AF and 12 patients with sinus rhythm were obtained when they were undergoing mitral/aortic valve replacement operation. The mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), disintegrin, metalloproteases-15, and integrins β1 were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In AF group, the level of MMP-9 in left atrial appendage (LAA) was increased (P< 0.001), while integrin β1 level was decreased (P< 0.05) compared with those expressed in right atrial appendage (RAA) tissue. The levels of disintegrin, metalloproteinases-15, and TIMP-1 genes in the LAA and RAA had no significant differences. The results demonstrated that the gene expressions in the LAA and RAA are different during AF, which implied that the mechanism of atrial structural remodeling in AF is due to multiple sources and is complicated.

Receptor-mediated Cellular Uptake Mechanism That Couples to Intracellular Storage

Cells are known to take up molecules through membrane transport mechanisms such as active transport, channels, and facilitated transport. We report here a new membrane transport mechanism that employs neither cellular energy like active transport nor a preexisting electrochemical gradient of the free substrate like channels or facilitated transport. Through this mechanism, cells take up vitamin A bound with high affinity to retinol binding protein (RBP) in the blood. This mechanism is mediated by the RBP receptor STRA6, which defines a new type of cell-surface receptor. STRA6 is essential for the proper functioning of multiple human organs, but the mechanisms that enable and control its cellular vitamin A uptake activity are unknown. We found that STRA6-mediated vitamin A uptake is tightly coupled to specific intracellular retinoid storage proteins, but no single intracellular protein is absolutely required for its transport activity. By developing sensitive real-time monitoring techniques, we found that STRA6 is not only a membrane receptor but also catalyzes vitamin A release from RBP. However, vitamin A released from RBP by STRA6 inhibits further vitamin A release by STRA6 unless specific intracellular retinoid storage proteins relieve this inhibition. This mechanism is responsible for its coupling to intracellular storage proteins. The coupling of uptake to storage provides high specificity in cellular uptake of vitamin A and prevents the excessive accumulation of free vitamin A. We have also identified a robust small-molecule-based technique to specifically stimulate cellular vitamin A uptake. This technique has implications in treating human diseases.

Factor V Leiden and Thrombosis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): a Meta-analysis

Testing for genetic risks of Factor V Leiden ( FVL ) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with thromboembolism (TE) is common, but the safety and utility of such testing need review.

Identification of Forensically Important Sarcophagid Flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in China, Based on COI and 16S RDNA Gene Sequences

Insects attracted to cadavers may provide important indications of the postmortem interval (PMI). However, use of the flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) for PMI estimation is limited as the species are often not morphologically distinct, especially as immatures. In this study, 23 forensically important flesh flies were collected from 13 locations in 10 Chinese provinces. Then, a 278-bp segment of the cytochrome oxidase subunits one (COI) gene and a 289-bp segment of the 16S rDNA gene of all specimens were successfully sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced segments showed that all sarcophagid specimens were properly assigned into four species (Boerttcherisca peregrina [Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830], Helicophagella melanura [Meigen, 1826], Parasarcophaga albiceps [Meigen, 1826], and Parasarcophaga dux [Thompson, 1869]) with relatively strong supporting values, thus indicating that the COI and 16S rDNA regions are suitable for identification of sarcophagid species. The difference between intraspecific threshold and interspecific divergence confirmed the potential of the two regions for sarcophagid species identification.

Formulation Optimization of Chelerythrine Loaded O-carboxymethylchitosan Microspheres Using Response Surface Methodology

The aims of this investigation were to develop a procedure to prepare chelerythrine (CHE) loaded O-carboxymethylchitosan (O-CMCS) microspheres by emulsion cross-linking method and optimize the process and formulation variables using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-level, three-factor Box-Behnken design (BBD). The independent variables studied were O-CMCS/CHE ratio, O/W phase ratio, and O-CMCS concentration, dependent variables (responses) were drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. The process and formulation variables were optimized to achieve maximum drug loading content and entrapment efficiency by the desirability function. The optimized microsphere formulation was characterized for particle size, shape, morphology and in vitro drug release. Results for mean particle size, drug loading content, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release of CHE-loaded O-CMCS microspheres were found to be of 12.18 μm, 4.16 ± 3.36%, 57.40 ± 2.30%, and 54.5% at pH 7.4 after 70 h, respectively. The combination use of RSM, BBD and desirability function could provide a promising application for O-CMCS as controlled drug delivery carrier and help to develop procedures for a lab-scale microemulsion process.

