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In JoVE (1)
- Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Blood
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Nutan Prasain in JoVE
Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Blood
Nutan Prasain, J. Luke Meador, Mervin C. Yoder
Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine
Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) are circulating endothelial cells with robust clonal proliferative potential that display intrinsic in vivo vessel forming ability. Phenotypic and functional characterization of outgrowth endothelial cells derived from CB are important to identify and isolate bona fide ECFCs for potential clinical application in repairing damaged tissues.
Other articles by Nutan Prasain on PubMed
Microvascular Research. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19028505
Endothelium forms a semi-permeable barrier that separates blood from the underlying tissue. Barrier function is largely determined by cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions that define the limits of cell borders. Yet, such cell-cell and cell-matrix tethering is critically reliant upon the nature of adherence within the cell itself. Indeed, the actin cytoskeleton fulfills this essential function, to provide a strong, dynamic intracellular scaffold that organizes integral membrane proteins with the cell's interior, and responds to environmental cues to orchestrate appropriate cell shape. The actin cytoskeleton is comprised of three distinct, but inter-related structures, including actin cross-linking of spectrin within the membrane skeleton, the cortical actin rim, and actomyosin-based stress fibers. This review addresses each of these actin-based structures, and discusses cellular signals that control the disposition of actin in different endothelial cell phenotypes.
Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase-dependent Microtubule Disassembly Reveals a Novel Mechanism of Endothelial Cell Retraction
American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19395666
Soluble adenylyl cyclase toxins, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoY, generate a cAMP pool that retracts cell borders. However, the cytoskeletal basis by which this cAMP signal retracts cell borders is not known. We sought to determine whether activation of chimeric, soluble adenylyl cyclase I/II (sACI/II) reorganizes either microtubules or peripheral actin. Endothelial cells were stably transfected with either green fluorescent protein-labeled alpha-tubulin or beta-actin, and then infected with adenovirus to express sACI/II. Forskolin, which stimulates both the endogenously expressed transmembrane adenylyl cyclases and sACI/II, induced cell retraction accompanied by the reorganization of peripheral microtubules. However, cortical filamentous-actin (f-actin) did not reorganize into stress fibers, and myosin light-chain-20 phosphorylation was decreased. Isoproterenol, which activates endogenous adenylyl cyclases but does not activate sACI/II, did not induce endothelial cell gaps and did not influence microtubule or f-actin architecture. Thus, sACI/II generates a cAMP signal that reorganizes microtubules and induces cell retraction, without inducing f-actin stress fibers. These findings illustrate that endothelial cell gap formation can proceed without f-actin stress fiber formation, and provide mechanistic insight how bacterial adenylyl cyclase toxins reorganize the cytoskeleton to induce cell rounding.
Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19855280
Inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells represent a novel renewable source of tissue precursors. The potential of iPS cells is considered to be at least equivalent to that of human embryonic stem cells, facilitating the treatment or cure of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, spinal cord injuries, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, but with the potential added benefit of evading the adaptive immune response that otherwise limits allogeneic cell-based therapies. This review discusses recent advances in pluripotency induction and the use of iPS cells to produce differentiated cells, while highlighting roadblocks to the widespread use of this technology in the clinical arena.
Hematopoietic Stem/progenitor Cells, Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and Isolation of Endothelial Progenitors from 21- to 23.5-year Cryopreserved Cord Blood
Blood. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21393480
Cryopreservation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) is crucial for cord blood (CB) banking and transplantation. We evaluated recovery of functional HPC cryopreserved as mononuclear or unseparated cells for up to 23.5 years compared with prefreeze values of the same CB units. Highly efficient recovery (80%-100%) was apparent for granulocyte-macrophage and multipotential hematopoietic progenitors, although some collections had reproducible low recovery. Proliferative potential, response to multiple cytokines, and replating of HPC colonies was extensive. CD34(+) cells isolated from CB cryopreserved for up to 21 years had long-term (≥ 6 month) engrafting capability in primary and secondary immunodeficient mice reflecting recovery of long-term repopulating, self-renewing HSCs. We recovered functionally responsive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with differentiation representing all 3 germ cell lineages in vitro and in vivo, and detected high proliferative endothelial colony forming cells, results of relevance to CB biology and banking.