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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (20)
- Physical Therapy
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- Annual Review of Phytopathology
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- The Journal of General Virology
- BMC Genomics
- Journal of Insect Science (Online)
- The Journal of General Virology
- Current Protocols in Microbiology
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Virus Research
- Plant Biotechnology Journal
- Virus Research
Articles by Stewart Gray in JoVE
Testing the Physiological Barriers to Viral Transmission in Aphids Using Microinjection
Cecilia Tamborindeguy1, Stewart Gray1, Georg Jander2
1Plant Pathology, Cornell University, 2Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University
Aphids are effective transmitters of plant viruses. Aphid microinjection of virus, the procedure we will show you today, is a technique allowing researchers to inject virus directly into the hemocoel of the aphid, bypassing the gut, one of the 2 major barriers for virus transmission in a circulative manner. The same technique is also used to inject dsRNA for RNAi.
Other articles by Stewart Gray on PubMed
Physical Therapy. Jan, 1985 | Pubmed ID: 3966083
Clinicians evaluated the usefulness of footprint-sequence analysis in 25 lower-limb amputees who were all prostheses wearers. The patients walked at a comfortable speed with their usual walking aids along a 2.24-m footprint-recording strip. Each patient's physical therapist and physician indicated on visual-analogue scales how useful they judged both raw and derived data to be in problem solving and as documentation for future comparison. Both groups of clinicians found this type of analysis moderately useful. We found no significant difference, but moderate correlation (r = .61, p less than .01), between their estimates of usefulness for problem solving and for future documentation. They considered the derived data slightly, but significantly, more useful than the raw data (t = 4.20, p less than .001). We found no significant difference or correlation between the estimates of physical therapists and those of physicians. The clinicians ranked pressure distribution, stride width, step length, foot angle, and stride length in order of perceived usefulness. Footprint-sequence analysis appears to be a moderately useful adjunct to the evaluation and documentation of the walking problems of lower-limb amputees. Both raw and derived data should be made available to the physical therapists and physicians caring for these patients.
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12437307
The requirement for the 17-kDa protein (P17) of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in virus movement was investigated in four plant species: potato (Solanum tuberosum), Physalis floridana, Nicotiana benthamiana, and N. clevelandii. Two PLRV P17 mutants were characterized, one that does not translate the P17 and another that expresses a P17 missing the first four amino acids. The P17 mutants were able to replicate and accumulate in agroinoculated leaves of potato and P. floridana, but they were unable to move into vascular tissues and initiate a systemic infection in these plants. In contrast, the P17 mutants were able to spread systemically from inoculated leaves in both Nicotiana spp., although the efficiency of infection was reduced relative to wild-type PLRV. Examination of virus distribution in N. benthamiana plants using tissue immunoblotting techniques revealed that the wild-type PLRV and P17 mutants followed a similar movement pathway out of the inoculated leaves. Virus first moved upward to the apical tissues and then downward. The P17 mutants, however, infected fewer phloem-associated cells, were slower than wild-type PLRV in moving out of the inoculated tissue and into apical tissues, and were unable to infect any mature leaves present on the plant at the time of inoculation.
Virus Transmission Phenotype Is Correlated with Host Adaptation Among Genetically Diverse Populations of the Aphid Schizaphis Graminum
Phytopathology. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 18944022
ABSTRACT Schizaphis graminum is an important insect pest of several grain crops and an efficient vector of cereal-infecting luteoviruses and poleroviruses. We examined the virus transmission characteristics of several distinct populations and various developmental stages of the aphid. Seven well-characterized S. graminum biotypes maintained at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Stillwater, OK, and two biotypes maintained in New York (one collected in Wisconsin and the other collected in South Carolina) were tested for their ability to transmit five viruses that cause barley yellow dwarf disease (BYD). Four of the Oklahoma biotypes, which do not commonly colonize agronomic crops, and the Wisconsin biotype, were efficient vectors of several viruses. The three other Oklahoma biotypes, which do colonize agronomic crops, and the South Carolina biotype, were poor vectors of all five viruses. Thus, the vector specificity long associated with viruses causing BYD is not limited to the level of aphid species; it clearly extends to populations within a single species. S. graminum nymphs are reported to be more efficient vectors of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-SGV) than are adults. This was confirmed only for the Wisconsin biotype, but not for the other eight S. graminum biotypes. Thus, there does not appear to be a generalized developmentally regulated barrier to the transmission of BYDV-SGV in S. graminum. Furthermore, the developmentally regulated vector competency observed in the Wisconsin biotype did not extend to other viruses. BYDV-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV were transmitted with similar efficiency by all S. graminum biotypes when acquired by nymphs or adults.
