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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (14)
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cell Calcium
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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Articles by Shenyuan Zhang in JoVE
טיהור פלסמיד דנ"א מ מושבות חיידקים באמצעות Miniprep Qiagen Kit
Shenyuan Zhang, Michael D. Cahalan
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine (UCI)
Other articles by Shenyuan Zhang on PubMed
The C. Elegans POU-domain Transcription Factor UNC-86 Regulates the Tph-1 Tryptophan Hydroxylase Gene and Neurite Outgrowth in Specific Serotonergic Neurons
Development (Cambridge, England). Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12135927
A fundamental question in developmental neurobiology is how a common neurotransmitter is specified in different neuronal types?. We describe cell-specific regulation of the serotonergic phenotype by the C. elegans POU-transcription factor UNC-86. We show that unc-86 regulates particular aspects of the terminal neuronal identity in four classes of serotonergic neurons, but that the development of the ADF serotonergic neurons is regulated by an UNC-86-independent program. In the NSM neurons, the role of unc-86 is confined in late differentiation; the neurons are generated but do not express genes necessary for serotonergic neurotransmission. unc-86-null mutations affect the expression in NSM of tph-1, which encodes the serotonin synthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase, and cat-1, which encodes a vesicular transporter that loads serotonin into synaptic vesicles, suggesting that unc-86 coordinately regulates serotonin synthesis and packaging. However, unc-86-null mutations do not impair the ability of NSM to reuptake serotonin released from the ADF serotonergic chemosensory neurons and this serotonin reuptake is sensitive to the serotonin reuptake block drugs imipramine and fluoxetine, demonstrating that serotonin synthesis and reuptake is regulated by distinct factors. The NSM neurons in unc-86-null mutants also display abnormal neurite outgrowth, suggesting a role of unc-86 in regulating this process as well.
Development (Cambridge, England). Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14998926
Serotonin (5HT) is a pivotal signaling molecule that modulates behavioral and endocrine responses to diverse chemical and physical stimuli. We report cell-specific regulation of 5HT biosynthesis by transient receptor potential V (TRPV) ion channels in C. elegans. Mutations in the TRPV genes osm-9 or ocr-2 dramatically downregulate the expression of the gene encoding the 5HT synthesis enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (tph-1) in the serotonergic chemosensory neurons ADF, but neither the mutation nor the double mutation of both channel genes affects other types of serotonergic neurons. The TRPV genes are expressed in the ADF neurons but not in other serotonergic neurons, and act cell-autonomously to regulate a neuron-specific transcription program. Whereas in olfactory neurons OSM-9 and OCR-2 function is dependent on ODR-3 Galpha, the activity of ODR-3 or two other Galpha proteins expressed in the ADF neurons is not required for upregulating tph-1 expression, thus the TRPV ion channels in different neurons may be regulated by different mechanisms. A gain-of-function mutation in CaMKII UNC-43 partially suppresses the downregulation of tph-1 in the TRPV mutants, thus CaMKII may be an effector of the TRPV signaling. Mutations in the TRPV genes cause worms developmentally arrest at the Dauer stage. This developmental defect is due in part to reduced 5HT inputs into daf-2/insulin neuroendocrine signaling.
The Journal of Cell Biology. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15866891
Store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) channels regulate many cellular processes, but the underlying molecular components are not well defined. Using an RNA interference (RNAi)-based screen to identify genes that alter thapsigargin (TG)-dependent Ca2+ entry, we discovered a required and conserved role of Stim in SOC influx. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Stim in Drosophila S2 cells significantly reduced TG-dependent Ca2+ entry. Patch-clamp recording revealed nearly complete suppression of the Drosophila Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) current that has biophysical characteristics similar to CRAC current in human T cells. Similarly, knockdown of the human homologue STIM1 significantly reduced CRAC channel activity in Jurkat T cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of STIM1 inhibited TG- or agonist-dependent Ca2+ entry in HEK293 or SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, overexpression of STIM1 in HEK293 cells modestly enhanced TG-induced Ca2+ entry. We propose that STIM1, a ubiquitously expressed protein that is conserved from Drosophila to mammalian cells, plays an essential role in SOC influx and may be a common component of SOC and CRAC channels.