TRB3 Gene Silencing Alleviates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

Tribbles 3 (TRB3) is associated with insulin resistance, an important trigger in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We sought to determine whether TRB3 plays a major role in modulating DCM and the mechanisms involved.

MYCT1-TV, a Novel MYCT1 Transcript, is Regulated by C-Myc and May Participate in Laryngeal Carcinogenesis

MYCT1, a putative target of c-Myc, is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene cloned from laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Its transcriptional regulation and biological effects on LSCC have not been clarified.

[Initial Study of Biological Characterization and Virulence of Porphyromonas Gingivalis PG0839-defective Mutant]

To study the effect of PG0839 gene form Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) on biological characterization and virulence in a murine model of soft tissue destruction, and further to provide evidence for clarifying the gene function of PG0839.

[Effect of CD-14 and Toll Like Receptors on the Expression of Interleukin-6 Induced by Lipopolysaccharides of Porphyromonas Endodontalis]

To evaluate the effect of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD-14) and Toll like receptors (TLR) on the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA induced by Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe) lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

[Study on Expression of Treg Cells in Attenuated Schistosoma Japonicum Cercariae Immunized BALB/c Mice]

To study the expression differences of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cells between the attenuated cercariae immunized mice and the normal infected mice and discuss the immune protection mechanisms of the mice immunized with attenuated cercariae.

[Identification of Schisandra Sphenanthera and S. Chinensis by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Sequence Characterized Applied Region]

To establish a new method for the identification of Schisandra sphenanthera and S. chinensis.

Erythropoietin Receptor Antibody Inhibits Oxidative Stress Induced Retinal Neovascularization in Mice

To observe the effect of erythropoietin receptor antibody (EpoRA) on oxygen-induced retinal neovascularization.

Signal Transduction During Cold, Salt, and Drought Stresses in Plants

Abiotic stresses, especially cold, salinity and drought, are the primary causes of crop loss worldwide. Plant adaptation to environmental stresses is dependent upon the activation of cascades of molecular networks involved in stress perception, signal transduction, and the expression of specific stress-related genes and metabolites. Plants have stress-specific adaptive responses as well as responses which protect the plants from more than one environmental stress. There are multiple stress perception and signaling pathways, some of which are specific, but others may cross-talk at various steps. In this review article, we first expound the general stress signal transduction pathways, and then highlight various aspects of biotic stresses signal transduction networks. On the genetic analysis, many cold induced pathways are activated to protect plants from deleterious effects of cold stress, but till date, most studied pathway is ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway. The Salt-Overly-Sensitive (SOS) pathway, identified through isolation and study of the sos1, sos2, and sos3 mutants, is essential for maintaining favorable ion ratios in the cytoplasm and for tolerance of salt stress. Both ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways appear to be involved in osmotic stress tolerance. ROS play a dual role in the response of plants to abiotic stresses functioning as toxic by-products of stress metabolism, as well as important signal transduction molecules and the ROS signaling networks can control growth, development, and stress response. Finally, we talk about the common regulatory system and cross-talk among biotic stresses, with particular emphasis on the MAPK cascades and the cross-talk between ABA signaling and biotic signaling.

Molecular Characterization and Expression Pattern of an Odorant Receptor from the Myiasis-causing Blowfly, Lucilia Sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

The blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a facultative ectoparasite that causes myiasis in both man and animals, leading to serious human health problems and economic losses in the livestock industry. Like other insects, olfaction of this species plays an important role in host location and is presumably mediated by a seven transmembrane receptor family. Here, we isolate and characterize LserOR1, which is the first candidate member of the odorant receptor gene family from L. sericata. LserOR1 displayed high amino acid conservation with previously identified Or83b orthologs from different insect species. The transcripts of LserOR1 were detected in the major olfactory organs including the antennae and maxillary palps, as well as in traditionally non-olfactory tissues such as the legs and female ovipositors. In developmental studies, a quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed and validated for determining the relative expression levels of LserOR1 during several stages. In contrast to its extremely high expression in the adult stage, LserOR1 expression was at the lowest level during the egg stage, and then increased to a peak through the first two larval stages before declining in the third-instar stage. These results suggest that a broadly expressed LserOR1 receptor is likely to be essential for olfactory sensory processes throughout the lifetime of L. sericata. The present study provides the information that may aid in the development of novel blowfly repellents using olfactory proteins as molecular targets.

