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In JoVE (1)
- The Three-Dimensional Human Skin Reconstruct Model: a Tool to Study Normal Skin and Melanoma Progression
Other Publications (12)
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
- American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
- Cancer Microenvironment : Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
- Journal of Cell Science
- The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
- Cancer Cell
- Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
- The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Articles by Mizuho Fukunaga-Kalabis in JoVE
The Three-Dimensional Human Skin Reconstruct Model: a Tool to Study Normal Skin and Melanoma Progression
Ling Li, Mizuho Fukunaga-Kalabis, Meenhard Herlyn
Molecular and Cellular Oncogenesis Program, The Wistar Institute
In this report, we describe the three-dimensional skin reconstruct model which mimics human skin in architecture and composition. Melanocyte physiology, melanoma progression and the fate of dermal stem cells have been investigated using the skin reconstruct model. The model is also useful as a preclinical tool for drug assessment.
Other articles by Mizuho Fukunaga-Kalabis on PubMed
The Journal of Cell Biology. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17101694
Melanocytes reside within the basal layer of the human epidermis, where they attach to the basement membrane and replicate at a rate proportionate to that of keratinocytes, maintaining a lifelong stable ratio. In this study, we report that coculturing melanocytes with keratinocytes up-regulated CCN3, a matricellular protein that we subsequently found to be critical for the spatial localization of melanocytes to the basement membrane. CCN3 knockdown cells were dissociated either upward to the suprabasal layers of the epidermis or downward into the dermis. The overexpression of CCN3 increased adhesion to collagen type IV, the major component of the basement membrane. As the receptor responsible for CCN3-mediated melanocyte localization, we identified discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase that acts as a collagen IV adhesion receptor. DDR1 knockdown decreased melanocyte adhesion to collagen IV and shifted melanocyte localization in a manner similar to CCN3 knockdown. These results demonstrate an intricate and necessary communication between keratinocytes and melanocytes in maintaining normal epidermal homeostasis.
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17934501
The matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) has diverse functions in melanoma cells. Because this secreted protein is produced not only in tumor cells but also in stromal cells, the question has been asked whether paracrine effects of stroma-derived SPARC contribute to melanoma progression. In this issue, Prada et al. (2007) begin to answer this question by demonstrating that SPARC produced by melanoma, but not stromal cells, is essential to regulate melanoma cell growth.
Endothelin-3 Stimulates Survival of Goblet Cells in Organotypic Cultures of Fetal Human Colonic Epithelium
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18832450
Cells within the normal human colonic epithelium undergo a dynamic cycle of growth, differentiation, and death. The organotypic culture system of human fetal colonic epithelial cells seeded on top of collagen gels with embedded colonic fibroblasts allowed prolonged culture of the colonic epithelial cells (Kalabis J, Patterson MJ, Enders GM, Marian B, Iozzo RV, Rogler G, Gimotty PA, Herlyn M. FASEB J 17: 1115-1117, 2003). Herein, we have evaluated the role of endothelin-3 (ET3) and both cognate endothelin receptors (ETRA, ETRB) for human colonic epithelial cell growth and survival. ET3 was produced continuously by the fibroblasts as a result of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. The presence and function of the endothelin receptors (ETRs) in epithelial cells was evaluated by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation using primary epithelial cells in monoculture and by immunohistochemistry on human fetal and adult paraffin-embedded tissues. In organotypic culture, ET3 increased the number of goblet cells but not of enteroendocrine cells. The increase in goblet cells was caused by prolonged cell survival and differentiation. The inhibition of both ETRA and ETRB significantly decreased the number of goblet cells and proliferation in epithelial cells, whereas the number of enteroendocrine cells remained unchanged. ET3 induced activation of IkappaB and MAPK in the epithelial cells, suggesting that these signaling pathways mediate its proproliferation and prosurvival activities. Our results demonstrate that ET3 is involved in regulating human colonic epithelial cell proliferation and survival, particularly for goblet cells, and may be an important component of colonic homeostasis.