STIM1 is a Ca2+ Sensor That Activates CRAC Channels and Migrates from the Ca2+ Store to the Plasma Membrane
Nature. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16208375
As the sole Ca2+ entry mechanism in a variety of non-excitable cells, store-operated calcium (SOC) influx is important in Ca2+ signalling and many other cellular processes. A calcium-release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel in T lymphocytes is the best-characterized SOC influx channel and is essential to the immune response, sustained activity of CRAC channels being required for gene expression and proliferation. The molecular identity and the gating mechanism of SOC and CRAC channels have remained elusive. Previously we identified Stim and the mammalian homologue STIM1 as essential components of CRAC channel activation in Drosophila S2 cells and human T lymphocytes. Here we show that the expression of EF-hand mutants of Stim or STIM1 activates CRAC channels constitutively without changing Ca2+ store content. By immunofluorescence, EM localization and surface biotinylation we show that STIM1 migrates from endoplasmic-reticulum-like sites to the plasma membrane upon depletion of the Ca2+ store. We propose that STIM1 functions as the missing link between Ca2+ store depletion and SOC influx, serving as a Ca2+ sensor that translocates upon store depletion to the plasma membrane to activate CRAC channels.
Genome-wide RNAi Screen of Ca(2+) Influx Identifies Genes That Regulate Ca(2+) Release-activated Ca(2+) Channel Activity
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16751269
Recent studies by our group and others demonstrated a required and conserved role of Stim in store-operated Ca(2+) influx and Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel activity. By using an unbiased genome-wide RNA interference screen in Drosophila S2 cells, we now identify 75 hits that strongly inhibited Ca(2+) influx upon store emptying by thapsigargin. Among these hits are 11 predicted transmembrane proteins, including Stim, and one, olf186-F, that upon RNA interference-mediated knockdown exhibited a profound reduction of thapsigargin-evoked Ca(2+) entry and CRAC current, and upon overexpression a 3-fold augmentation of CRAC current. CRAC currents were further increased to 8-fold higher than control and developed more rapidly when olf186-F was cotransfected with Stim. olf186-F is a member of a highly conserved family of four-transmembrane spanning proteins with homologs from Caenorhabditis elegans to human. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) pump sarco-/ER calcium ATPase (SERCA) and the single transmembrane-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive (NSF) attachment receptor (SNARE) protein Syntaxin5 also were required for CRAC channel activity, consistent with a signaling pathway in which Stim senses Ca(2+) depletion within the ER, translocates to the plasma membrane, and interacts with olf186-F to trigger CRAC channel activity.
Nature. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16921385
Recent RNA interference screens have identified several proteins that are essential for store-operated Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel activity in Drosophila and in mammals, including the transmembrane proteins Stim (stromal interaction molecule) and Orai. Stim probably functions as a sensor of luminal Ca2+ content and triggers activation of CRAC channels in the surface membrane after Ca2+ store depletion. Among three human homologues of Orai (also known as olf186-F), ORAI1 on chromosome 12 was found to be mutated in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease, and expression of wild-type Orai1 restored Ca2+ influx and CRAC channel activity in patient T cells. The overexpression of Stim and Orai together markedly increases CRAC current. However, it is not yet clear whether Stim or Orai actually forms the CRAC channel, or whether their expression simply limits CRAC channel activity mediated by a different channel-forming subunit. Here we show that interaction between wild-type Stim and Orai, assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, is greatly enhanced after treatment with thapsigargin to induce Ca2+ store depletion. By site-directed mutagenesis, we show that a point mutation from glutamate to aspartate at position 180 in the conserved S1-S2 loop of Orai transforms the ion selectivity properties of CRAC current from being Ca2+-selective with inward rectification to being selective for monovalent cations and outwardly rectifying. A charge-neutralizing mutation at the same position (glutamate to alanine) acts as a dominant-negative non-conducting subunit. Other charge-neutralizing mutants in the same loop express large inwardly rectifying CRAC current, and two of these exhibit reduced sensitivity to the channel blocker Gd3+. These results indicate that Orai itself forms the Ca2+-selectivity filter of the CRAC channel.
