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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
Articles by Santiago M. Di Pietro in JoVE
In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction
Daniel Feliciano, Jarred J. Bultema, Andrea L. Ambrosio, Santiago M. Di Pietro
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis depends on adaptor proteins that coordinate cargo selection and clathrin coat assembly. Here we describe procedures to study adaptor-clathrin physical interaction and live cell imaging approaches using as a model the yeast endocytic adaptor protein Sla1p.
Other articles by Santiago M. Di Pietro on PubMed
Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Calhepatin, an S100-like Calcium-binding Protein from the Liver of Lungfish (Lepidosiren Paradoxa)
European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. Jul, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12135482
We report the biochemical characterization of calhepatin, a calcium-binding protein of the S100 family, isolated from lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) liver. The primary structure, determined by Edman degradation and MS/MS, shows that the sequence identities with the other members of the family are lower than those between S100 proteins from different species. Calhepatin is composed of 75 residues and has a molecular mass of 8670 Da. It is smaller than calbindin D(9k) (78 residues), the smallest S100 described so far. Sequence analysis and molecular modelling predict the two EF-hand motifs characteristic of the S100 family. Metal-binding properties were studied by a direct 45Ca2+-binding assay and by fluorescence titration. Calhepatin binds Ca2+ and Cu2+ but not Zn2+. Cu2+ binding does not change the affinity of calhepatin for Ca2+. Calhepatin undergoes a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding as shown by the increase in its intrinsic fluorescence intensity and lambda(max), the decrease in the apo-calhepatin hydrodynamic volume, and the Ca2+-dependent binding of the protein to phenyl-Superose. Like most S100 proteins, calhepatin tends to form noncovalently associated dimers. These data suggest that calhepatin is probably involved in Ca2+-signal transduction.
Biochemistry. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12755625
Anti-double-stranded DNA monoclonal antibodies against a viral transcriptional regulatory site are capable of discriminating single-base replacements with affinities of 1 x 10(-)(9) M, which were optimized for the length of the duplex used as the immunogen. Their affinity for DNA duplexes of increasing length is lower, but reaches a plateau at 2 x 10(-)(8) M, still a fairly high affinity compared to those of most known natural anti-DNA antibodies. The ability of the antibodies to bind to a 166 bp DNA fragment containing the specific sequence strongly suggests that these have the potential of binding the specific sequence within larger genomic DNA fragments. Electrostatic interactions do not play a significant role, the opposite of what is observed in natural DNA binding interfaces. In addition, the insensitivity of the antibody-DNA interaction to solute effects is indicative of a marginal participation of water molecules at the interface compared to the level of participation at the natural E2-DNA interface. Spectroscopic evidence of base unstacking strongly suggests substantial denaturation of antibody-bound DNA, in agreement with thermodynamic results that show an unusual positive heat capacity change, which could be explained at least in part by the exposure of DNA bases upon binding. Lower local DNA stability cooperates with sequence recognition in producing the highest binding affinity. A slow rate of antibody-DNA association indicates an energy barrier imposed by conformational rearrangements, as opposed to an electrostatically assisted diffusion-controlled collision in the E2 DNA binding domain. While the E2-DNA interaction takes place through a typical direct readout mechanism, the anti-double-stranded DNA monoclonal antibody-DNA interaction could be viewed as a distinctive case of indirect readout with a significant distortion in the DNA conformation. However, the precise mechanism with which the DNA bases are accommodated in the antibody combining site will require structural analysis at atomic resolution. These results constitute a first stage for unveiling the unusual molecular recognition mechanism of a specific DNA sequence by antibodies. This mechanism could represent the strategy with which the immune system tightly and specifically recognizes a DNA antigen.
Biochemistry. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12846568
Two paralogous groups of fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) have been described in vertebrate liver: liver FABP (L-FABP) type, extensively characterized in mammals, and liver basic FABP (Lb-FABP) found in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds. We describe here the toad Lb-FABP complete amino acid sequence, its X-ray structure to 2.5 A resolution, ligand-binding properties, and mechanism of fatty acid transfer to phospholipid membranes. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of toad Lb-FABP with known L-FABPs and Lb-FABPs shows that it is more closely related to the other Lb-FABPs. Toad Lb-FABP conserves the 12 characteristic residues present in all Lb-FABPs and absent in L-FABPs and presents the canonical fold characteristic of all the members of this protein family. Eight out of the 12 conserved residues point to the lipid-binding cavity of the molecule. In contrast, most of the 25 L-FABP conserved residues are in clusters on the surface of the molecule. The helix-turn-helix motif shows both a negative and positive electrostatic potential surface as in rat L-FABP, and in contrast with the other FABP types. The mechanism of anthroyloxy-labeled fatty acids transfer from Lb-FABP to phospholipid membranes occurs by a diffusion-mediated process, as previously shown for L-FABP, but the rate of transfer is 1 order of magnitude faster. Toad Lb-FABP can bind two cis-parinaric acid molecules but only one trans-parinaric acid molecule while L-FABP binds two molecules of both parinaric acid isomers. Although toad Lb-FABP shares with L-FABP a broad ligand-binding specificity, the relative affinity is different.
The Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 3 (cocoa) Protein is a Component of the Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex-2 (BLOC-2)
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14718540
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetically heterogeneous inherited disease affecting vesicle trafficking among lysosome-related organelles. The Hps3, Hps5, and Hps6 genes are mutated in the cocoa, ruby-eye-2, and ruby-eye mouse pigment mutants, respectively, and their human orthologs are mutated in HPS3, HPS5, and HPS6 patients. These three genes encode novel proteins of unknown function. The phenotypes of Hps5/Hps5,Hps6/Hps6 and Hps3/Hps3,Hps6/Hps6 double mutant mice mimic, in coat and eye colors, in melanosome ultrastructure, and in levels of platelet dense granule serotonin, the corresponding phenotypes of single mutants. These facts suggest that the proteins encoded by these genes act within the same pathway or protein complex in vivo to regulate vesicle trafficking. Further, the Hps5 protein is destabilized within tissues of Hps3 and Hps6 mutants, as is the Hps6 protein within tissues of Hps3 and Hps5 mutants. Also, proteins encoded by these genes co-immunoprecipitate and occur in a complex of 350 kDa as determined by sucrose gradient and gel filtration analyses. Together, these results indicate that the Hps3, Hps5, and Hps6 proteins regulate vesicle trafficking to lysosome-related organelles at the physiological level as components of the BLOC-2 (biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-2) protein complex and suggest that the pathogenesis and future therapies of HPS3, HPS5, and HPS6 patients are likely to be similar. Interaction of the Hps5 and Hps6 proteins within BLOC-2 is abolished by the three-amino acid deletion in the Hps6(ru) mutant allele, indicating that these three amino acids are important for normal BLOC-2 complex formation.
Characterization of BLOC-2, a Complex Containing the Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Proteins HPS3, HPS5 and HPS6
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15030569
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) defines a group of at least seven autosomal recessive disorders characterized by albinism and prolonged bleeding due to defects in the lysosome-related organelles, melanosomes and platelet-dense granules, respectively. Most HPS genes, including HPS3, HPS5 and HPS6, encode ubiquitously expressed novel proteins of unknown function. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of a stable protein complex named Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex-2 (BLOC-2), which contains the HPS3, HPS5 and HPS6 proteins as subunits. The endogenous HPS3, HPS5 and HPS6 proteins from human HeLa cells coimmunoprecipitated with each other from crude extracts as well as from fractions resulting from size-exclusion chromatography and density gradient centrifugation. The native molecular mass of BLOC-2 was estimated to be 340 +/- 64 kDa. As inferred from the biochemical properties of the HPS6 subunit, BLOC-2 exists in a soluble pool and associates to membranes as a peripheral membrane protein. Fibroblasts deficient in the BLOC-2 subunits HPS3 or HPS6 displayed normal basal secretion of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase. Our results suggest a common biological basis underlying the pathogenesis of HPS-3, -5 and -6 disease.
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15941404
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) defines a group of at least seven autosomal recessive disorders characterized by albinism and prolonged bleeding. These manifestations arise from defects in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, including melanosomes and platelet dense granules. Most genes associated with HPS in humans and rodent models of the disease encode components of multisubunit protein complexes that are expressed ubiquitously and play roles in intracellular protein trafficking and/or organelle distribution. A small GTPase of the Rab family, Rab38, is also implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. This article reviews recent progress toward elucidating the cellular functions of these proteins.
