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Articles by Russell A. Gould in JoVE
Isolamento de Valvular Células Endoteliais
Russell A. Gould, Jonathan T. Butcher
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University
Nós fornecemos um método para isolar e populações de cultura pura de células endoteliais válvula cardíaca (VEC). VEC pode ser isolado de ambos os lados da cúspide ou folheto e imediatamente a seguir, a célula intersticial subjacente isolamento (VIC) é simples.
Other articles by Russell A. Gould on PubMed
Journal of Biomechanics. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22169154
Tissue assembly in the developing embryo is a rapid and complex process. While much research has focused on genetic regulatory machinery, understanding tissue level changes such as biomechanical remodeling remains a challenging experimental enigma. In the particular case of embryonic atrioventricular valves, micro-scale, amorphous cushions rapidly remodel into fibrous leaflets while simultaneously interacting with a demanding mechanical environment. In this study we employ two microscale mechanical measurement systems in conjunction with finite element analysis to quantify valve stiffening during valvulogenesis. The pipette aspiration technique is compared to a uniaxial load deformation, and the analytic expression for a uniaxially loaded bar is used to estimate the nonlinear material parameters of the experimental data. Effective modulus and strain energy density are analyzed as potential metrics for comparing mechanical stiffness. Avian atrioventricular valves from globular Hamburger-Hamilton stages HH25-HH34 were tested via the pipette method, while the planar HH36 leaflets were tested using the deformable post technique. Strain energy density between HH25 and HH34 septal leaflets increased 4.6±1.8 fold (±SD). The strain energy density of the HH36 septal leaflet was four orders of magnitude greater than the HH34 pipette result. Our results establish morphological thresholds for employing the micropipette aspiration and deformable post techniques for measuring uniaxial mechanical properties of embryonic tissues. Quantitative biomechanical analysis is an important and underserved complement to molecular and genetic experimentation of embryonic morphogenesis.
Cyclic Strain Anisotropy Regulates Valvular Interstitial Cell Phenotype and Tissue Remodeling in Three-dimensional Culture
Acta Biomaterialia. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22281945
Many planar connective tissues exhibit complex anisotropic matrix fiber arrangements that are critical to their biomechanical function. This organized structure is created and modified by resident fibroblasts in response to mechanical forces in their environment. The directionality of applied strain fields changes dramatically during development, aging, and disease, but the specific effect of strain direction on matrix remodeling is less clear. Current mechanobiological inquiry of planar tissues is limited to equibiaxial or uniaxial stretch, which inadequately simulates many in vivo environments. In this study, we implement a novel bioreactor system to demonstrate the unique effect of controlled anisotropic strain on fibroblast behavior in three-dimensional (3-D) engineered tissue environments, using aortic valve interstitial fibroblast cells as a model system. Cell seeded 3-D collagen hydrogels were subjected to cyclic anisotropic strain profiles maintained at constant areal strain magnitude for up to 96h at 1Hz. Increasing anisotropy of biaxial strain resulted in increased cellular orientation and collagen fiber alignment along the principal directions of strain and cell orientation was found to precede fiber reorganization. Cellular proliferation and apoptosis were both significantly enhanced under increasing biaxial strain anisotropy (P<0.05). While cyclic strain reduced both vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin compared to unstrained controls, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression increased with strain anisotropy and correlated with direction (P<0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that strain field anisotropy is an independent regulator of fibroblast cell phenotype, turnover, and matrix reorganization, which may inform normal and pathological remodeling in soft tissues.