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Articles by Rajnish Sahu in JoVE

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Parasite Rescue and Transformation Assay for Antileishmanial Screening Against Intracellular Leishmania donovani Amastigotes in THP1 Human Acute Monocytic Leukemia Cell Line

1National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Mississippi


JoVE 4054

A parasite-rescue and transformation assay with THP1 cells infected in vitro with Leishmania donovani has been optimized for anti-leishmanial drug screening. The assay involves differentiation of THP1 cells, infection with promastigotes, treatment with test drugs, controlled lysis of the infected macrophages, rescue of amastigotes, transformation to promastigotes and monitoring promastigote growth and proliferation with a fluorometric assay.

Other articles by Rajnish Sahu on PubMed

Enhancement of T-helper Type I Immune Responses Against Hepatitis B Surface Antigen by LPS Derivatives Adjuvanted Liposomes Delivery System

Currently, there is a clinical need for more effective vaccine for hepatitis B that induces robust cell-mediated immune response capable of viral clearance in chronic hepatitis B infection. In the present study, hepatitis B vaccines formulations were designed by loading the hepatitis B surface antigen into liposomes adjuvanted with rough lipopolysaccharide (Re-LPS) and lpxL1 LPS using conventional rotatory evaporation method and were characterized for various parameters, such as vesicle shape and surface morphology, size and size distribution, entrapment efficiency, turbidity, and in vitro release pattern. The immunoreactivity in mice was evaluated by measuring anti-HBs IgG titer and compared with alum-adsorbed HBsAg solution, plain HBsAg, and liposomal HBsAg formulations. The formulations were also evaluated for cell-mediated immune response by HBsAg specific proliferation of spleenocytes after secondary immunization and re-stimulation in vitro with the same antigen. Simultaneous estimation of cytokines (IL-4, IFN-gamma) was also carried out. Ex vivo cellular uptake study was performed by fluorescence microscopy. Results indicate that the serum IgG titer obtained after i.m administration of Re-LPS- and lpxL1 LPS-adjuvanted liposomal HBsAg formulation was equivalent to alum-adsorbed HBsAg formulation but was more responsive, sustained, and significantly higher than the corresponding liposomal HBsAg and plain HBsAg formulations. Incorporation of lpxL1 LPS into the liposomal HBsAg increased the stimulation index (SI) 6-10 times as compared with plain HBsAg. Re-LPS- and lpxL1 LPS-adjuvanted liposomal HBsAg formulations induced stronger cellular immune response with a predominant Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) level than those induced by free HBsAg alone, alum-adsorbed HBsAg, and non-adjuvanted liposomal HBsAg. Probably, the possible mechanism for the enhancement of cellular immunity in addition to humoral immunity by LPS-adjuvanted liposomal HBsAg formulation is due to marked enhancement of immunological presentation and recruitment of antigen via macrophage and antigen-presenting cells (APCs).

Cytochrome P(450)-dependent Toxic Effects of Primaquine on Human Erythrocytes

Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is the drug of choice for radical cure of relapsing malaria. Use of primaquine is limited due to its hemotoxicity, particularly in populations with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency [G6PD(-)]. Biotransformation appears to be central to the anti-infective and hematological toxicities of primaquine, but the mechanisms are still not well understood. Metabolic studies with primaquine have been hampered due to the reactive nature of potential hemotoxic metabolites. An in vitro metabolism-linked hemotoxicity assay has been developed. Co-incubation of the drug with normal or G6PD(-) erythrocytes, microsomes or recombinant cytochrome P(450) (CYP) isoforms has allowed in situ generation of potential hemotoxic metabolite(s), which interact with the erythrocytes to generate hemotoxicity. Methemoglobin formation, real-time generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and depletion of reactive thiols were monitored as multiple biochemical end points for hemotoxicity. Primaquine alone did not produce any hemotoxicity, while a robust increase was observed in methemoglobin formation and generation of ROIs by primaquine in the presence of human or mouse liver microsomes. Multiple CYP isoforms (CYP2E1, CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) variably contributed to the hemotoxicity of primaquine. This was further confirmed by significant inhibition of primaquine hemotoxicity by the selective CYP inhibitors, namely thiotepa (CYP2B6), fluoxetine (CYP2D6) and troleandomycin (CYP3A4). Primaquine caused similar methemoglobin formation in G6PD(-) and normal human erythrocytes. However, G6PD(-) erythrocytes suffered higher oxidative stress and depletion of thiols than normal erythrocytes due to primaquine toxicity. The results provide significant insights regarding CYP isoforms contributing to hemotoxicity and may be useful in controlling toxicity of primaquine to increase its therapeutic utility.