Cell Calcium. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17482674
Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels, located in the plasma membrane, are opened upon release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, permitting Ca(2+) entry and sustained [Ca(2+)](i) signaling that replenishes the store in numerous cell types. This mechanism is particularly important in T lymphocytes of the immune system, providing the missing link in the signal transduction cascade that is initiated by T cell receptor engagement and leads to altered expression of genes that results ultimately in the production of cytokines and cell proliferation. In the past three years, RNA interference screens together with over-expression and site-directed mutagenesis have identified the triggering molecule (Stim) that links store depletion to CRAC channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx and the pore subunit (Orai) of the CRAC channel that allows highly selective entry of Ca(2+) ions into cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18250319
For efficient development of an immune response, T lymphocytes require long-lasting calcium influx through calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels and the formation of a stable immunological synapse (IS) with the antigen-presenting cell (APC). Recent RNAi screens have identified Stim and Orai in Drosophila cells, and their corresponding mammalian homologs STIM1 and Orai1 in T cells, as essential for CRAC channel activation. Here, we show that STIM1 and Orai1 are recruited to the immunological synapse between primary human T cells and autologous dendritic cells. Both STIM1 and Orai1 accumulated in the area of contact between either resting or super-antigen (SEB)-pretreated T cells and SEB-pulsed dendritic cells, where they were colocalized with T cell receptor (TCR) and costimulatory molecules. In addition, imaging of intracellular calcium signaling in T cells loaded with EGTA revealed significantly higher Ca2+ concentration near the interface, indicating Ca2+ influx localized at the T cell/dendritic cell contact area. Expression of a dominant-negative Orai1 mutant blocked T cell Ca2+ signaling but did not interfere with the initial accumulation of STIM1, Orai1, and CD3 in the contact zone. In activated T cell blasts, mRNA expression for endogenous STIM1 and all three human homologs of Orai was up-regulated, accompanied by a marked increase in Ca2+ influx through CRAC channels. These results imply a positive feedback loop in which an initial TCR signal favors up-regulation of STIM1 and Orai proteins that would augment Ca2+ signaling during subsequent antigen encounter.
Store-dependent and -independent Modes Regulating Ca2+ Release-activated Ca2+ Channel Activity of Human Orai1 and Orai3
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18420579
We evaluated currents induced by expression of human homologs of Orai together with STIM1 in human embryonic kidney cells. When co-expressed with STIM1, Orai1 induced a large inwardly rectifying Ca(2+)-selective current with Ca(2+)-induced slow inactivation. A point mutation of Orai1 (E106D) altered the ion selectivity of the induced Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC)-like current while retaining an inwardly rectifying I-V characteristic. Expression of the C-terminal portion of STIM1 with Orai1 was sufficient to generate CRAC current without store depletion. 2-APB activated a large relatively nonselective current in STIM1 and Orai3 co-expressing cells. 2-APB also induced Ca(2+) influx in Orai3-expressing cells without store depletion or co-expression of STIM1. The Orai3 current induced by 2-APB exhibited outward rectification and an inward component representing a mixed calcium and monovalent current. A pore mutant of Orai3 inhibited store-operated Ca(2+) entry and did not carry significant current in response to either store depletion or addition of 2-APB. Analysis of a series of Orai1-3 chimeras revealed the structural determinant responsible for 2-APB-induced current within the sequence from the second to third transmembrane segment of Orai3. The Orai3 current induced by 2-APB may reflect a store-independent mode of CRAC channel activation that opens a relatively nonselective cation pore.
Nature. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18820677
Ca(2+)-release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels underlie sustained Ca(2+) signalling in lymphocytes and numerous other cells after Ca(2+) liberation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). RNA interference screening approaches identified two proteins, Stim and Orai, that together form the molecular basis for CRAC channel activity. Stim senses depletion of the ER Ca(2+) store and physically relays this information by translocating from the ER to junctions adjacent to the plasma membrane, and Orai embodies the pore of the plasma membrane calcium channel. A close interaction between Stim and Orai, identified by co-immunoprecipitation and by Förster resonance energy transfer, is involved in the opening of the Ca(2+) channel formed by Orai subunits. Most ion channels are multimers of pore-forming subunits surrounding a central channel, which are preassembled in the ER and transported in their final stoichiometry to the plasma membrane. Here we show, by biochemical analysis after cross-linking in cell lysates and intact cells and by using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis without cross-linking, that Orai is predominantly a dimer in the plasma membrane under resting conditions. Moreover, single-molecule imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Orai expressed in Xenopus oocytes showed predominantly two-step photobleaching, again consistent with a dimeric basal state. In contrast, co-expression of GFP-tagged Orai with the carboxy terminus of Stim as a cytosolic protein to activate the Orai channel without inducing Ca(2+) store depletion or clustering of Orai into punctae yielded mostly four-step photobleaching, consistent with a tetrameric stoichiometry of the active Orai channel. Interaction with the C terminus of Stim thus induces Orai dimers to dimerize, forming tetramers that constitute the Ca(2+)-selective pore. This represents a new mechanism in which assembly and activation of the functional ion channel are mediated by the same triggering molecule.