Annual Review of Phytopathology. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12730400
Members of the Luteoviridae are transmitted by aphids in a circulative, nonpropagative manner that requires the virus to be acquired through gut tissue into the aphid hemocoel and then exit through salivary tissues. This process is aphid species-specific and involves specific recognition of the virus by unidentified components on the membranes of gut and salivary tissues. Transport through the tissues is an endocytosis/exocytosis process. Both structural proteins of the virus are involved in the transmission process, with multiple protein domains regulating the movement and survival of the virus in the aphid and plant. Here we review what is known about the genetic, cellular, and molecular mechanisms regulating these complex and specific virus-aphid interactions.
Site-directed Mutagenesis and Generation of Chimeric Viruses by Homologous Recombination in Yeast to Facilitate Analysis of Plant-virus Interactions
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15195939
A yeast homologous recombination system was used to generate mutants and chimeras in the genome of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV). A yeast-bacteria shuttle vector was developed that allows mutants and chimeras generated in yeast to be transformed into Escherichia coli for confirmation of the mutations and transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens to facilitate agroinfection of plants by the mutant PLRV genomes. The advantages of the system include the high frequency of recovered mutants generated by yeast homologous recombination, the ability to generate over 20 mutants and chimeras using only two restriction endonuclease sites, the ability to introduce multiple additional sequences using three and four DNA fragments, and the mobilization of the same plasmid from yeast to E. coli, A. tumefaciens, and plants. The wild-type PLRV genome showed no loss of virulence after sequential propagation in yeast, E. coli, and A. tumefaciens. Moreover, many PLRV clones with mutations generated in the capsid protein and readthrough domain of the capsid protein replicated and moved throughout plants. This approach will facilitate the analysis of plant-virus interactions of in vivo-generated mutants for many plant viruses, especially those not transmissible mechanically to plants.
A Surface Loop of the Potato Leafroll Virus Coat Protein is Involved in Virion Assembly, Systemic Movement, and Aphid Transmission
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15613347
Two acidic domains of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) coat protein, separated by 55 amino acids and predicted to be adjacent surface features on the virion, were the focus of a mutational analysis. Eleven site-directed mutants were generated from a cloned infectious cDNA of PLRV and delivered to plants by Agrobacterium-mediated mechanical inoculation. Alanine substitutions of any of the three amino acids of the sequence EWH (amino acids 170 to 172) or of D177 disrupted the ability of the coat protein to assemble stable particles and the ability of the viral RNA to move systemically in four host plant species. Alanine substitution of E109, D173, or E176 reduced the accumulation of virus in agrobacterium-infiltrated tissues, the efficiency of systemic infection, and the efficiency of aphid transmission relative to wild-type virus, but the mutations did not affect virion stability. A structural model of the PLRV capsid predicted that the amino acids critical for virion assembly were located within a depression at the center of a coat protein trimer. The other amino acids that affected plant infection and/or aphid transmission were predicted to be located around the perimeter of the depression. PLRV virions play key roles in phloem-limited virus movement in plant hosts as well as in transport and persistence in the aphid vectors. These results identified amino acid residues in a surface-oriented loop of the coat protein that are critical for virus assembly and stability, systemic infection of plants, and movement of virus through aphid vectors.
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16912285
Genetic bottlenecks may occur in virus populations when only a few individuals are transferred horizontally from one host to another, or when a viral population moves systemically from the infection site. Genetic bottlenecks during the systemic movement of an RNA plant virus population were reported previously (H. Li and M. J. Roossinck, J. Virol. 78:10582-10587, 2004). In this study we mechanically inoculated an artificial population consisting of 12 restriction enzyme marker mutants of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) onto young leaves of squash plants and used two aphid species, Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae, to transmit the virus populations from infected source plants to healthy squash plants. Horizontal transmission by aphids constituted a significant bottleneck, as the population in the aphid-inoculated plants contained far fewer mutants than the original inoculum source. Additional experiments demonstrated that genetic variation in the artificial population of CMV is not reduced during the acquisition of the virus but is significantly reduced during the inoculation period.