An Integrative View on the Carotid Artery Alterations in Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multiple risk factor paradigm widely considered in risk management. We aimed to investigate carotid artery alterations in MetS and the underlying risk factors.

Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein-dependent Platelet-derived Microvesicles Trigger Procoagulant Effects and Amplify Oxidative Stress

The fundamental mechanisms that underlie platelet activation in atherothrombosis are still obscure. Oxidative stress is involved in central features of atherosclerosis. Platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs) could be important mediators between oxidative stress and platelet activation. CD36 could be a receptor of PMVs, thus generating a PMV-CD36 complex. We aimed to investigate the detailed pathway by which oxidative damage contributes to platelet activation by the PMV-CD36 complex. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein stimulated the generation of PMVs. PMVs enhanced normal platelet activation, as assessed by the expression of integrin α(IIb)β₃, secretion of soluble P-selectin and platelet aggregation, but CD36-deficient platelets were not activated by PMVs. The function of the PMV-CD36 complex was mediated by the MKK4/JNK2 signaling axis. Meanwhile, PMVs increased the level of 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α, a marker of oxidative stress, in a CD36- and phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. We concluded that PMVs are important mediators between oxidative stress and platelet activation. PMVs and CD36 may be effective targets for preventing platelet activation in cardiovascular diseases.

MiR-24 Functions As a Tumor Suppressor in Hep2 Laryngeal Carcinoma Cells Partly Through Down-regulation of the S100A8 Protein

microRNAs, a family of small non-coding RNAs, regulating approximately 30% of all human genes are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers, including laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Here, we demonstrate that miR-24 is down-regulated in human LSCC tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-24 in Hep2 cells significantly induced cell morphology changes and inhibited cell proliferation and invasion ability in vitro by targeting S100A8 at the translational level. Meanwhile, miR-24 could significantly inhibit Hep2 cell invasion after S100A8 protein blockade. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-24 may function as a tumor suppressor in LSCC through down-regulation of S100A8, which suggests that miR-24 could serve as a novel potential maker for LSCC therapy.

Altered MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Retinas with Diabetic Retinopathy

Rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were studied in order to identify abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and to ascertain miRNAs associated with DR. Histopathologically, we observed characteristic features of DR in rats at 10 weeks after STZ injection. Investigation of miRNA expression profiles in the retinas of control and diabetic rats using miRNA microarrays revealed that many miRNAs were abnormally expressed in DR. On the basis of their fold changes and probability values, a total of 37 miRNAs were selected for further validation by real-time PCR analysis. The results showed that 11 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and 6 miRNAs were notably downregulated in DR. Furthermore, these changes in retinal miRNA expression levels paralleled the course of DR. Levels of miR-182, miR-96, miR-183, miR-211, miR-204, and miR-124 were significantly increased during the progress of DR, whereas miR-10b, miR-10a, miR-219-2-3p, miR-144, miR-338, and miR-199a-3p were significantly decreased. Our data indicate that the aberrant miRNA expression profiles in DR are associated with the development of DR. Modulation of retinal miRNA expression levels may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for DRs.

Silence of TRIB3 Suppresses Atherosclerosis and Stabilizes Plaques in Diabetic ApoE-/-/LDL Receptor-/- Mice

