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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Samar Abdulkhalek in JoVE
Detection of Neu1 Sialidase Activity in Regulating TOLL-like Receptor Activation
Schammim R. Amith*, Preethi Jayanth*, Trisha Finlay*, Susan Franchuk*, Alanna Gilmour*, Samar Abdulkhalek, Myron R. Szewczuk*
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen's University - Kingston, Ontario
The sialidase assay is a simple technical approach that will elucidate novel molecular mechanism(s) of TLR sensors of microbial infections and involvement in inflammatory diseases at the receptor level on the cell surface of live macrophages.
Other articles by Samar Abdulkhalek on PubMed
Association of TCF7L2 Polymorphism with Diabetes Mellitus, Metabolic Syndrome, and Markers of Beta Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in a Population-based Sample of Emirati Subjects
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18282631
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) among Emirati subjects is one of the highest in the world. This has been attributed to rising prevalence of obesity acting on genetically susceptible individuals. We analyzed the associations between TCF7L2 polymorphism and DM, metabolic syndrome, and markers of beta cell function and insulin resistance in a population-based sample of Emirati subjects.
Thymoquinone-induced Neu4 Sialidase Activates NFκB in Macrophage Cells and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Vivo
Glycoconjugate Journal. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20697956
Thymoquinone (TQ) derived from the nutraceutical black cumin oil has been reported to be a novel agonist of Neu4 sialidase activity in live cells (Glycoconj J DOI 10.1007/s10719-010-9281-6). The activation of Neu4 sialidase on the cell surface by TQ was found to involve GPCR-signaling via membrane targeting of Gαi subunit proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation. Contrary to other reports, TQ had no anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Here, we show that MyD88/TLR4 complex formation and subsequent NFκB activation are induced by the Neu4 activity associated with TQ-stimulated live primary bone marrow (BM) macrophage cells from WT and Neu1-deficient mice, HEK-TLR4/MD2 cells and BMC-2 macrophage cell line but not with primary macrophage cells from Neu4-knockout mice. Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate), pertussis toxin (PTX), a specific inhibitor of Gαi proteins of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and the broad range inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) galardin applied to live primary BM macrophage cells completely block TQ-induced MyD88/TLR4 complex formation. Using immunocytochemistry and western blot analyses, Tamiflu, galardin and PTX inhibit NFκB activation induced by Neu4 activity associated with TQ-stimulated BMC-2 cells, HEK-TLR4/MD2 cells and primary BM macrophages from WT mice. EMSA analyses on HEK-TLR4/MD2 nuclear cell extracts confirm the nuclear localization and DNA binding of TQ-induced NFκB activation in a biphasic manner within 30 min. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal for the first time that MMP-9 may be an important intermediate link in the TQ-induced Neu4 activity circuitously targeting TLR4 receptors. Central to this process is that Neu4 forms a complex with MMP-9, which is already bound to TLR4 receptors. Fluorescence spectrophotometer analyses of live CD14-THP1 cells treated with TQ show Neu4 sialidase activity over 5 min. Using flow cytometry analyses, CD14-THP1 cells treated with TQ express stable protein levels of Neu4, TLR4 and MMP9 on the cell surface over 30 min except for a marked diminution of MMP9 at 15 min. Using cytokine array profiling analyses of serum, Neu4-knockout mice respond poorly to TQ in producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines after 5-h treatment compared to the wild-type or hypomorphic cathepsin A mice with a secondary 90% Neu1 deficient mice. Our findings establish an unprecedented signaling paradigm for TQ-induced Neu4 sialidase activity. It signifies that MMP-9 forms an important molecular signaling platform in complex with TLR4 receptors at the ectodomain and acts as the intermediate link for TQ-induced Neu4 sialidase in generating a functional receptor with subsequent NFκB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in vivo.
Neu1 Sialidase and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Cross-talk is Essential for Toll-like Receptor Activation and Cellular Signaling
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21873432
The signaling pathways of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well characterized, but the precise mechanism(s) by which TLRs are activated upon ligand binding remains poorly defined. Recently, we reported a novel membrane sialidase-controlling mechanism that depends on ligand binding to its TLR to induce mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) activity, to influence receptor desialylation, and subsequently to induce TLR receptor activation and the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in dendritic and macrophage cells. The α-2,3-sialyl residue of TLR was identified as the specific target for hydrolysis by Neu1. Here, we report a membrane signaling paradigm initiated by endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to TLR4 to potentiate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling via membrane Gα(i) subunit proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) activation to induce Neu1. Central to this process is that a Neu1-MMP9 complex is bound to TLR4 on the cell surface of naive macrophage cells. Specific inhibition of MMP9 and GPCR Gα(i)-signaling proteins blocks LPS-induced Neu1 activity and NFκB activation. Silencing MMP9 mRNA using lentivirus MMP9 shRNA transduction or siRNA transfection of macrophage cells and MMP9 knock-out primary macrophage cells significantly reduced Neu1 activity and NFκB activation associated with LPS-treated cells. These findings uncover a molecular organizational signaling platform of a novel Neu1 and MMP9 cross-talk in alliance with TLR4 on the cell surface that is essential for ligand activation of TLRs and subsequent cellular signaling.