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In JoVE (1)
- एक पर्यावरण वायरल Hydroxyapatite क्रोमैटोग्राफी का प्रयोग समुदाय से एकल असहाय डीएनए डबल असहाय डीएनए और आरएनए के पृथक्करण
Other Publications (12)
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- PLoS Biology
- PloS One
- The ISME Journal
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- PloS One
- PloS One
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Standards in Genomic Sciences
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- The ISME Journal
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Articles by Shannon J. Williamson in JoVE
एक पर्यावरण वायरल Hydroxyapatite क्रोमैटोग्राफी का प्रयोग समुदाय से एकल असहाय डीएनए डबल असहाय डीएनए और आरएनए के पृथक्करण
Douglas W. Fadrosh1, Cynthia Andrews-Pfannkoch2, Shannon J. Williamson1
1Department of Microbial and Environmental Genomics, The J. Craig Venter Institute, 2Department of Synthetic Biology and Bioenergy, The J. Craig Venter Institute
हम एक कुशल पर्यावरण वायरल समुदायों से एकल असहाय डीएनए डबल असहाय डीएनए और शाही सेना अणु अलग विधि का वर्णन. न्यूक्लिक एसिड फॉस्फेट युक्त बफ़र्स की बढ़ती सांद्रता के साथ hydroxyapatite क्रोमैटोग्राफी का उपयोग fractionated हैं. इस विधि सभी पर्यावरणीय नमूनों से वायरल न्यूक्लिक एसिड प्रकार के अलगाव परमिट.
Other articles by Shannon J. Williamson on PubMed
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15933034
The genome for the marine pseudotemperate member of the Siphoviridae phiHSIC has been sequenced using a combination of linker amplification library construction, restriction digest library construction, and primer walking. phiHSIC enters into a pseudolysogenic relationship with its host, Listonella pelagia, characterized by sigmoidal growth curves producing >10(9) cells/ml and >10(11) phage/ml. The genome (37,966 bp; G+C content, 44%) contained 47 putative open reading frames (ORFs), 17 of which had significant BLASTP hits in GenBank, including a beta subunit of DNA polymerase III, a helicase, a helicase-like subunit of a resolvasome complex, a terminase, a tail tape measure protein, several phage-like structural proteins, and 1 ORF that may assist in host pathogenicity (an ADP ribosyltransferase). The genome was circularly permuted, with no physical ends detected by sequencing or restriction enzyme digestion analysis, and lacked a cos site. This evidence is consistent with a headful packaging mechanism similar to that of Salmonella phage P22 and Shigella phage Sf6. Because none of the phage-like ORFs were closely related to any existing phage sequences in GenBank (i.e., none more than 62% identical and most <25% identical at the amino acid level), phiHSIC is unique among phages that have been sequenced to date. These results further emphasize the need to sequence phages from the marine environment, perhaps the largest reservoir of untapped genetic information.
PLoS Biology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17355171
Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans) from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.
The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Metagenomic Characterization of Viruses Within Aquatic Microbial Samples
PloS One. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18213365
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on our planet. Interactions between viruses and their hosts impact several important biological processes in the world's oceans such as horizontal gene transfer, microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling. Interrogation of microbial metagenomic sequence data collected as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Expedition (GOS) revealed a high abundance of viral sequences, representing approximately 3% of the total predicted proteins. Cluster analyses of the viral sequences revealed hundreds to thousands of viral genes encoding various metabolic and cellular functions. Quantitative analyses of viral genes of host origin performed on the viral fraction of aquatic samples confirmed the viral nature of these sequences and suggested that significant portions of aquatic viral communities behave as reservoirs of such genetic material. Distributional and phylogenetic analyses of these host-derived viral sequences also suggested that viral acquisition of environmentally relevant genes of host origin is a more abundant and widespread phenomenon than previously appreciated. The predominant viral sequences identified within microbial fractions originated from tailed bacteriophages and exhibited varying global distributions according to viral family. Recruitment of GOS viral sequence fragments against 27 complete aquatic viral genomes revealed that only one reference bacteriophage genome was highly abundant and was closely related, but not identical, to the cyanomyovirus P-SSM4. The co-distribution across all sampling sites of P-SSM4-like sequences with the dominant ecotype of its host, Prochlorococcus supports the classification of the viral sequences as P-SSM4-like and suggests that this virus may influence the abundance, distribution and diversity of one of the most dominant components of picophytoplankton in oligotrophic oceans. In summary, the abundance and broad geographical distribution of viral sequences within microbial fractions, the prevalence of genes among viral sequences that encode microbial physiological function and their distinct phylogenetic distribution lend strong support to the notion that viral-mediated gene acquisition is a common and ongoing mechanism for generating microbial diversity in the marine environment.
