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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Rushdia Z. Yusuf in JoVE
Kemik İliği Hematopoetik Hücreler, Homing
Rushdia Z. Yusuf, David T. Scadden
Center for Regenerative Medicine, MGH - Massachusetts General Hospital
Bu makale, kemik iliği hematopoetik hücrelerin kendi nişler homing çalışma için kullanılan bir protokol tanımlamaktadır.
Other articles by Rushdia Z. Yusuf on PubMed
Molecular Description of Evolving Paclitaxel Resistance in the SKOV-3 Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Line
Cancer Research. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12727840
Ovarian cancer is currently the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the United States. Although effective therapies exist, the acquisition of multidrug resistance within persisting tumor cells renders curative therapies elusive for the majority of women with ovarian cancer. In an attempt to better define the evolution of paclitaxel resistance, three SKOV-3 sublines were selected during successive rounds of exposure to increasing paclitaxel concentrations. The sublines were selected to represent early (0.003 micro M), intermediate (0.03 micro M), and late (0.3 micro M) paclitaxel resistance. RNA from these cell lines, SKOV-3(0.003TR), SKOV-3(0.03TR), and SKOV-3(0.3TR), as well as the parent cell line SKOV-3, was analyzed by cDNA array to evaluate transcript expression profiles. Arrays were performed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 arrays, which contain probes for approximately 9600 known human genes. Signal intensities were calculated by Microarray Suite 5.0 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Expression patterns were analyzed by Affymetrix Data Mining Tool 3.0 with filtering of expression patterns for fold change in expression (maximum divided by minimum expression value/gene) and for variation of expression (maximum minus minimum expression value/gene). This analysis dismissed approximately 11,000 of approximately 12,000 expression patterns. The remaining approximately 1000 expression patterns were normalized and segregated into 20 partitions of a self-organizing map (SOM). The resulting SOM discriminates between genes, which are differentially expressed in early versus intermediate versus late paclitaxel resistance. For example, multidrug resistance 1 transcript expression is not elevated in SKOV-3(0.003TR) as compared with parental SKOV-3 but demonstrates elevated expression in SKOV-3(0.03TR) and SKOV-3(0.3TR). In contrast, SOM analysis demonstrates early (SKOV-3(0.003TR)) transcriptional changes in a wide variety of genes, including gene families involved in cell growth/maintenance, cell structure, signal transduction, and inflammatory response. The use of array analysis with SOMs in sublines with progressive paclitaxel resistance can successfully define an evolution of resistance. Such an analysis may be useful at defining candidate gene families involved in the early-drug resistance phenotype.
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12855658
Previous studies directed at identifying paclitaxel resistance genes in a paclitaxel-resistant subclone of the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 identified a novel cancer testis antigen, Taxol resistance-associated gene 3 (TRAG-3). Because investigation suggested that TRAG-3, located on chromosome Xq28, does not directly participate in the paclitaxel-resistant phenotype, it was hypothesized that TRAG-3 might be linked to a neighboring gene that is directly involved in the drug-resistant phenotype, or alternatively, overexpression of TRAG-3 might be attributable to coregulation with other cancer testis antigens. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, expression of the genes that flank TRAG-3 was evaluated, namely the Centrin 2 gene and several members of the MAGE gene cluster. Northern analysis demonstrates overexpression of MAGE2 but not Centrin 2. Extension of this analysis to other neighboring and non-neighboring representative cancer testis antigens reveals overexpression of MAGE3, MAGE6, MAGE11, and MAGE12, as well as GAGE-2, GAGE-4, GAGE-5, GAGE-6, and GAGE-7 (clustered on Xp11) in SKOV-3(TR), as compared with SKOV-3. In addition, Affymetrix-based analysis of gene expression in SKOV-3 subclones with variable paclitaxel resistance demonstrates MAGE gene overexpression occurs early in the development of the paclitaxel-resistant phenotype, whereas GAGE gene overexpression occurs somewhat later. Evaluation of additional breast and ovarian cancer cell lines reveals MAGE/GAGE overexpression in both paclitaxel- and doxorubicin-resistant cell lines, whereas gemcitabine-resistant subclones of several ovarian cancer cell lines, including SKOV-3(GR), reveals no change in MAGE/GAGE expression. To determine whether MAGE gene overexpression contributes directly to the drug-resistant phenotype, MAGE2 or MAGE6, cDNA was introduced into the paclitaxel-sensitive human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR8. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity analysis of both MAGE2 and MAGE6 transfectants demonstrates a 4-fold increase in resistance to paclitaxel and 2-fold increase in resistance to doxorubicin but not to other drugs, such as topotecan and cisplatin, through a nonmultidrug resistance-1 mechanism. MAGE2 or MAGE6 overexpression also induces a growth advantage in OVCAR8-transfected cells. These studies suggest that the in vitro acquisition of paclitaxel and doxorubicin resistance can be associated with increased expression of a variety of both neighboring and non-neighboring cancer testis antigens genes. This does not appear to be a consequence of random genetic instability or genomic amplification of the X chromosome. These antigens, because of limited expression in normal tissues, may be suitable targets for immunotherapy and novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant epithelial tumors.