A Functional Single-nucleotide Polymorphism in the TRPC6 Gene Promoter Associated with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Circulation. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19380626
Excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) plays an important role in the development of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), whereas a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration triggers PASMC contraction and stimulates PASMC proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that upregulation of the TRPC6 channel contributes to proliferation of PASMCs isolated from IPAH patients. This study sought to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TRPC6 gene promoter that are associated with IPAH and have functional significance in regulating TRPC6 activity in PASMCs.
Mzb1 Protein Regulates Calcium Homeostasis, Antibody Secretion, and Integrin Activation in Innate-like B Cells
Immunity. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21093319
Marginal zone (MZ) B cells of the spleen and B1 cells, termed innate-like B cells, differ from follicular B cells by their attenuated Ca(2+) mobilization, fast antibody secretion, and increased cell adhesion. We identified and characterized Mzb1 as an endoplasmic reticulum-localized and B cell-specific protein that was most abundantly expressed in MZ B and B1 cells. Knockdown of Mzb1 in MZ B cells increased Ca(2+) mobilization and nuclear NFAT transcription factor localization, but reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced antibody secretion and integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Conversely, ectopic expression of an Lck-Mzb1 transgene in peripheral T cells resulted in attenuated Ca(2+) mobilization and augmented integrin-mediated cell adhesion. In addition to its interaction with the substrate-specific chaperone Grp94, Mzb1 augmented the function of the oxidoreductase ERp57 in favoring the expression of integrins in their activated conformation. Thus, Mzb1 helps to diversify peripheral B cell functions by regulating Ca(2+) stores, antibody secretion, and integrin activation.
Mutations in Orai1 Transmembrane Segment 1 Cause STIM1-independent Activation of Orai1 Channels at Glycine 98 and Channel Closure at Arginine 91
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21987804
Stim and Orai proteins comprise the molecular machinery of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As an approach toward understanding the gating of Orai1 channels, we investigated effects of selected mutations at two conserved sites in the first transmembrane segment (TM1): arginine 91 located near the cytosolic end of TM1 and glycine 98 near the middle of TM1. Orai1 R91C, when coexpressed with STIM1, was activated normally by Ca(2+)-store depletion. Treatment with diamide, a thiol-oxidizing agent, induced formation of disulfide bonds between R91C residues in adjacent Orai1 subunits and rapidly blocked STIM1-operated Ca(2+) current. Diamide-induced blocking was reversed by disulfide bond-reducing agents. These results indicate that R91 forms a very narrow part of the conducting pore at the cytosolic side. Alanine replacement at G98 prevented STIM1-induced channel activity. Interestingly, mutation to aspartate (G98D) or proline (G98P) caused constitutive channel activation in a STIM1-independent manner. Both Orai1 G98 mutants formed a nonselective Ca(2+)-permeable conductance that was relatively resistant to block by Gd(3+). The double mutant R91W/G98D was also constitutively active, overcoming the normal inhibition of channel activity by tryptophan at the 91 position found in some patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), and the double mutant R91C/G98D was resistant to diamide block. These data suggest that the channel pore is widened and ion selectivity is altered by mutations at the G98 site that may perturb α-helical structure. We propose distinct functional roles for G98 as a gating hinge and R91 as part of the physical gate at the narrow inner mouth of the channel.
The Application of Genome-wide RNAi Screens in Exploring Varieties of Signaling Transduction Pathways
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22222536
Cardiovascular development is a precisely coordinated process at multilevels. It involves cross-talking among numerous signaling transduction pathways to ensure proper cell polarity, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and programmed death. Here, genome-wide RNA interference screens in Drosophila cells are introduced as novel approaches to discover potential regulators, with special emphases on (1) cell growth and viability, and (2) receptor tyrosine kinase and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway.