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In JoVE (1)
- Lensfree On-chip Tomographic Microscopy Employing Multi-angle Illumination and Pixel Super-resolution
Other Publications (15)
- Optics Express
- Optics Express
- Lab on a Chip
- Lab on a Chip
- Lab on a Chip
- Analytical Chemistry
- Optics Express
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Lab on a Chip
- Applied Physics Letters
- Lab on a Chip
- Annals of Biomedical Engineering
- Applied Optics
- Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference
- Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam)
Articles by Serhan O. Isikman in JoVE
Lensfree On-chip Tomographic Microscopy Employing Multi-angle Illumination and Pixel Super-resolution
Serhan O. Isikman1, Waheb Bishara1, Aydogan Ozcan1,2,3
1Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Bioengineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, 3California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles
Lensfree optical tomography is a three-dimensional microscopy technique that offers a spatial resolution of <1 μm × <1 μm × <3 μm in x, y and z dimensions, respectively, over a large imaging-volume of 15-100 mm3, which can be particularly useful for integration with lab-on-a-chip platforms.
Other articles by Serhan O. Isikman on PubMed
Optics Express. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19770937
A two-degrees-of-freedom scanned beam imaging system with large dynamic range and dynamic focusing is demonstrated. The laser diode, photo-detector and the optical components are integrated on a moving platform that is made of FR4 (Flame-Retardant 4), a common polymeric substrate used in printed circuit boards. A scan angle of 52 degrees is demonstrated at 60 Hz resonant frequency while the laser is moved 250 um in the out-of-plane direction to achieve dynamic focusing. The laser is scanned by physically rotating the laser diode and the collection optics to achieve high signal-to-noise ratio and good ambient light rejection. The collection optics is engineered such that the collection efficiency decreases when collecting light from close distances to avoid detector saturation. The detection range is extended from contact distance up to 600 mm while the collected power level varies only by a factor of 30 within this long range. Slight modifications will allow increasing the detection range up to one meter. This is the first demonstration of a laser scan engine with such a high degree of integration of electronics, optoelectronics, optics and micromechanics on the same platform.
Optics Express. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20389485
We introduce the use of a birefringent crystal with lensless digital holography to create an on-chip differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. Using an incoherent source with a large aperture, in-line holograms of micro-objects are created, which interact with a uniaxial crystal and an absorbing polarizer, encoding differential interference contrast information of the objects on the chip. Despite the fact that a unit fringe magnification and an incoherent source with a large aperture have been used, holographic digital processing of such holograms rapidly recovers the differential phase contrast image of the specimen over a large field-of-view of approximately 24 mm(2).
Lab on a Chip. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20390127
We demonstrate color and monochrome on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans samples over a wide field-of-view using incoherent lensless in-line holography. Digital reconstruction of the recorded lensless holograms rapidly creates the C. elegans images within <1 s over a field-of-view of >24 mm2. By digitally combining the reconstructed images at three different wavelengths (red, green and blue), color images of dyed samples are also acquired. This wide field-of-view and compact on-chip imaging modality also permits straightforward integration with microfluidic systems.
Compact, Light-weight and Cost-effective Microscope Based on Lensless Incoherent Holography for Telemedicine Applications
Lab on a Chip. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20401422
Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing approximately 46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2 cm x 4.2 cm x 5.8 cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of approximately 24 mm(2). This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings.
Lab on a Chip. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20445943
We demonstrate lensfree digital microscopy on a cellphone. This compact and light-weight holographic microscope installed on a cellphone does not utilize any lenses, lasers or other bulky optical components and it may offer a cost-effective tool for telemedicine applications to address various global health challenges. Weighing approximately 38 grams (<1.4 ounces), this lensfree imaging platform can be mechanically attached to the camera unit of a cellphone where the samples are loaded from the side, and are vertically illuminated by a simple light-emitting diode (LED). This incoherent LED light is then scattered from each micro-object to coherently interfere with the background light, creating the lensfree hologram of each object on the detector array of the cellphone. These holographic signatures captured by the cellphone permit reconstruction of microscopic images of the objects through rapid digital processing. We report the performance of this lensfree cellphone microscope by imaging various sized micro-particles, as well as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and a waterborne parasite (Giardia lamblia).