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989). Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15214948
Cytogenetic evaluation of product of conception (POC) is essential to determine the cause of pregnancy loss and aid the prenatal diagnosis of subsequent pregnancies. The purpose of this study is twofold. (1) To profile cytogenetic abnormalities, their relationship with maternal and gestational age and analyze sex ratios in our case series of 2052 consecutive samples of POC referred to the Baystate Medical Center, Laboratory Genetics between January 1992 and January 1999. (2) To present a comprehensive review of such data published in the last 15 years, in order to study temporal differences in the above parameters and make this information readily available for cytogeneticists and genetic counselors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15565326
To identify genes involved in the paclitaxel resistance phenotype.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16028104
In the search for novel genes involved in the paclitaxel resistance phenotype, prior studies of gene expression in paclitaxel-resistant cell lines and their paired drug-sensitive parental lines using high-density Affymetrix GeneChip arrays identified guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1) gene as an overexpressed transcript. The GBP1 gene encodes a large GTPase that is induced by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a variety of eukaryotic cells. In this report we characterize GBP1 and demonstrate that GBP1 expression is consistently upregulated in 7 of 8 paclitaxel or doxorubicin-resistant human cancer cell lines as compared to its expression in the relevant drug-sensitive parental lines. Analysis of GBP1 expression using the Cancer Profiling Array showed that GBP1 is ubiquitously expressed with no significant difference in expression levels between normal and tumor tissue. Parallel analysis of the Cancer Cell Line Profiling Array determined that GBP1 expression in a majority of cell lines derived from human tumors of different tissue origin was induced to variable levels following exposure to multiple stress agents including paclitaxel and doxorubicin. Importantly, stable expression of a GBP1 transgene in the paclitaxel-sensitive ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR8 was sufficient to confer moderate paclitaxel resistance. Our data suggest that increased expression of the GBP1 gene may play an important role in the development of multi-drug resistance (MDR).
Nature. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21124451
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can convert between growth states that have marked differences in bioenergetic needs. Although often quiescent in adults, these cells become proliferative upon physiological demand. Balancing HSC energetics in response to nutrient availability and growth state is poorly understood, yet essential for the dynamism of the haematopoietic system. Here we show that the Lkb1 tumour suppressor is critical for the maintenance of energy homeostasis in haematopoietic cells. Lkb1 inactivation in adult mice causes loss of HSC quiescence followed by rapid depletion of all haematopoietic subpopulations. Lkb1-deficient bone marrow cells exhibit mitochondrial defects, alterations in lipid and nucleotide metabolism, and depletion of cellular ATP. The haematopoietic effects are largely independent of Lkb1 regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. Instead, these data define a central role for Lkb1 in restricting HSC entry into cell cycle and in broadly maintaining energy homeostasis in haematopoietic cells through a novel metabolic checkpoint.
Blood. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21393479
Anemia of inflammation develops in settings of chronic inflammatory, infectious, or neoplastic disease. In this highly prevalent form of anemia, inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, stimulate hepatic expression of hepcidin, which negatively regulates iron bioavailability by inactivating ferroportin. Hepcidin is transcriptionally regulated by IL-6 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. We hypothesized that inhibiting BMP signaling can reduce hepcidin expression and ameliorate hypoferremia and anemia associated with inflammation. In human hepatoma cells, IL-6-induced hepcidin expression, an effect that was inhibited by treatment with a BMP type I receptor inhibitor, LDN-193189, or BMP ligand antagonists noggin and ALK3-Fc. In zebrafish, the induction of hepcidin expression by transgenic expression of IL-6 was also reduced by LDN-193189. In mice, treatment with IL-6 or turpentine increased hepcidin expression and reduced serum iron, effects that were inhibited by LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc. Chronic turpentine treatment led to microcytic anemia, which was prevented by concurrent administration of LDN-193189 or attenuated when LDN-193189 was administered after anemia was established. Our studies support the concept that BMP and IL-6 act together to regulate iron homeostasis and suggest that inhibition of BMP signaling may be an effective strategy for the treatment of anemia of inflammation.