Cancer Microenvironment : Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19308688
Matricellular proteins are modulators of cell-matrix interactions and cellular functions. The group includes thrombospondin, osteopontin, osteonectin/SPARC, tenascin, disintegrins, galectins and CCN proteins. The production of matricellular proteins such as osteopontin, SPARC or tenascin is highly upregulated in melanoma and other tumors but little is known about their functions in tumor growth, survival, and metastasis. The distribution pattern of CCN3 differs from most other matricellular proteins, such that it is produced abundantly by normal melanocytes, but is not significantly expressed in melanoma cells. CCN3 is known to inhibit melanocyte proliferation and stimulate adhesion to collagen type IV, the main component of the basement membrane. CCN3 has a unique role in securing adhesion of melanocytes to the basement membrane distinct from other melanoma-produced matricellular proteins which act as de-adhesive molecules and antagonists of focal adhesion. Qualitative and quantitative changes in matricellular protein expression contribute to melanoma progression similar to the E-cadherin to N-cadherin class switch, allowing melanoma cells to escape from keratinocyte control.
Journal of Cell Science. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20159965
Melanocytes sustain a lifelong proliferative potential, but a stem cell reservoir in glabrous skin has not yet been found. Here, we show that multipotent dermal stem cells isolated from human foreskins lacking hair follicles are able to home to the epidermis to differentiate into melanocytes. These dermal stem cells, grown as three-dimensional spheres, displayed a capacity for self-renewal and expressed NGFRp75, nestin and OCT4, but not melanocyte markers. In addition, cells derived from single-cell clones were able to differentiate into multiple lineages including melanocytes. In a three-dimensional skin equivalent model, sphere-forming cells differentiated into HMB45-positive melanocytes, which migrated from the dermis to the epidermis and aligned singly among the basal layer keratinocytes in a similar fashion to pigmented melanocytes isolated from the epidermis. The dermal stem cells were negative for E-cadherin and N-cadherin, whereas they acquired E-cadherin expression and lost NGFRp75 expression upon contact with epidermal keratinocytes. These results demonstrate that stem cells in the dermis of human skin with neural-crest-like characteristics can become mature epidermal melanocytes. This finding could significantly change our understanding of the etiological factors in melanocyte transformation and pigmentation disorders; specifically, that early epigenetic or genetic alterations leading to transformation may take place in the dermis rather than in the epidermis.
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20231823
A Temporarily Distinct Subpopulation of Slow-cycling Melanoma Cells is Required for Continuous Tumor Growth
Cell. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20478252
Melanomas are highly heterogeneous tumors, but the biological significance of their different subpopulations is not clear. Using the H3K4 demethylase JARID1B (KDM5B/PLU-1/RBP2-H1) as a biomarker, we have characterized a small subpopulation of slow-cycling melanoma cells that cycle with doubling times of >4 weeks within the rapidly proliferating main population. Isolated JARID1B-positive melanoma cells give rise to a highly proliferative progeny. Knockdown of JARID1B leads to an initial acceleration of tumor growth followed by exhaustion which suggests that the JARID1B-positive subpopulation is essential for continuous tumor growth. Expression of JARID1B is dynamically regulated and does not follow a hierarchical cancer stem cell model because JARID1B-negative cells can become positive and even single melanoma cells irrespective of selection are tumorigenic. These results suggest a new understanding of melanoma heterogeneity with tumor maintenance as a dynamic process mediated by a temporarily distinct subpopulation.
