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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Sangyoon Han in JoVE
Geração Teratoma na Cápsula do Testículo
Suzanne E. Peterson1, Ha T. Tran1, Ibon Garitaonandia1, Sangyoon Han1, Kyle S. Nickey1, Trevor Leonardo2, Louise C. Laurent3, Jeanne F. Loring1
1Department of Chemical Physiology, Scripps Research Institute, 2Department of Chemical Physiology, Scripps Research Institute, 3Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California
As células pluripotentes humanas estaminais (hPSCs) têm o potencial para tratar uma miríade de diferentes doenças. A utilidade destas células reside no facto de que eles podem diferenciar-se em qualquer tipo de célula no corpo. Descrevemos aqui o ensaio teratoma, que é usado para demonstrar a pluripotência das hPSCs.
Other articles by Sangyoon Han on PubMed
Regulation of ALF Gene Expression in Somatic and Male Germ Line Tissues Involves Partial and Site-specific Patterns of Methylation
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11889132
ALF (TFIIAalpha/beta-like factor) is a germ cell-specific counterpart of the large (alpha/beta) subunit of general transcription factor TFIIA. Here we isolated homologous GC-rich promoters from the mouse and human ALF genes and used promoter deletion analysis to identify sequences active in COS-7 and 293 cells. Further, bisulfite sequence analysis of the mouse ALF promoter showed that all 21 CpG dinucleotides between -179 and +207 were partially methylated in five somatic tissues, brain, heart, liver, lung, and muscle, and in epididymal spermatozoa from adult mice. In contrast, DNA from prepubertal mouse testis and from purified spermatocytes were unmethylated except at C(+19)G and C(+170)G. We also found that ALF expression correlates with a strong promoter-proximal DNase I-hypersensitive site present in nuclei from testis but not from liver. Finally we show that in vitro methylation of the ALF promoter inhibits activity and that 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment reactivates the endogenous ALF gene in a panel of seven different mouse and human somatic cell lines. Overall the results show that silencing in somatic cells is methylation-dependent and reversible and that a unique CpG-specific methylation pattern at the ALF promoter precedes expression in pachytene spermatocytes. This pattern is transient as remethylation of the ALF promoter in haploid germ cell DNA has occurred by the time spermatozoa are present in the epididymis.
Expression of the Germ Cell-specific Transcription Factor ALF in Xenopus Oocytes Compensates for Translational Inactivation of the Somatic Factor TFIIA
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12923189
The discovery of germ cell-specific general transcription factor and coactivator variants has suggested that reproductive tissues control gene expression somewhat differently than somatic tissues. One of these factors, ALF (TFIIAtau), was first described as a testis-specific counterpart of the large (alpha/beta) subunit of TFIIA. Here we characterize endogenous ALF and TFIIA activities in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. ALF is present in both testis and ovary in this organism, and it completely replaces TFIIA in immature oocytes. When oocytes undergo progesterone-induced maturation, ALF activity disappears, and TFIIA activity is restored. Reactivation occurs through the translational up-regulation of two maternal TFIIAalpha/beta mRNAs and involves polyadenylation of a conserved 3'-untranslated region module. The effects of ALF overexpression and ALF immunodepletion on a thymidine kinase promoter construct demonstrate that this factor serves as an active replacement for TFIIA. In contrast, overexpression of TFIIA inhibits transcription, indicating that the somatic factor fails to function properly in the context of the oocyte transcription machinery. Overall, the results show that the translationally regulated reciprocal expression of ALF and TFIIA allows for the production of an active TFIIA-like general transcription factor throughout oogenesis.
A Short Core Promoter Drives Expression of the ALF Transcription Factor in Reproductive Tissues of Male and Female Mice
Biology of Reproduction. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15151936
The control of gene expression in reproductive tissues involves a number of unique germ cell-specific transcription factors. One such factor, ALF (TFIIA tau), encodes a protein similar to the large subunit of general transcription factor TFIIA. To understand how this factor is regulated, we characterized transgenic mice that contain the ALF promoter linked to either beta-galactosidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporters. The results show that as little as 133 base pairs are sufficient to drive developmentally accurate and cell-specific expression. Transgene DNA was methylated and inactive in liver, but could be reactivated in vivo by system administration of 5-aza, 2'-deoxycytidine. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting allowed the identification of male germ cells that express the GFP transgene and provides a potential method to collect cells that might be under the control of a nonsomatic transcription system. Finally, we found that transcripts from the endogenous ALF gene and derived transgenes can also be detected in whole ovary and in germinal vesicle-stage oocytes of female mice. The ALF sequence falls into a class of germ cell promoters whose features include small size, high GC content, numerous CpG dinucleotides, and an apparent TATA-like element. Overall, the results define a unique core promoter that is active in both male and female reproductive tissues, and suggest mouse ALF may have a regulatory role in male and female gametogenic gene expression programs.
Protective Efficacy and Immunogenicity of an Inactivated Avian-origin H3N2 Canine Influenza Vaccine in Dogs Challenged with the Virulent Virus
Veterinary Microbiology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20034748
Transmission of avian-origin influenza A virus (H3N2) to dogs had been reported and since then the H3N2 virus infection across South Korea has been occurred repeatedly in the country's animal clinics and kennels. Dog-to-dog transmission of the virus had also been experimentally demonstrated by direct contact. In this study, immunogenicity and protective efficacy against challenge exposure of the formalin-inactivated H3N2 influenza virus vaccine with a synthetic polymer adjuvant was investigated in dogs. The beagle puppies received two inactivated vaccine injections intramuscularly 2 weeks apart. Serological investigation by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and an ELISA assay indicated that a significant increase in antibody titer was displayed 2 weeks after the second vaccination. Clinical signs, virus shedding and histopathological lesions in the lungs were exhibited in unvaccinated beagle puppies directly challenged through an intranasal route with the virus 2 weeks after the second vaccination. However, the vaccinated animals did not show any clinical signs and showed milder pathological lung lesions and shorter shedding duration with lower loads than controls'. These results indicated that the synthetic polymer-adjuvant avian-origin canine influenza virus (CIV) vaccine had produced antibody response and protection from avian-origin CIV challenge in dogs.