Insulin resistance triggers the developments of diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) is involved in insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate whether TRIB3 is implicated in diabetic atherosclerosis. Sixty 3-week-old apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-)/LDR receptor (LDLR-/-) mice were randomly divided into chow and diabetes groups. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin. Mice in both groups were randomly divided into vehicle and TRIB3-silencing groups. After transfection, all mice were killed to evaluate the effects of TRIB3 on atherosclerosis. Silence of TRIB3 markedly decreased insulin resistance (P=0.039) and glucose (P=0.019), regardless of diabetes. Ultrasonography-measured parameters were similar in both groups, with and without silence of TRIB3. However, silence of TRIB3 decreased the aortic atherosclerotic burden (P=1×10(-13)). Further study showed that in brachiocephalic lesions, fibrous cap thickness, cap-to-core ratio, collagen content, and the number of smooth muscle cells were significantly increased (P<0.01 for all) by silence of TRIB3, whereas lipid and macrophage contents remained unaltered, with the vulnerability index significantly reduced. Moreover, the numbers of apoptotic cells and macrophages in brachiocephalic lesions were both significantly decreased (P<0.01 for both). Macrophage migration was decreased (P=4×10(-4)) by knocking down TRIB3, whereas adhesion and phagocytosis were increased (P<0.05 for both). Silence of TRIB3 would diminish atherosclerotic burden and increase the plaque stability in diabetic mice.

Silencing of the DEK Gene Induces Apoptosis and Senescence in CaSki Cervical Carcinoma Cells Via the Up-regulation of NF-κB P65

The human DEK proto-oncogene has been found to play an important role in autoimmune disease, viral infection and human carcinogenesis. Although it is transcriptionally up-regulated in cervical cancer, its intracellular function and regulation is still unexplored. In the present study, DEK and IκBα [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) α] shRNAs (short hairpin RNAs) were constructed and transfected into CaSki cells using Lipofectamine™. The stable cell line CaSki-DEK was obtained after G418 selection. CaSki-IκB cells were observed at 48 h after psiRNA-IκB transfection. The inhibitory efficiency of shRNAs were detected by RT (reverse transcription)-PCR and Western blot analysis. The proliferation activity of cells were measured using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay, cell apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V/PI (propidium iodide) kit, the cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry and cell senescence was detected using senescence β-galactosidase staining. The intracellular expression of NF-κB p65 protein was studied by cytochemistry. The expression levels of NF-κB p65, p50, c-Rel, IκBα and phospho-IκBα protein were analysed by immunoblotting in whole-cell lysates, cytosolic fractions and nuclear extracts. The protein expression and activity of p38 and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) were also assayed. In addition, the NF-κB p65 DNA-binding activity was measured by ELISA. Following the silencing of DEK and IκBα, cell proliferation was inhibited, apoptosis was increased, the cell cycle was blocked in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in the G2/M-phase, and cell senescence was induced. All of these effects may be related to the up-regulation of NF-κB p65 expression and its nuclear translocation.

A Qualitative Exploration of the Role of Antiretroviral Therapy on Chinese Rural Life

To explore factors influencing the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in rural China.

[Expression and Clinical Significance of Tumor-associated Macrophages and Microvessel Density in Ameloblastomas]

To investigate the expression and clinical significance of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and microvessel density (MVD) in ameloblastomas (ABs).

Prostaglandin F2α Facilitates Collagen Synthesis in Cardiac Fibroblasts Via an F-prostanoid Receptor/protein Kinase C/Rho Kinase Pathway Independent of Transforming Growth Factor β1

Accumulation of collagen I and III in the myocardium is a prominent feature of interstitial fibrosis. Prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) facilitates fibrosis by increasing collagen synthesis. However, the underlying mechanisms mediating the effect of PGF(2α) on collagen expression in cardiac fibroblasts are not yet fully elucidated. We measured the mRNA and protein levels of collagen I and III by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Activation of signaling pathways was determined by western blot analysis. In primary rat cardiac fibroblasts, treatment with PGF(2α) stimulated both the mRNA and protein levels of collagen I and III, and pretreatment with the F-prostanoid (FP) receptor antagonist AL-8810, protein kinase C inhibitor LY-333531, and Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 significantly inhibited PGF(2α)-induced collagen I and III expression. FP receptor, protein kinase C, and Rho kinase were activated with PGF(2α) treatment. PGF(2α) may be an important regulator in the synthesis of collagen I and III via an FP receptor/protein kinase C/Rho kinase cascade in cardiac fibroblasts, which might be a new therapeutic target for myocardial fibrosis.

[Analysis of Prognostic Factors on Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Caused Oculomotor Nerve Palsy]

To study and analyze the factors affecting the recovery of posterior communicating artery aneurysm-induced oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP).