Analytical Chemistry. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20450181
We present a detailed investigation of the performance of lens-free holographic microscopy toward high-throughput on-chip blood analysis. Using a spatially incoherent source that is emanating from a large aperture, automated counting of red blood cells with minimal sample preparation steps at densities reaching up to approximately 0.4 x 10(6) cells/muL is presented. Using the same lens-free holographic microscopy platform, we also characterize the volume of the red blood cells at the single-cell level through recovery of the optical phase information of each cell. We further demonstrate the measurement of the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood samples as well as automated counting of white blood cells, also yielding spatial resolution at the subcellular level sufficient to differentiate granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes from each other. These results uncover the prospects of lens-free holographic on-chip imaging to provide a useful tool for global health problems, especially by facilitating whole blood analysis in resource-poor environments.
Optics Express. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20588819
A multi-angle lensfree holographic imaging platform that can accurately characterize both the axial and lateral positions of cells located within multi-layered micro-channels is introduced. In this platform, lensfree digital holograms of the micro-objects on the chip are recorded at different illumination angles using partially coherent illumination. These digital holograms start to shift laterally on the sensor plane as the illumination angle of the source is tilted. Since the exact amount of this lateral shift of each object hologram can be calculated with an accuracy that beats the diffraction limit of light, the height of each cell from the substrate can be determined over a large field of view without the use of any lenses. We demonstrate the proof of concept of this multi-angle lensless imaging platform by using light emitting diodes to characterize various sized microparticles located on a chip with sub-micron axial and lateral localization over approximately 60 mm(2) field of view. Furthermore, we successfully apply this lensless imaging approach to simultaneously characterize blood samples located at multi-layered micro-channels in terms of the counts, individual thicknesses and the volumes of the cells at each layer. Because this platform does not require any lenses, lasers or other bulky optical/mechanical components, it provides a compact and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches for cytometry and diagnostics applications involving lab on a chip systems.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21504943
We present a lens-free optical tomographic microscope, which enables imaging a large volume of approximately 15 mm(3) on a chip, with a spatial resolution of < 1 μm × < 1 μm × < 3 μm in x, y and z dimensions, respectively. In this lens-free tomography modality, the sample is placed directly on a digital sensor array with, e.g., ≤ 4 mm distance to its active area. A partially coherent light source placed approximately 70 mm away from the sensor is employed to record lens-free in-line holograms of the sample from different viewing angles. At each illumination angle, multiple subpixel shifted holograms are also recorded, which are digitally processed using a pixel superresolution technique to create a single high-resolution hologram of each angular projection of the object. These superresolved holograms are digitally reconstructed for an angular range of ± 50°, which are then back-projected to compute tomograms of the sample. In order to minimize the artifacts due to limited angular range of tilted illumination, a dual-axis tomography scheme is adopted, where the light source is rotated along two orthogonal axes. Tomographic imaging performance is quantified using microbeads of different dimensions, as well as by imaging wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans. Probing a large volume with a decent 3D spatial resolution, this lens-free optical tomography platform on a chip could provide a powerful tool for high-throughput imaging applications in, e.g., cell and developmental biology.
Lab on a Chip. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21573311
We present a field-portable lensfree tomographic microscope, which can achieve sectional imaging of a large volume (∼20 mm(3)) on a chip with an axial resolution of <7 μm. In this compact tomographic imaging platform (weighing only ∼110 grams), 24 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that are each butt-coupled to a fibre-optic waveguide are controlled through a cost-effective micro-processor to sequentially illuminate the sample from different angles to record lensfree holograms of the sample that is placed on the top of a digital sensor array. In order to generate pixel super-resolved (SR) lensfree holograms and hence digitally improve the achievable lateral resolution, multiple sub-pixel shifted holograms are recorded at each illumination angle by electromagnetically actuating the fibre-optic waveguides using compact coils and magnets. These SR projection holograms obtained over an angular range of ±50° are rapidly reconstructed to yield projection images of the sample, which can then be back-projected to compute tomograms of the objects on the sensor-chip. The performance of this compact and light-weight lensfree tomographic microscope is validated by imaging micro-beads of different dimensions as well as a Hymenolepis nana egg, which is an infectious parasitic flatworm. Achieving a decent three-dimensional spatial resolution, this field-portable on-chip optical tomographic microscope might provide a useful toolset for telemedicine and high-throughput imaging applications in resource-poor settings.
Applied Physics Letters. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21580801
Using lensfree holography we demonstrate optofluidic tomography on a chip. A partially coherent light source is utilized to illuminate the objects flowing within a microfluidic channel placed directly on a digital sensor array. The light source is rotated to record lensfree holograms of the objects at different viewing directions. By capturing multiple frames at each illumination angle, pixel super-resolution techniques are utilized to reconstruct high-resolution transmission images at each angle. Tomograms of flowing objects are then computed through filtered back-projection of these reconstructed lensfree images, thereby enabling optical sectioning on-a-chip. The proof-of-concept is demonstrated by lensfree tomographic imaging of C. elegans.