The ISME Journal. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18719614
The consequences of viral infection within microbial communities are dependent on the nature of the viral life cycle. Among the possible outcomes is the substantial influence of temperate viruses on the phenotypes of lysogenic prokaryotes through various forms of genetic exchange. To date, no marine microbial ecosystem has consistently shown a predisposition for containing significant numbers of inducible temperate viruses. Here, we show that deep-sea diffuse-flow hydrothermal vent waters display a consistently high incidence of lysogenic hosts and harbor substantial populations of temperate viruses. Genetic fingerprinting and initial metagenomic analyses indicate that temperate viruses in vent waters appear to be a less diverse subset of the larger virioplankton community and that these viral populations contain an extraordinarily high frequency of novel genes. Thus, it appears likely that temperate viruses are key players in the ecology of prokaryotes within the extreme geothermal ecosystems of the deep sea.
Hydroxyapatite-mediated Separation of Double-stranded DNA, Single-stranded DNA, and RNA Genomes from Natural Viral Assemblages
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20543058
Metagenomics can be used to determine the diversity of complex, often unculturable, viral communities with various nucleic acid compositions. Here, we report the use of hydroxyapatite chromatography to efficiently fractionate double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), dsRNA, and ssRNA genomes from known bacteriophages. Linker-amplified shotgun libraries were constructed to generate sequencing reads from each hydroxyapatite fraction. Greater than 90% of the reads displayed significant similarity to the expected genomes at the nucleotide level. These methods were applied to marine viruses collected from the Chesapeake Bay and the Dry Tortugas National Park. Isolated nucleic acids were fractionated using hydroxyapatite chromatography followed by linker-amplified shotgun library construction and sequencing. Taxonomic analysis demonstrated that the majority of environmental sequences, regardless of their source nucleic acid, were most similar to dsDNA viruses, reflecting the bias of viral metagenomic sequence databases.
Nature. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21048761
The understanding of marine microbial ecology and metabolism has been hampered by the paucity of sequenced reference genomes. To this end, we report the sequencing of 137 diverse marine isolates collected from around the world. We analysed these sequences, along with previously published marine prokaryotic genomes, in the context of marine metagenomic data, to gain insights into the ecology of the surface ocean prokaryotic picoplankton (0.1-3.0 μm size range). The results suggest that the sequenced genomes define two microbial groups: one composed of only a few taxa that are nearly always abundant in picoplanktonic communities, and the other consisting of many microbial taxa that are rarely abundant. The genomic content of the second group suggests that these microbes are capable of slow growth and survival in energy-limited environments, and rapid growth in energy-rich environments. By contrast, the abundant and cosmopolitan picoplanktonic prokaryotes for which there is genomic representation have smaller genomes, are probably capable of only slow growth and seem to be relatively unable to sense or rapidly acclimate to energy-rich conditions. Their genomic features also lead us to propose that one method used to avoid predation by viruses and/or bacterivores is by means of slow growth and the maintenance of low biomass.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21436882
Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA). The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21629664
The paucity of sequence data from pelagic deep-ocean microbial assemblages has severely restricted molecular exploration of the largest biome on Earth. In this study, an analysis is presented of a large-scale 454-pyrosequencing metagenomic dataset from a hadopelagic environment from 6,000 m depth within the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). A total of 145 Mbp of assembled sequence data was generated and compared to two pelagic deep ocean metagenomes and two representative surface seawater datasets from the Sargasso Sea. In a number of instances, all three deep metagenomes displayed similar trends, but were most magnified in the PRT, including enrichment in functions for two-component signal transduction mechanisms and transcriptional regulation. Overrepresented transporters in the PRT metagenome included outer membrane porins, diverse cation transporters, and di- and tri-carboxylate transporters that matched well with the prevailing catabolic processes such as butanoate, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. A surprisingly high abundance of sulfatases for the degradation of sulfated polysaccharides were also present in the PRT. The most dramatic adaptational feature of the PRT microbes appears to be heavy metal resistance, as reflected in the large numbers of transporters present for their removal. As a complement to the metagenome approach, single-cell genomic techniques were utilized to generate partial whole-genome sequence data from four uncultivated cells from members of the dominant phyla within the PRT, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes. The single-cell sequence data provided genomic context for many of the highly abundant functional attributes identified from the PRT metagenome, as well as recruiting heavily the PRT metagenomic sequence data compared to 172 available reference marine genomes. Through these multifaceted sequence approaches, new insights have been provided into the unique functional attributes present in microbes residing in a deeper layer of the ocean far removed from the more productive sun-drenched zones above.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21709214