Point Mutations in the Potato Leafroll Virus Major Capsid Protein Alter Virion Stability and Aphid Transmission
The Journal of General Virology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17485544
The coat protein (CP) of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) is the primary component of the capsid, and is a multifunctional protein known to be involved in vector transmission and virus movement within plant hosts, in addition to particle assembly. Thirteen mutations were generated in various regions of the CP and tested for their ability to affect virus-host and virus-vector interactions. Nine of the mutations prevented the assembly of stable virions. These mutants were unable to infect systemically four different host species. Furthermore, although virus replication and translation of the CP were similar for the mutants and wild-type virus in individual plant cells, the translation of the CP readthrough product was affected in several of the mutants. Four of the mutants were able to assemble stable particles and infect host plants systemically, similarly to the wild-type virus; however, two of the mutants were transmitted less efficiently by aphid vectors. Based on a computer-generated model of the PLRV CP, the mutations that prevented virion assembly were associated with subunit interfaces, while the amino acid alterations in the assembly-competent mutants were associated with surface loops. This and previous work indicates that the CP structural model has value in predicting the structural architecture of the virion.
BMC Genomics. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18021414
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a world-wide insect pest capable of infesting more than 40 plant families, including many crop species. However, despite the significant damage inflicted by M. persicae in agricultural systems through direct feeding damage and by its ability to transmit plant viruses, limited genomic information is available for this species.
Transmission of Two Viruses That Cause Barley Yellow Dwarf is Controlled by Different Loci in the Aphid, Schizaphis Graminum
Journal of Insect Science (Online). 2007 | Pubmed ID: 20302539
Clonal populations of the aphid, Schizaphis graminum, have been separated into biotypes based on host preference and their ability to overcome resistance genes in wheat. Recently, several biotypes were found to differ in their ability to transmit one or more of the viruses that cause barley yellow dwarf disease in grain crops, and vector competence was linked to host preference. The genetics of host preference has been studied in S. graminum, but how this may relate to the transmission of plant viruses is unknown. Sexual morphs of a vector and nonvector S. graminum genotype were induced from parthenogenetic females and reciprocal crosses made. Eighty-nine hybrids were generated and maintained by parthenogenesis. Each hybrid was evaluated for its ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV, and for its ability to colonize two wheat genotypes each expressing a different gene that confers resistance to S. graminum. The F1 genotypes were genetically variable for their ability to transmit virus and to colonize the aphid resistant wheat, but these traits were not genetically correlated. Individual F1 genotypes ranged in transmission efficiency from 0-100% for both viruses, although the overall mean transmission efficiency was similar to the transmission competent parent, indicating directional dominance. The direction of the cross did not significantly affect the vector competency for either virus, suggesting that maternally inherited cytoplasmic factors, or bacterial endosymbionts, did not contribute significantly to the inheritance of vector competency in S. graminum. Importantly, there was no genetic correlation between the ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV in the F1 genotypes. These results taken together indicate that multiple loci are involved in the circulative transmission, and that the successful transmission of these closely related viruses is regulated by different sets of aphid genes.
Small Deletions in the Potato Leafroll Virus Readthrough Protein Affect Particle Morphology, Aphid Transmission, Virus Movement and Accumulation
The Journal of General Virology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18632976
Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) capsid comprises 180 coat protein (CP) subunits, with some percentage containing a readthrough domain (RTD) extension located on the particle's surface. The RTD N terminus is highly conserved in luteovirids and this study sought to identify biologically active sites within this region of the PLRV RTD. Fourteen three-amino-acid-deletion mutants were generated from a cloned infectious PLRV cDNA and delivered to plants by Agrobacterium inoculations. All mutant viruses accumulated locally in infiltrated tissues and expressed the readthrough protein (RTP) containing the CP and RTD sequences in plant tissues; however, when purified, only three mutant viruses incorporated the RTP into the virion. None of the mutant viruses were aphid transmissible, but the viruses persisted in aphids for a period sufficient to allow for virus transmission. Several mutant viruses were examined further for systemic infection in four host species. All mutant viruses, regardless of RTP incorporation, moved systemically in each host, although they accumulated at different rates in systemically infected tissues. The biological properties of the RTP are sensitive to modifications in both the RTD conserved and variable regions.
Current Protocols in Microbiology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18729054
A majority of plant viruses are transmitted between hosts by insect vectors, and it is often important to use insect transmission in the laboratory to maintain virus isolates or to study virus-vector-plant interactions. Although many of these viruses can also be mechanically transmitted in the laboratory using infected sap, maintenance by mechanical transmission can often lead to changes in the virus, either minor changes in gene sequences or, in some cases, major deletions of genome sequences. These can affect both virus-vector and virus-host interactions. This unit describes some simple and practical methods for conducting virus transmission experiments using sap-sucking insects.
Coupling Genetics and Proteomics to Identify Aphid Proteins Associated with Vector-specific Transmission of Polerovirus (luteoviridae)
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17959668
Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) is transmitted specifically by the aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum in a circulative nonpropagative manner. The high level of vector specificity results from the vector aphids having the functional components of the receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways to allow virus to transverse the gut and salivary tissues. Studies of F(2) progeny from crosses of vector and nonvector genotypes of S. graminum showed that virus transmission efficiency is a heritable trait regulated by multiple genes acting in an additive fashion and that gut- and salivary gland-associated factors are not genetically linked. Utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis to compare the proteomes of vector and nonvector parental and F(2) genotypes, four aphid proteins (S4, S8, S29, and S405) were specifically associated with the ability of S. graminum to transmit CYDV-RPV. The four proteins were coimmunoprecipitated with purified RPV, indicating that the aphid proteins are capable of binding to virus. Analysis by mass spectrometry identified S4 as a luciferase and S29 as a cyclophilin, both of which have been implicated in macromolecular transport. Proteins S8 and S405 were not identified from available databases. Study of this unique genetic system coupled with proteomic analysis indicated that these four virus-binding aphid proteins were specifically inherited and conserved in different generations of vector genotypes and suggests that they play a major role in regulating polerovirus transmission.
Journal of Virology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19297484
Poleroviruses are restricted to vascular phloem tissues from which they are transmitted by their aphid vectors and are not transmissible mechanically. Phloem limitation has been attributed to the absence of virus proteins either facilitating movement or counteracting plant defense. The polerovirus capsid is composed of two forms of coat protein, the major P3 protein and the minor P3/P5 protein, a translational readthrough of P3. P3/P5 is required for insect transmission and acts in trans to facilitate long-distance virus movement in phloem tissue. Specific potato leafroll virus mutants lacking part or all of the P5 domain moved into and infected nonvascular mesophyll tissue when the source-sink relationship of the plant (Solanum sarrachoides) was altered by pruning, with the progeny virus now being transmissible mechanically. However, in a period of months, a phloem-specific distribution of the virus was reestablished in the absence of aphid transmission. Virus from the new phloem-limited infection showed compensatory mutations that would be expected to restore the production of full-length P3/P5 as well as the loss of mechanical transmissibility. The data support our hypothesis that phloem limitation in poleroviruses presumably does not result from a deficiency in the repertoire of virus genes but rather results from P3/P5 accumulation under selection in the infected plant, with the colateral effect of facilitating transmission by phloem-feeding aphid vectors.
