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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (5)
Articles by Stephanie Z. Young in JoVE
Preparation of Acute Subventricular Zone Slices for Calcium Imaging
Benjamin Lacar, Stephanie Z. Young, Jean-Claude Platel, Angélique Bordey
Department of Neurosurgery and Cellular & Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine
A method to load subventricular zone (SVZ) cells with calcium indicator dyes for recording calcium activity is described. The postnatal SVZ contains tightly packed cells including neural progenitor cells and neuroblasts. Rather than using bath loading we injected the dye by pressure inside the tissue allowing better dye diffusion.
Other articles by Stephanie Z. Young on PubMed
Physiology (Bethesda, Md.). Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19509127
Aside from traditional neurotransmission and regulation of secretion, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) through GABA(A) receptors negatively regulates proliferation of pluripotent and neural stem cells in embryonic and adult tissue. There has also been evidence that GABAergic signaling and its control over proliferation is not only limited to the nervous system, but is widespread through peripheral organs containing adult stem cells. GABA has emerged as a tumor signaling molecule in the periphery that controls the proliferation of tumor cells and perhaps tumor stem cells. Here, we will discuss GABA's presence as a near-universal signal that may be altered in tumor cells resulting in modified mitotic activity.
GABA(A) Increases Calcium in Subventricular Zone Astrocyte-Like Cells Through L- and T-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20422045
In the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ), the behavior of astrocyte-like cells and some of their functions depend on changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels and tonic GABA(A) receptor activation. However, it is unknown whether, and if so how, GABA(A) receptor activity regulates intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in SVZ astrocytes. To monitor Ca(2+) activity selectively in astrocyte-like cells, we used two lines of transgenic mice expressing either GFP fused to a Gq-coupled receptor or DsRed under the human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP) promoter. GABA(A) receptor activation induced Ca(2+) increases in 40-50% of SVZ astrocytes. GABA(A)-induced Ca(2+) increases were prevented with nifedipine and mibefradil, blockers of L- and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). The L-type Ca(2+) channel activator BayK 8644 increased the percentage of GABA(A)-responding astrocyte-like cells to 75%, suggesting that the majority of SVZ astrocytes express functional VGCCs. SVZ astrocytes also displayed spontaneous Ca(2+) activity, the frequency of which was regulated by tonic GABA(A) receptor activation. These data support a role for ambient GABA in tonically regulating intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics through GABA(A) receptors and VGCC in a subpopulation of astrocyte-like cells in the postnatal SVZ.
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20700392
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of two regions where neurogenesis persists in the postnatal brain. The SVZ, located along the lateral ventricle, is the largest neurogenic zone in the brain that contains multiple cell populations including astrocyte-like cells and neuroblasts. Neuroblasts migrate in chains to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into interneurons. Here, we discuss the experimental approaches to record the electrophysiology of these cells and image their migration and calcium activity in acute slices. Although these techniques were in place for studying glial cells and neurons in mature networks, the SVZ raises new challenges due to the unique properties of SVZ cells, the cellular diversity, and the architecture of the region. We emphasize different methods, such as the use of transgenic mice and in vivo electroporation that permit identification of the different SVZ cell populations for patch clamp recording or imaging. Electroporation also permits genetic labeling of cells using fluorescent reporter mice and modification of the system using either RNA interference technology or floxed mice. In this review, we aim to provide conceptual and technical details of the approaches to perform electrophysiological and imaging studies of SVZ cells.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21395856
Adult neurogenesis occurs in two privileged microenvironments, the hippocampal subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricle. This review focuses on accumulating evidence suggesting that the activity of specific brain regions or bodily states influences SVZ cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Neuromodulators such as dopamine and serotonin have been shown to have long-range effects through neuronal projections into the SVZ. Local γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate signaling have demonstrated effects on SVZ proliferation and neurogenesis, but an extra-niche source of these neurotransmitters remains to be explored and options will be discussed. There is also accumulating evidence that diseases and bodily states such as Alzheimer's disease, seizures, sleep and pregnancy influence SVZ cell proliferation. With such complex behavior and environmentally-driven factors that control subregion-specific activity, it will become necessary to account for overlapping roles of multiple neurotransmitter systems on neurogenesis when developing cell therapies or drug treatments.
Gap Junction-mediated Calcium Waves Define Communication Networks Among Murine Postnatal Neural Progenitor Cells
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22098557
In the postnatal neurogenic niche, two populations of astrocyte-like cells (B cells) persist, one acting as neural progenitor cells (NPCs, B1 cells) and one forming a structural boundary between the neurogenic niche and the striatum (B2 cells, niche astrocytes). Despite being viewed as two distinct entities, we found that B1 and B2 cells express the gap junction protein connexin 43 and display functional coupling involving 50-60 cells. Using neonatal electroporation to label slowly cycling radial glia-derived B1 cells, which send a basal process onto blood vessels, we further confirmed dye coupling between NPCs. To assess the functionality of the coupling, we used calcium imaging in a preparation preserving the three-dimensional architecture of the subventricular zone. Intercellular calcium waves were observed among B cells. These waves travelled bidirectionally between B1 and B2 cells and propagated on blood vessels. Inter-B-cell calcium waves were absent in the presence of a gap junction blocker but persisted with purinergic receptor blockers. These findings show that privileged microdomains of communication networks exist among NPCs and niche astrocytes. Such functional coupling between these two cell types suggests that niche astrocytes do not merely have a structural role, but may play an active role in shaping the behavior of NPCs.