The Chesapeake Bay, a seasonally variable temperate estuary, provides a natural laboratory for examining the fluctuations and impacts of viral lysis on aquatic microorganisms. Viral abundance (VA) and viral production (VP) were monitored in the Chesapeake Bay over 4 1/2 annual cycles, producing a unique, long-term, interannual study of virioplankton production. High and dynamic VP rates, averaging 7.9 × 10(6) viruses per mL per h, indicate that viral lysis impacts a significant fraction of microorganisms in the Chesapeake. Viral-mediated bacterial mortality, VA, VP, and organic carbon release all displayed similar interannual and seasonal trends with higher values in 2003 and 2006 than in 2004 and 2005 and peaks in early spring and summer. Surprisingly, higher rates of viral lysis occurred in winter, resulting in a magnified effect of viral lysis on bacterioplankton during times of reduced productivity. Viral lysis directly impacted the organic carbon pool, contributing on average 76 μg of C per L per d, an amount capable of sustaining ∼55% of Chesapeake Bay bacterial production. The observed repeating interannual patterns of VP and lysis are likely interlinked with seasonal cycles of host abundance and diversity, which are in turn driven by annual cycles in environmental conditions, emphasizing the complex interplay of seasonality and microbial ecology in the Chesapeake Bay.
TheViral MetaGenome Annotation Pipeline(VMGAP):an Automated Tool for the Functional Annotation of Viral Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Data
Standards in Genomic Sciences. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21886867
In the past few years, the field of metagenomics has been growing at an accelerated pace, particularly in response to advancements in new sequencing technologies. The large volume of sequence data from novel organisms generated by metagenomic projects has triggered the development of specialized databases and tools focused on particular groups of organisms or data types. Here we describe a pipeline for the functional annotation of viral metagenomic sequence data. The Viral MetaGenome Annotation Pipeline (VMGAP) pipeline takes advantage of a number of specialized databases, such as collections of mobile genetic elements and environmental metagenomes to improve the classification and functional prediction of viral gene products. The pipeline assigns a functional term to each predicted protein sequence following a suite of comprehensive analyses whose results are ranked according to a priority rules hierarchy. Additional annotation is provided in the form of enzyme commission (EC) numbers, GO/MeGO terms and Hidden Markov Models together with supporting evidence.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22144147
Metagenomics is revolutionizing the field of microbial ecology through techniques that eliminate the prerequisite of culturing. Metagenomic studies of microbial populations in different environments reveal the incredible diversity and adaptive capabilities of these organisms. With the advent of cheaper, high-throughput sequencing technologies, these studies are also producing vast amounts of sequence data. Here, we discuss the different components of a metagenomic study including sample collection, DNA extraction, sequencing, and informatics. We highlight their issues and challenges, and review the solutions that are currently in use. We conclude with examples of metagenomic studies conducted on environments of varying complexities.
Influence of Nutrients and Currents on the Genomic Composition of Microbes Across an Upwelling Mosaic
The ISME Journal. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22278668
Metagenomic data sets were generated from samples collected along a coastal to open ocean transect between Southern California Bight and California Current waters during a seasonal upwelling event, providing an opportunity to examine the impact of episodic pulses of cold nutrient-rich water into surface ocean microbial communities. The data set consists of ∼5.8 million predicted proteins across seven sites, from three different size classes: 0.1-0.8, 0.8-3.0 and 3.0-200.0 μm. Taxonomic and metabolic analyses suggest that sequences from the 0.1-0.8 μm size class correlated with their position along the upwelling mosaic. However, taxonomic profiles of bacteria from the larger size classes (0.8-200 μm) were less constrained by habitat and characterized by an increase in Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Flavobacteria and double-stranded DNA viral sequences. Functional annotation of transmembrane proteins indicate that sites comprised of organisms with small genomes have an enrichment of transporters with substrate specificities for amino acids, iron and cadmium, whereas organisms with larger genomes have a higher percentage of transporters for ammonium and potassium. Eukaryotic-type glutamine synthetase (GS) II proteins were identified and taxonomically classified as viral, most closely related to the GSII in Mimivirus, suggesting that marine Mimivirus-like particles may have played a role in the transfer of GSII gene functions. Additionally, a Planctomycete bloom was sampled from one upwelling site providing a rare opportunity to assess the genomic composition of a marine Planctomycete population. The significant correlations observed between genomic properties, community structure and nutrient availability provide insights into habitat-driven dynamics among oligotrophic versus upwelled marine waters adjoining each other spatially.