Crystal Structure of Axolotl (Ambystoma Mexicanum) Liver Bile Acid-binding Protein Bound to Cholic and Oleic Acid
Proteins. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16555310
The family of the liver bile acid-binding proteins (L-BABPs), formerly called liver basic fatty acid-binding proteins (Lb-FABPs) shares fold and sequence similarity with the paralogous liver fatty acid-binding proteins (L-FABPs) but has a different stoichiometry and specificity of ligand binding. This article describes the first X-ray structure of a member of the L-BABP family, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) L-BABP, bound to two different ligands: cholic and oleic acid. The protein binds one molecule of oleic acid in a position that is significantly different from that of either of the two molecules that bind to rat liver FABP. The stoichiometry of binding of cholate is of two ligands per protein molecule, as observed in chicken L-BABP. The cholate molecule that binds buried most deeply into the internal cavity overlaps well with the analogous bound to chicken L-BABP, whereas the second molecule, which interacts with the first only through hydrophobic contacts, is more external and exposed to the solvent.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16837549
The adaptor protein (AP)-3 complex is a component of the cellular machinery that controls protein sorting from endosomes to lysosomes and specialized related organelles such as melanosomes. Mutations in an AP-3 subunit underlie a form of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), a disorder characterized by abnormalities in lysosome-related organelles. HPS in humans can also be caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of three complexes of unclear function, named biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC)-1, -2, and -3. Here, we report that BLOC-1 interacts physically and functionally with AP-3 to facilitate the trafficking of a known AP-3 cargo, CD63, and of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), a melanosomal membrane protein previously thought to traffic only independently of AP-3. BLOC-1 also interacts with BLOC-2 to facilitate Tyrp1 trafficking by a mechanism apparently independent of AP-3 function. Both BLOC-1 and -2 localize mainly to early endosome-associated tubules as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. These findings support the idea that BLOC-1 and -2 represent hitherto unknown components of the endosomal protein trafficking machinery.
BLOC-1 is Required for Cargo-specific Sorting from Vacuolar Early Endosomes Toward Lysosome-related Organelles
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17182842
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defects in the formation and function of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. HPS in humans or mice is caused by mutations in any of 15 genes, five of which encode subunits of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC)-1, a protein complex with no known function. Here, we show that BLOC-1 functions in selective cargo exit from early endosomes toward melanosomes. BLOC-1-deficient melanocytes accumulate the melanosomal protein tyrosinase-related protein-1 (Tyrp1), but not other melanosomal proteins, in endosomal vacuoles and the cell surface due to failed biosynthetic transit from early endosomes to melanosomes and consequent increased endocytic flux. The defects are corrected by restoration of the missing BLOC-1 subunit. Melanocytes from HPS model mice lacking a different protein complex, BLOC-2, accumulate Tyrp1 in distinct downstream endosomal intermediates, suggesting that BLOC-1 and BLOC-2 act sequentially in the same pathway. By contrast, intracellular Tyrp1 is correctly targeted to melanosomes in melanocytes lacking another HPS-associated protein complex, adaptor protein (AP)-3. The results indicate that melanosome maturation requires at least two cargo transport pathways directly from early endosomes to melanosomes, one pathway mediated by AP-3 and one pathway mediated by BLOC-1 and BLOC-2, that are deficient in several forms of HPS.
The EMBO Journal. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17363896
Adaptor proteins play important endocytic roles including recognition of internalization signals in transmembrane cargo. Sla1p serves as the adaptor for uptake of transmembrane proteins containing the NPFxD internalization signal, and is essential for normal functioning of the actin cytoskeleton during endocytosis. The Sla1p homology domain 1 (SHD1) within Sla1p is responsible for recognition of the NPFxD signal. This study presents the NMR structure of the NPFxD-bound state of SHD1 and a model for the protein-ligand complex. The alpha+beta structure of the protein reveals an SH3-like topology with a solvent-exposed hydrophobic ligand binding site. NMR chemical shift perturbations and effects of structure-based mutations on ligand binding in vitro define residues that are key for NPFxD binding. Mutations that abolish ligand recognition in vitro also abolish NPFxD-mediated receptor internalization in vivo. Thus, SHD1 is a novel functional domain based on SH3-like topology, which employs a unique binding site to recognize the NPFxD endocytic internalization signal. Its distant relationship with the SH3 fold endows this superfamily with a new role in endocytosis.
The EMBO Journal. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20150898
During clathrin-mediated endocytosis, adaptor proteins play central roles in coordinating the assembly of clathrin coats and cargo selection. Here we characterize the binding of the yeast endocytic adaptor Sla1p to clathrin through a variant clathrin-binding motif that is negatively regulated by the Sla1p SHD2 domain. The crystal structure of SHD2 identifies the domain as a sterile alpha-motif (SAM) domain and shows a propensity to oligomerize. By co-immunoprecipitation, Sla1p binds to clathrin and self-associates in vivo. Mutations in the clathrin-binding motif that abolish clathrin binding and structure-based mutations in SHD2 that impede self-association result in endocytosis defects and altered dynamics of Sla1p assembly at the sites of endocytosis. These results define a novel mechanism for negative regulation of clathrin binding by an adaptor and suggest a role for SAM domains in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.