Label-free Quantitation of Peptide Release from Neurons in a Microfluidic Device with Mass Spectrometry Imaging

Microfluidic technology allows the manipulation of mass-limited samples and when used with cultured cells, enables control of the extracellular microenvironment, making it well suited for studying neurons and their response to environmental perturbations. While matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) provides for off-line coupling to microfluidic devices for characterizing small-volume extracellular releasates, performing quantitative studies with MALDI is challenging. Here we describe a label-free absolute quantitation approach for microfluidic devices. We optimize device fabrication to prevent analyte losses before measurement and then incorporate a substrate that collects the analytes as they flow through a collection channel. Following collection, the channel is interrogated using MS imaging. Rather than quantifying the sample present via MS peak height, the length of the channel containing appreciable analyte signal is used as a measure of analyte amount. A linear relationship between peptide amount and band length is suggested by modeling the adsorption process and this relationship is validated using two neuropeptides, acidic peptide (AP) and α-bag cell peptide [1-9] (αBCP). The variance of length measurement, defined as the ratio of standard error to mean value, is as low as 3% between devices. The limit of detection (LOD) of our system is 600 fmol for AP and 400 fmol for αBCP. Using appropriate calibrations, we determined that an individual Aplysia bag cell neuron secretes 0.15 ± 0.03 pmol of AP and 0.13 ± 0.06 pmol of αBCP after being stimulated with elevated KCl. This quantitation approach is robust, does not require labeling, and is well suited for miniaturized off-line characterization from microfluidic devices.

[Construction PG0839 Gene-defective Mutant of Porphyromonas Gingivalis]

In order to determine the function of PG0839 gene from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) W83 strains, we intended to create a mutant in the PG0839 gene by homologous recombination.

[Effect of Carisolv on Endodontic Microleakage]

To evaluate the effect of Carisolv on endodontic microleakage by establishing a fluid transport model using sodium nitrite as tracer.

Cadmium-induced DNA Damage and Mutations in Arabidopsis Plantlet Shoots Identified by DNA Fingerprinting

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) test is a feasible method to evaluate the toxicity of environmental pollutants on vegetal organisms. Herein, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plantlets following Cadmium (Cd) treatment for 26 d were screened for DNA genetic alterations by DNA fingerprinting. Four primers amplified 20-23 mutated RAPD fragments in 0.125-3.0 mg L(-1) Cd-treated Arabidopsis plantlets, respectively. Cloning and sequencing analysis of eight randomly selected mutated fragments revealed 99-100% homology with the genes of VARICOSE-Related, SLEEPY1 F-box, 40S ribosomal protein S3, phosphoglucomutase, and noncoding regions in Arabidopsis genome correspondingly. The results show the ability of RAPD analysis to detect significant genetic alterations in Cd-exposed seedlings. Although the exact functional importance of the other mutated bands is unknown, the presence of mutated loci in Cd-treated seedlings, prior to the onset of significant physiological effects, suggests that these altered loci are the early events in Cd-treated Arabidopsis seedlings and would greatly improve environmental risk assessment.

Natural Killer T-cell Lymphoma Originating from the Orbit

Natural killer T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) is a malignant neoplasm which usually involves the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, while an orbit origin is extremely rare. Here we report the clinical, radiological and histopathologic features of a patient with NKTL originating from the orbit. We analyzed the clinical and radiologic records in the whole course of the disease. We also reviewed the morphology and immunohistochemistry of the neoplasm biopsy, including the presence of CD56, CD3 and cytotoxic molecules. This case demonstrated that nasal-type NKTL with a poor prognosis can originate from the orbit.

STRA6-catalyzed Vitamin A Influx, Efflux, and Exchange

Vitamin A has diverse biological functions and is essential for human survival. STRA6 is the high-affinity membrane receptor for plasma retinol binding protein (RBP), the principle and specific carrier of vitamin A (retinol) in the blood. It was previously shown that STRA6 couples to lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) and cellular retinol binding protein I (CRBP-I), but poorly to CRBP-II, for retinol uptake from holo-RBP. STRA6 catalyzes both retinol release from holo-RBP, which is responsible for its retinol uptake activity, and the loading of free retinol into apo-RBP, which can cause retinol efflux. Although STRA6-catalyzed retinol efflux into apo-RBP can theoretically deplete cells of retinoid, it is unclear to what extent this efflux happens and in what context. We show here that STRA6 can couple strongly to both CRBP-I and CRBP-II for retinol efflux to apo-RBP. Strikingly, pure apo-RBP can cause almost complete depletion of retinol taken up by CRBP-I in a STRA6-dependent manner. However, if STRA6 encounters both holo-RBP and apo-RBP (as in blood), holo-RBP blocks STRA6-mediated retinol efflux by competing with apo-RBP's binding to STRA6 and by counteracting retinol efflux with influx. We also found that STRA6 catalyzes efficient retinol exchange between intracellular CRBP-I and extracellular RBP, even in the presence of holo-RBP. STRA6's retinol exchange activity may serve to refresh the intracellular retinoid pool. This exchange is also a previously unknown function of CRBP-I and distinguishes CRBP-I from LRAT.