Cytochrome P450-dependent Toxicity of Dapsone in Human Erythrocytes

The most prominent adverse effects seen during treatment with dapsone, an antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent, are hemolysis and methemoglobinemia. An in vitro microsomal/cytochrome P(450) (CYP)-linked assay, which allows reactive metabolites generated in situ to react with the co-incubated human erythrocytes, was employed to profile CYP isoforms responsible for hemotoxicity of dapsone. Dapsone caused a robust generation of methemoglobin in human erythrocytes in the presence of human/mouse liver microsomes, which indicates contribution of CYP-mediated metabolism for hemotoxicity. The highest methemoglobin formation with dapsone was observed with CYP2C19, with minor contributions from CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Cimetidine and chloramphenicol completely abrogated methemoglobin generation by dapsone, thus confirming a predominant contribution of CYP2C19. The results provide useful insights into CYP-dependent hemotoxicity of dapsone in human erythrocytes.

The Antiplasmodial Activity of Norcantharidin Analogs

The antiplasmodial activities of sixty norcantharidin analogs were tested in vitro against a chloroquine sensitive (D6, Sierra Leone) and chloroquine resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Forty analogs returned IC(50) values <500 μM against at least one of the P. falciparum strains examined. The ring open compound 24 ((1S,4R)-3-(allylcarbamoyl)-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid) is the most active aliphatic analog (D6 IC(50)=3.0±0.0 and W2 IC(50)=3.0±0.8 μM) with a 20-fold enhancement relative to norcantharidin. Surprisingly, seven norcantharimides also displayed good antiplasmodial activity with the most potent, 5 returning D6=8.9±0.9 and W2 IC(50)=12.5±2.2 μM, representing a fivefold enhancement over norcantharidin.

Antiparasitic and Antimicrobial Indolizidines from the Leaves of Prosopis Glandulosa Var. Glandulosa

A new indolizidine alkaloid, named Δ¹,⁶-juliprosopine (1), together with previously known indolizidine analogs (2- 6), was isolated from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa, collected from Nevada, USA; while two other known indolizidines, juliprosopine (6) and juliprosine (7), were isolated from P. glandulosa leaves collected in Texas, USA. The structures of compound 1 and 7 were determined using a combination of NMR and MS techniques. Compound 7 exhibited potent antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 strains with IC (50) values of 170 and 150 ng/mL, respectively, while 1 was found to be less active (IC₅₀ values 560 and 600 ng/mL, respectively). Both compounds were devoid of VERO cells toxicity up to a concentration of 23 800 ng/mL. The antileishmanial activity of indolizidines was evaluated against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, axenic amastigotes, and amastigotes in THP1 macrophage cultures. When tested against macrophage cultures, the tertiary bases (1, 3, 6) were found to be more potent than quaternary salts (2, 5, 7), displaying IC₅₀ values between 0.8-1.7 µg/mL and 3.1-6.0 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 7 showed potent antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium intracellulare, while 1 was potent only against C. neoformans and weakly active against other organisms.

Understanding the Mechanisms for Metabolism-linked Hemolytic Toxicity of Primaquine Against Glucose 6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient Human Erythrocytes: Evaluation of Eryptotic Pathway

Therapeutic utility of primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline antimalarial drug, has been limited due to its hemolytic toxicity in population with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Recent investigations at our lab have shown that the metabolites generated through cytochrome P(450)-dependent metabolic reactions are responsible for hemotoxic effects of primaquine, which could be monitored with accumulation of methemoglobin and increased oxidative stress. The molecular markers for succeeding cascade of events associated with early clearance of the erythrocytes from the circulation were evaluated for understanding the mechanism for hemolytic toxicity of primaquine. Primaquine alone though did not induce noticeable methemoglobin accumulation, but produced significant oxidative stress, which was higher in G6PD-deficient than in normal erythrocytes. Primaquine, presumably through redox active hemotoxic metabolites generated in situ in human liver microsomal metabolism-linked assay, induced a dose-dependent methemoglobin accumulation and oxidative stress, which were almost similar in normal and G6PD-deficient erythrocytes. Primaquine alone or in presence of pooled human liver microsomes neither produced significant effect on intraerythrocytic calcium levels nor affected the phosphatidyl serine asymmetry of the normal and G6PD-deficient human erythrocytes as monitored flowcytometrically with Annexin V binding assay. The studies suggest that eryptosis mechanisms are not involved in accelerated removal of erythrocytes due to hemolytic toxicity of primaquine.

Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Lansine Analogues As Antileishmanial Agents

Clear and rational thinking: A series of rationally designed, lansine-derived carbazoles was synthesized and evaluated for activity against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of leishmaniasis. Some structural modifications gave rise to compounds with enhanced activity and selectivity over lansine, allowing structure-activity relationships to be elucidated and providing a foundation for the further development of this pharmacophore.

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