A Novel Recombinant Strain of Potato Virus Y Suggests a New Viral Genetic Determinant of Vein Necrosis in Tobacco
Virus Research. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19463723
A novel Potato virus Y (PVY) isolate, L26, recovered from a Frontier potato line was initially typed as a PVY(NTN) strain using multiplex RT-PCR and serological assays. However, L26 induced mosaic and mild vein clearing symptoms in tobacco rather than vein necrosis characteristic of the PVY (NTN) strain. The whole genome sequence was determined for L26 and two other PVY(NTN) isolates, HR1 and N4, from Idaho that did induce vein necrosis in tobacco. The sequence of all three isolates was similar to typical European PVY(NTN) isolates that contain three recombination junctions in their genome. The sequence of the L26 genome was nearly identical to the genomes HR1, N4, and to a previously characterized PVY(NTN) isolate, 423-3, differing by only five nucleotides in the entire ca. 9.7-kb genome, only one resulting in a corresponding amino acid change, D-205 to G-205 in the central region of HC-Pro. Two "signature" amino acid residues, thought involved in induction of the vein necrosis syndrome in tobacco, K-400 and E-419, were present in the C-terminal region of HC-Pro of all three isolates. Multiple alignment of the whole genome sequences of L26 and other PVY(NTN) isolates whose phenotype in tobacco has been reported, suggests that a single nucleotide change (A-1,627 to G-1,627) resulting in the single amino acid change (D-205 to G-205) in the HC-Pro cistron of L26 correlates with the loss of the vein necrosis phenotype in tobacco. Secondary structure modeling of the HC-Pro protein predicts the G-205 residue, and the previously identified residues K-400 and E-419, would all be located on the exposed surface of the protein. Taken together, these data suggest that the vein necrosis genetic determinant of PVY in tobacco is complex and includes other element(s), in addition to the C-terminal fragment of HC-Pro.
Biomarker Discovery from the Top Down: Protein Biomarkers for Efficient Virus Transmission by Insects (Homoptera: Aphididae) Discovered by Coupling Genetics and 2-D DIGE
Proteomics. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21648087
Yellow dwarf viruses cause the most economically important virus diseases of cereal crops worldwide and are vectored by aphids. The identification of vector proteins mediating virus transmission is critical to develop sustainable virus management practices and to understand viral strategies for circulative movement in all insect vectors. Previously, we applied 2-D DIGE to an aphid filial generation 2 population to identify proteins correlated with the transmission phenotype that were stably inherited and expressed in the absence of the virus. In the present study, we examined the expression of the DIGE candidates in previously unstudied, field-collected aphid populations. We hypothesized that the expression of proteins involved in virus transmission could be clinically validated in unrelated, virus transmission-competent, field-collected aphid populations. All putative biomarkers were expressed in the field-collected biotypes, and the expression of nine of these aligned with the virus transmission-competent phenotype. The strong conservation of the expression of the biomarkers in multiple field-collected populations facilitates new and testable hypotheses concerning the genetics and biochemistry of virus transmission. Integration of these biomarkers into current aphid-scouting methodologies will enable rational strategies for vector control aimed at judicious use and development of precision pest control methods that reduce plant virus infection.
Plant Biotechnology Journal. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21668622
Natural mutations in translation initiation factor eIF4E confer resistance to potyviruses in many plant species. Potato is a staple food crop plagued by several potyviruses, yet to date no known eIF4E-mediated resistance genes have been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that transgenic expression of the pvr1(2) gene from pepper confers resistance to Potato virus Y (PVY) in potato. We then use this information to convert the susceptible potato ortholog of this allele into a de novo allele for resistance to PVY using site-directed mutagenesis. Potato plants overexpressing the mutated potato allele are resistant to virus infection. Resistant lines expressed high levels of eIF4E mRNA and protein. The resistant plants showed growth similar to untransformed controls and produced phenotypically similar tubers. This technique disrupts a key step in the viral infection process and may potentially be used to engineer virus resistance in a number of economically important plant-viral pathosystems. Furthermore, the general public may be more amenable to the 'intragenic' nature of this approach because the transferred coding region is modified from a gene in the target crop rather than from a distant species.