Acquired Resistance to BRAF Inhibitors Mediated by a RAF Kinase Switch in Melanoma Can Be Overcome by Cotargeting MEK and IGF-1R/PI3K
Cancer Cell. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21156289
BRAF is an attractive target for melanoma drug development. However, resistance to BRAF inhibitors is a significant clinical challenge. We describe a model of resistance to BRAF inhibitors developed by chronic treatment of BRAF(V)⁶⁰⁰(E) melanoma cells with the BRAF inhibitor SB-590885; these cells are cross-resistant to other BRAF-selective inhibitors. Resistance involves flexible switching among the three RAF isoforms, underscoring the ability of melanoma cells to adapt to pharmacological challenges. IGF-1R/PI3K signaling was enhanced in resistant melanomas, and combined treatment with IGF-1R/PI3K and MEK inhibitors induced death of BRAF inhibitor-resistant cells. Increased IGF-1R and pAKT levels in a post-relapse human tumor sample are consistent with a role for IGF-1R/PI3K-dependent survival in the development of resistance to BRAF inhibitors.
Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21410654
Human multipotent dermal stem cells (DSCs) have been isolated and propagated from the dermal region of neonatal foreskin. DSCs can self-renew, express the neural crest stem cell markers NGFRp75 and nestin, and are capable of differentiating into a wide variety of cell types including mesenchymal and neuronal lineages and melanocytes, indicative of their neural crest origin. When placed in the context of reconstructed skin, DSCs migrate to the basement membrane zone and differentiate into melanocytes. These findings, combined with the identification of NGFRp75-positive cells in the dermis of human foreskin, which are devoid of hair, suggest that DSCs may be a self-renewing source of extrafollicular epidermal melanocytes. In this review, we discuss the properties of DSCs, the pathways required for melanocyte differentiation, and the value of 3D reconstructed skin to assess the behavior and contribution of DSCs in the naturalized environment of human skin. Potentially, DSCs provide a link to malignant melanoma by being a target of UVA-induced transformation.
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21654838
The utility of different models to identify cancer stem cells continues to be a subject of intense debate. Here, we summarize recent efforts to characterize intra-tumoral heterogeneity of melanoma and delineate key questions for future studies. Within a developing or already established tumor microenvironment, we propose that continuous tumor maintenance is assured by specific sub-populations whose phenotype is not static but instead is dynamically regulated. These small and temporarily distinct sub-populations likely have critical roles in tumor progression. They are important therapeutic targets, but only in the context of combination therapies, that also eliminate the bulk of the tumor.
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21948558
Mouse and human somatic cells can either be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state or converted to another lineage with a combination of transcription factors suggesting that lineage commitment is a reversible process. Here we show that only one factor, the active intracellular form of Notch1, is sufficient to convert mature pigmented epidermal-derived melanocytes into functional multipotent neural crest (NC) stem-like cells. These induced NC stem cells (iNCSCs) proliferate as spheres under stem cell media conditions, re-express NC-related genes, and differentiate into multiple NC-derived mesenchymal and neuronal lineages. Moreover, iNCSCs are highly migratory and functional in vivo. These results demonstrate that mature melanocytes can be reprogrammed toward their primitive NC cell precursors through the activation of a single stem cell-related pathway. Reprogramming of melanocytes to iNCSCs may provide an alternate source of NCSCs for neuroregenerative applications.
Isolation and Cultivation of Dermal Stem Cells That Differentiate into Functional Epidermal Melanocytes
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22057442
Human melanocytes have been extensively studied, but a melanocyte stem cell reservoir in glabrous skin has not yet been found. Human dermis contains cells that are nonpigmented but can differentiate to several different cell types. We have recently shown that multipotent dermal stem cells isolated from human neonatal foreskins are able to differentiate to multiple cell lineages, including pigmented melanocytes. The dermal stem cells grow as three-dimensional spheres in human embryonic stem cell medium and express some neural crest stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers. Melanocytes derived from dermal stem cells express melanocytic markers and act the same way as mature epidermal melanocytes. Dermal spheres, embedded in the reconstructed dermis consisting of collagen with fibroblasts, can migrate to the basement membrane, where they become pigmented in the same way as epidermal melanocytes suggesting that dermal stem cells can give rise to epidermal melanocytes.