Lab on a Chip. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21709875
We demonstrate a field-portable upright and inverted microscope that can image specimens in both reflection and transmission modes. This compact and cost-effective dual-mode microscope weighs only ∼135 grams (<4.8 ounces) and utilizes a simple light emitting diode (LED) to illuminate the sample of interest using a beam-splitter cube that is positioned above the object plane. This LED illumination is then partially reflected from the sample to be collected by two lenses, creating a reflection image of the specimen onto an opto-electronic sensor-array that is positioned above the beam-splitter cube. In addition to this, the illumination beam is also partially transmitted through the same specimen, which then casts lensfree in-line holograms of the same objects onto a second opto-electronic sensor-array that is positioned underneath the beam-splitter cube. By rapid digital reconstruction of the acquired lensfree holograms, transmission images (both phase and amplitude) of the same specimen are also created. We tested the performance of this field-portable microscope by imaging various micro-particles, blood smears as well as a histopathology slide corresponding to skin tissue. Being compact, light-weight and cost-effective, this combined reflection and transmission microscope might especially be useful for telemedicine applications in resource limited settings.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21887590
Microfluidic devices aim at miniaturizing, automating, and lowering the cost of chemical and biological sample manipulation and detection, hence creating new opportunities for lab-on-a-chip platforms. Recently, optofluidic devices have also emerged where optics is used to enhance the functionality and the performance of microfluidic components in general. Lensfree imaging within microfluidic channels is one such optofluidic platform, and in this article, we focus on the holographic implementation of lensfree optofluidic microscopy and tomography, which might provide a simpler and more powerful solution for three-dimensional (3D) on-chip imaging. This lensfree optofluidic imaging platform utilizes partially coherent digital in-line holography to allow phase and amplitude imaging of specimens flowing through micro-channels, and takes advantage of the fluidic flow to achieve higher spatial resolution imaging compared to a stationary specimen on the same chip. In addition to this, 3D tomographic images of the same samples can also be reconstructed by capturing lensfree projection images of the samples at various illumination angles as a function of the fluidic flow. Based on lensfree digital holographic imaging, this optofluidic microscopy and tomography concept could be valuable especially for providing a compact, yet powerful toolset for lab-on-a-chip devices.
Applied Optics. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22193016
Optical sectioning of biological specimens provides detailed volumetric information regarding their internal structure. To provide a complementary approach to existing three-dimensional (3D) microscopy modalities, we have recently demonstrated lensfree optical tomography that offers high-throughput imaging within a compact and simple platform. In this approach, in-line holograms of objects at different angles of partially coherent illumination are recorded using a digital sensor-array, which enables computing pixel super-resolved tomographic images of the specimen. This imaging modality, which forms the focus of this review, offers micrometer-scale 3D resolution over large imaging volumes of, for example, 10-15 mm(3), and can be assembled in light weight and compact architectures. Therefore, lensfree optical tomography might be particularly useful for lab-on-a-chip applications as well as for microscopy needs in resource-limited settings.
Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22256312
The first demonstration of optofluidic tomography is presented. Using partially coherent illumination, holograms of objects are recorded at multiple viewing angles, as they flow through a microfluidic channel placed directly on the top of an opto-electronic sensor array. These lensfree holograms are then digitally processed to compute pixel super-resolved tomograms of micro-objects to achieve sectional opto-fluidic imaging on a chip.
Lensfree Computational Microscopy Tools for Cell and Tissue Imaging at the Point-of-care and in Low-resource Settings
Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam). 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22433451
The recent revolution in digital technologies and information processing methods present important opportunities to transform the way optical imaging is performed, particularly toward improving the throughput of microscopes while at the same time reducing their relative cost and complexity. Lensfree computational microscopy is rapidly emerging toward this end, and by discarding lenses and other bulky optical components of conventional imaging systems, and relying on digital computation instead, it can achieve both reflection and transmission mode microscopy over a large field-of-view within compact, cost-effective and mechanically robust architectures. Such high throughput and miniaturized imaging devices can provide a complementary toolset for telemedicine applications and point-of-care diagnostics by facilitating complex and critical tasks such as cytometry and microscopic analysis of e.g., blood smears, Pap tests and tissue samples. In this article, the basics of these lensfree microscopy modalities will be reviewed, and their clinically relevant applications will be discussed.