Prevalence and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Isolated Type I Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus from 2007 to 2008 in Korea
Virus Genes. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20063118
The first Korean strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was isolated in 1997, and it exhibited high similarity to strain VR-2332 (type II PRRSV; North American type). Recently, however, infection with type I PRRSV (European type) has also been reported in Korea. To date, preliminary data about type I PRRSV prevalence in Korea have not been reported. Here, using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, we analyzed 383 archived field samples from 101 pig farms in Korea that were collected from 2007 to 2008. We identified 155 samples from 68 farms that were positive for PRRSV. Fifty-one samples (51/155; 32.9%) and 20 farms (20/68; 29.4%) were type I PRRSV-positive/type II PRRSV-negative. Furthermore, we tried to isolate the type I PRRSV from positive samples and seven type I PRRSV were isolated using PAM. The phylogenetic analysis using the type I PRRSV isolates (7 isolates) was performed based on open reading frame (ORF)5 (accession numbers GU325642 to GU325648) and ORF7 (accession numbers GU325635 to GU325641). In the phylogenetic study, seven type I PRRSV isolates were closely related with panEuropean based on ORF7, while they were genetically distinct from Lelystad virus and made a unique clade based on ORF5. The results of this study demonstrate that infection with type I PRRSV is not uncommon in Korean pig farms, which suggests that diagnosis and control of type I PRRSV should be considered in Korea. A new approach to vaccination against, and epidemiological analysis of, Korean PRRSV is urgently needed.
Lab on a Chip. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20358105
Platelets play an important role in hemostasis by forming a thrombotic plug that seals the vessel wall and promotes vascular healing. After platelets adhere and aggregate at the wound site, their next step is to generate contractile forces through the coordination of physicochemical interactions between actin, myosin, and alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin receptors that retract the thrombus' size and strengthen its adhesion to the exposed matrix. Although platelet contractile forces (PCF) are a definitive feature of hemostasis and thrombosis, there are few approaches that can directly measure them. In this study, we describe the development of an approach to measure PCF in microthrombi using a microscopic flexible post force sensor array. Quasi-static measurements and live microscopic imaging of thrombin-activated platelets on the posts were conducted to assay the development of PCF to various hemostatic conditions. Microthrombi were observed to produce forces that monotonically increased with thrombin concentration and activation time, but forces subsided when thrombin was removed. PCF results were statistically similar on arrays of posts printed with fibronectin or fibrinogen. PCF measurements were combined with clot volume measurements to determine that the average force per platelet was 2.1 +/- 0.1 nN after 60 min, which is significantly higher than what has been measured with previous approaches. Overall, the flexible post arrays for PCF measurements are a promising approach for evaluating platelet functionality, platelet physiology and pathology, the impacts of different matrices or agonists on hemostatic responses, and in providing critical information regarding platelet activity that can guide new hemostatic or thrombotic strategies.
Virology Journal. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21205327
Avian origin canine influenza virus was reported in Korea. The dog to dog contact transmission of the avian origin canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 and CIV H3N8 was shown by experimental contact transmission. This study was focused on viral excretion and fever in order to elucidate the epidemiological associations which might be helpful to control the disease transmissions in CIV outbreak in dogs.
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21516530
Cell migration relies on traction forces in order to propel a cell. Several computational models have been developed that help explain the trajectory that cells take during migration, but little attention has been placed on traction forces during this process. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of cell migration by using a bio-chemical-mechanical contractility model that incorporates the first steps of cell migration on an array of posts. In the model, formation of a new adhesion causes a reactivation of stress fibre assembly within a cell. The model was able to predict the spatial distribution of traction forces observed with previous experiments. Moreover, the model found that the strain energy exerted by the traction forces of a migrating cell underwent a cyclic relationship that rose with the formation of a new adhesion and fell with the release of an adhesion at its rear.
Substrate Stiffness Increases Twitch Power of Neonatal Cardiomyocytes in Correlation with Changes in Myofibril Structure and Intracellular Calcium
Biophysical Journal. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22098744
During neonatal development, there is an increase in myocardial stiffness that coincides with an increase in the contractility of the heart. In vitro assays have shown that substrate stiffness plays a role in regulating the twitch forces produced by immature cardiomyocytes. However, its effect on twitch power is unclear due to difficulties in measuring the twitch velocity of cardiomyocytes. Here, we introduce what we consider a novel approach to quantify twitch power by combining the temporal resolution of optical line scanning with the subcellular force resolution of micropost arrays. Using this approach, twitch power was found to be greater for cells cultured on stiffer posts, despite having lower twitch velocities. The increased power was attributed in part to improved myofibril structure (increased sarcomere length and Z-band width) and intracellular calcium levels. Immunofluorescent staining of α-actin revealed that cardiomyocytes had greater sarcomere length and Z-band width when cultured on stiffer arrays. Moreover, the concentration of intracellular calcium at rest and its rise with each twitch contraction was greater for cells on the stiffer posts. Altogether, these findings indicate that cardiomyocytes respond to substrate stiffness with biomechanical and biochemical changes that lead to an increase in cardiac contractility.