β1 Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms and Heart Failure: a Meta-analysis on Susceptibility, Response to β-blocker Therapy and Prognosis

The risk stratification of patients for heart failure (HF) remains a challenge, as well as the anticipation of the response to β-blocker therapy. Since the pivotal role of β1 adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) in HF, many publications have studied the associations between the β1-AR polymorphisms (Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly) and HF, with inconsistent results. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis of studies to evaluate the impact of β1-AR polymorphisms on susceptibility to HF, the response to β-blocker therapy and the prognosis of HF.

The Synthesis of 2-deoxy-α-D-glycosides from D-glycals Catalyzed by TMSI and PPh3

2-Deoxyglycosides were synthesized in high α-selectivity by the direct addition of alcohols to D-glucal and D-galactal catalyzed by TMSI and PPh(3). The acid labile isopropylidene group is tolerated under this condition.

[The Antibacterial Properties of Ca and Zn-containing Coatings Prepared with Micro-arc Oxidation]

To prepare Ca and Zn-containing coatings using micro-arc oxidation on pure titanium surface and to investigate the coatings effect on S.mutans adhesion and morphology.

[Leiomyoma of Tongue: a Case Report]

Oral leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle tumor. Leiomyoma occurs most frequently in the uterine myometrium, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Occurrence in the oral cavity is considered rare, probably because of the paucity of smooth muscle tissue at this area. Smooth muscle tumors can occur at any age and usually appear as a slow growing, firm submucosal nodule. Most lesions are asymptomatic, although occasional tumors can be painful. The most common sites are lips, palate and tongue. The diagnosis of leiomyoma in the oral cavity is mainly determined by histological studies. The purpose of this article is to present a case of a 48 year-old woman with a leiomyoma of tongue.

[17-β Estradiol Promotes the Expression of Interleukin-6 in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells Infected with Porphyromonas Gingivalis]

To investigate the effects of 17-β estradiol (E(2)) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) W83 on the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLC).

Expression of Phosphorylated MTOR and Its Regulatory Protein is Related to Biological Behaviors of Ameloblastoma

The present study investigated the relationship between the expression of p-mTOR, p-4EBP1 and p-p70S6K in the cytoplasm and nucleus of ameloblastoma (AB) cells and the invasiveness of ABs. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of p-mTOR, p-4EBP1 and p-p70S6K in ABs and the level of these proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm was scored. There was ectopic expression of p-mTOR in ABs. 27 AB patients were positive for p-mTOR expression in the nucleus and 47 for p-mTOR expression in the cytoplasm. The ectopic expression of p-4EBP-1 was also noted. 23 patients (27%) were positive for p-4EBP-1 expression in the nucleus and 55 (64.7%) for p-4EBP-1 expression in the cytoplasm. The ectopic expression of p-p70S6K was also noted. Of these patients, 33 were positive for p-p70S6K expression in the nucleus (38.8%) and 45 for p-p70S6K expression in the cytoplasm (52.9%). Statistical analysis showed the expression of three proteins in the nucleus of patients with recurrent cancer was markedly higher than that in those with primary cancer. The expression of p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K in the nucleus was related to the invasiveness of ABs. Multivariable analysis with Cox proportional hazards model showed the p-mTOR expression had influence on AB recurrence (OR: 6.417, 95%CI: 1.428-28.824). The possibility of AB recurrence in patients with nuclear p-mTOR expression was 6.417 folds higher than that in those with cytoplasmic p-mTOR expression. The nuclear expression of p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K was associated with biological behaviors (invasiveness) of ABs, and p-mTOR was an independent predictor of AB.