Genetic Diversity of the Ordinary Strain of Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Origin of Recombinant PVY Strains
Phytopathology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21675922
The ordinary strain of Potato virus Y (PVY), PVY(O), causes mild mosaic in tobacco and induces necrosis and severe stunting in potato cultivars carrying the Ny gene. A novel substrain of PVY(O) was recently reported, PVY(O)-O5, which is spreading in the United States and is distinguished from other PVY(O) isolates serologically (i.e., reacting to the otherwise PVY(N)-specific monoclonal antibody 1F5). To characterize this new PVY(O)-O5 subgroup and address possible reasons for its continued spread, we conducted a molecular study of PVY(O) and PVY(O)-O5 isolates from a North American collection of PVY through whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. In all, 44 PVY(O) isolates were sequenced, including 31 from the previously defined PVY(O)-O5 group, and subjected to whole-genome analysis. PVY(O)-O5 isolates formed a separate lineage within the PVY(O) genome cluster in the whole-genome phylogenetic tree and represented a novel evolutionary lineage of PVY from potato. On the other hand, the PVY(O) sequences separated into at least two distinct lineages on the whole-genome phylogenetic tree. To shed light on the origin of the three most common PVY recombinants, a more detailed phylogenetic analysis of a sequence fragment, nucleotides 2,406 to 5,821, that is present in all recombinant and nonrecombinant PVY(O) genomes was conducted. The analysis revealed that PVY(N:O) and PVY(N-Wi) recombinants acquired their PVY(O) segments from two separate PVY(O) lineages, whereas the PVY(NTN) recombinant acquired its PVY(O) segment from the same lineage as PVY(N:O). These data suggest that PVY(N:O) and PVY(N-Wi) recombinants originated from two separate recombination events involving two different PVY(O) parental genomes, whereas the PVY(NTN) recombinants likely originated from the PVY(N:O) genome via additional recombination events.
Virus Research. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21763366
Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) and cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) are only transmitted between host plants by aphid vectors and not by mechanical transmission. This presents a severe limitation for the use of a reverse genetics approach to analyze the effects of mutations in these viruses on plant infection and aphid transmission. Here we describe the use of agroinfection to infect plants with BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV. The cDNAs corresponding to the complete RNA genomes of BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV were cloned into a binary vector under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase transcription termination signal. The self-cleaving ribozyme from hepatitis virus D was included to produce a transcript in planta with a 3' terminus identical to the natural viral RNA. ELISA and RT-PCR analysis showed that the replicons of BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV introduced by Agrobacterium into Nicotiana benthamiana and N. clevelandii gave rise to a local infection in the infiltrated mesophyll cells. After several weeks systemic infection of phloem tissue was detected, although no systemic symptoms were observed. Three heterologous virus silencing suppressors increased the efficiency of agroinfection and accumulation of BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV in the two Nicotiana species. The progeny viruses purified from infiltrated tissues were successfully transmitted to oat plants by aphids, and typical yellow dwarf symptoms were observed. This study reports the first agroinfection of eudicot plants using BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV.
Identification of the Molecular Make-up of the Potato Virus Y Strain PVY(Z): Genetic Typing of PVY(Z)-NTN
Phytopathology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21834725
Potato virus Y (PVY) strains were originally defined by interactions with different resistance genes in standard potato cultivars. Five distinct strain groups are defined that cause local or systemic hypersensitive responses (HRs) in genetic background with a corresponding N gene: PVY(O), PVY(N), PVY(C), PVY(Z), and PVY(E). The nucleotide sequences of multiple isolates of PVY(O) and PVY(N) differ from each other by ≈8% along their genomes. Additionally, complete genome sequences of multiple recombinant isolates are composed of segments of parental PVY(O) and PVY(N) sequences. Here, we report that recombinant isolate PVY-L26 induces an HR in potato 'Maris Bard' carrying the putative Nz gene, and is not recognized by two other resistance genes, Nc and Ny(tbr). These genetic responses in potato, combined with the inability of PVY-L26 to induce vein necrosis in tobacco, clearly define it as an isolate from the PVY(Z) strain group and provide the first information on genome structure and sequence of PVY(Z). The genome of PVY-L26 displays typical features of European NTN-type isolates with three recombinant junctions (PVY(EU-NTN)), and the PVY-L26 is named PVY(Z)-NTN. Three typical PVY(NTN) isolates and two PVY(N) isolates, all inducing vein necrosis in tobacco, were compared with PVY-L26. One PVY(NTN) isolate elicited HR reactions in Maris Bard, similar to PVY-L26, while two induced a severe systemic HR-like reaction quite different from the quasi-symptomless reaction induced by two PVY(N) isolates. 'Yukon Gold' potato from North America produced HR against several PVY(NTN) isolates, including PVY-L26, but only late and limited systemic necrosis against one PVY(N) isolate. Consequently, according to symptoms in potato indicators, both PVY(Z) and PVY(NTN) isolates appeared biologically very close and clearly distinct from PVY(O) and PVY(N) strain groups.