Effects of Echinacoside on Histio-central Levels of Active Mass in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rats

To investigate the effects of echinacoside on the extracellular striatal levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA), 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylethanoid acid (DOPAC), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO rats.

Study of Carbohydrate-protein Interactions Using Glyco-QDs with Different Fluorescence Emission Wavelengths

QDs with different fluorescence emission wavelengths were coated with galactose, glucose, and lactose respectively. The formulas of glyco-QDs were determined by NMR and ICP-OES, and the interactions between glyco-QDs and PNA lectin were investigated by SPR. The results showed that multivalent presentation achieved by using QDs as the scaffold is an effective way to enhance the carbohydrate-protein interactions. The K(D) for the interaction of PNA with multivalent glyco-QDs is over 3 × 10(6)-fold lower than those with the same free sugars. The specific recognition for the sugar coated on the QDs by lectin is maintained. These sugar-coated QDs could be used as a fluorescent probe to label and identify glycoproteins.

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation As a Bridge Therapy for Massive Pulmonary Embolism After Esophagectomy

Colonic Stenting Vs Emergent Surgery for Acute Left-sided Malignant Colonic Obstruction: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

To investigate the effects of emergent preoperative self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) vs emergent surgery for acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction.

Induction of Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells by Artemisinin Through Activation of ERK and P38 MAPK Signaling Pathways

Growth of neurite processes is a critical step in neuronal development, regeneration, differentiation, and response to injury. The discovery of compounds that can stimulate neurite formation would be important for developing new therapeutics against both neurodegenerative disorders and trauma-induced neuronal injuries. Semisynthetic derivatives of artemisinin, an active compound in Artemisia annua, have been effectively used in malaria treatment, but they have been shown to possess neurotoxic potential. In this study, we found unexpectedly that artemisinin and its derivatives induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Artemisinins containing an endoperoxide bridge such as artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin induced growth of neurite processes at concentrations that were slightly cytotoxic, artemisinin having the most potent maximal effect among them. Deoxyartemisinin, which lacks the endoperoxide bridge, was ineffective. Artemisinin-treated cells expressed increased levels of the neuronal marker β(III)-tubulin. Artemisinin upregulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), critical signaling molecules in neuronal differentiation. Consistent with activation of the two MAPKs, neurite outgrowth induced by artemisinin was inhibited by the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Artemisinin also induced phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) that was almost completely attenuated by PD98059 but not by SB203580. Taken together, our results indicate that artemisinin and its derivatives containing the endoperoxide bridge induced differentiation of PC12 cells toward a neuronal phenotype and suggest that both activation of ERK signaling pathway, which leads to CREB phosphorylation, and activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway are involved in this process.

Recombination and Functional Studies of a Dual-action Peptide for Diabetes

Abstract Objective: To study a recombined chimeric peptide consisting of lysozyme N-terminal sequence and exendin-4 (shortly LYZ(N)-EX4) as a dual-action peptide for diabetes. Methods: LYZ(N)-EX4 was recombined into plasmid pET-32a(+) and expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein was separated by affinity chromatography and hydrolyzed by enterokinase to prepare LYZ(N)-EX4. The chimeric peptide was digested by thrombin and the digests were analyzed by HPLC. The secondary peptides were identified by mass spectrometry. Biological activities of the thrombin digests were determined in vitro, using NIT-1 cells for insulin promoting action and using human white blood cells (WBC) for anti-AGEs action. Results: The fusion protein was highly expressed in E. coli and LYZ(N)-EX4 was obtained via hydrolysis of the fusion protein. The thrombin digests of LYZ(N)-EX4 were separated by HPLC into two peaks, which were identified as LYZ(N) and EX4 by mass spectrametry. Functional studies found that the digests were able to antagonize the effects of AGEs on expression of RAGE mRNA in WBC, promote cell activity, stimulate PDX-1 mRNA expression and increase insulin secretion by NIT-1 cells, suggesting the actions of LYZ(N) and EX4 on the cells. Conclusions: LYZ(N)-EX4 was sensitive to thrombin digestion, and the secondary peptides LYZ(N) and EX4 could function as anti-AGEs and insulin-promoting peptides, respectively.

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