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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (18)
- PLoS Biology
- Seminars in Immunology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Molecular Immunology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- Molecular Immunology
- Immunology and Cell Biology
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- PloS One
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Articles by Subramaniam Malarkannan in JoVE
High-throughput Detection Method for Influenza Virus
Pawan Kumar1, Allison E. Bartoszek1, Thomas M. Moran2, Jack Gorski3, Sanjib Bhattacharyya4, Jose F. Navidad4, Monica S. Thakar1,5, Subramaniam Malarkannan1,6
1Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunotherapy, Blood Research Institute, 2Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 3Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Blood Research Institute, 4City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratory, 5Division of Hematology-Oncology/BMT, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin, 6Division of Hematology and Oncology, Dept Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin
This method describes the use of Infrared dye based imaging system for detection of H1N1 in bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected mice at a high sensitivity. This methodology can be performed in a 96- or 384-well plate, requires <10 μl volume of test material and has the potential for concurrent screening of multiple pathogens.
Other articles by Subramaniam Malarkannan on PubMed
Real-time T-cell Profiling Identifies H60 As a Major Minor Histocompatibility Antigen in Murine Graft-versus-host Disease
Blood. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12393464
Although CD8 T cells are thought to be a principal effector population of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), their dynamics and specificity remain a mystery. Using a mouse model in which donor and recipient were incompatible at many minor histocompatibility antigens (minor H Ags), the CD8 T-cell response was tracked temporally and spatially through the course of GVHD. Donor CD8 T cells in the circulation, spleen, lung, and liver demonstrated virtually identical kinetics: rapid expansion and then decline prior to morbidity. Remarkably, up to one fourth of the CD8 T cells were directed against a single minor antigen, H60. Extreme H60 immunodominance occurred regardless of sampling time, site, and genetic background. This study is the first to analyze the T cells participating in GVHD in "real-time," demonstrates the exceptional degree to which immunodominance of H60 can occur, and suggests that such superdominant minor H Ags could be risk factors for GVHD.
Immunogenetics. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12845499
Minor histocompatibility antigens (minor H antigen) elicit strong T-cell-mediated responses during both graft rejection and graft versus leukemia (GvL) among MHC-matched individuals (where MHC is major histocompatibility complex). Employing expression-cloning methodology, we have identified a cDNA clone, MI-35, encoding the immunodominant H4b minor H antigen within the classical mouse H4 complex. The minimal antigenic epitope derived from H4b presented on Kb class I MHC is SGIVYIHL (SYL8) and the polymorphism is due to C-->T nucleotide modification in p3 resulting in the change of threonine (ACT) to isoleucine (ATT). The results presented here demonstrate that amino acid variation in the allelic epitopes results in the low abundance of H4a peptide. The differential peptide copy number resulted in an immunodominant cytotoxic T cells (CTL) response directed against H4b while the anti-B6 response directed against H4a was easily dominated. These results provide a molecular mechanism for the H4 minor H antigen and suggest a novel mechanism by which alloantigenic disparity caused by conservative amino acid changes can be augmented by posttranslational antigen processing events.
PLoS Biology. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15510226
Major histocompatibility class I molecules display tens of thousands of peptides on the cell surface for immune surveillance by T cells. The peptide repertoire represents virtually all cellular translation products, and can thus reveal a foreign presence inside the cell. These peptides are derived from not only conventional but also cryptic translational reading frames, including some without conventional AUG codons. To define the mechanism that generates these cryptic peptides, we used T cells as probes to analyze the peptides generated in transfected cells. We found that when CUG acts as an alternate initiation codon, it can be decoded as leucine rather than the expected methionine residue. The leucine start does not depend on an internal ribosome entry site-like mRNA structure, and its efficiency is enhanced by the Kozak nucleotide context. Furthermore, ribosomes scan 5' to 3' specifically for the CUG initiation codon in a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-independent manner. Because eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 is frequently targeted to inhibit protein synthesis, this novel translation mechanism allows stressed cells to display antigenic peptides. This initiation mechanism could also be used at non-AUG initiation codons often found in viral transcripts as well as in a growing list of cellular genes.
Blood. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15328154
Interaction of the activating ligand H60 with NKG2D receptor constitutes a major stimulatory pathway for natural killer (NK) cells. The influence of inhibitory Ly49 receptors on NKG2D-mediated activation is not clearly understood. Here we show that the magnitude of NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity is directly proportional to both the levels of H60 and the nature of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules expressed on the target cells. The expression levels of H60 on the target cells determined the extent to which the inhibition by Ly49C/I receptors can be overridden. In contrast, even a higher expression of H60 molecule on the target cells failed to overcome the inhibition mediated by Ly49A/G receptors. Also, the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) generated by NK cells through anti-NKG2D monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated activation is significantly reduced by the presence of immobilized anti-Ly49A/G mAbs. Thus, NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion results from the fine balance between activating and inhibitory receptors, thereby defining the NK cell-mediated immune responses.
Seminars in Immunology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16737823
NK cells use NKG2D receptor to recognize 'induced-self'. In apparent violation of the 'missing-self' hypothesis, NK cells stimulated through NKG2D can lyse target cells despite normal expression levels of MHC class I molecules. Although, 'overriding' of the inhibitory by the activating signals had been postulated the precise role of inhibitory Ly49 receptors on NKG2D-mediated activation has only started emerging. We propose that NKG2D-mediated activation is a function of 'altering the balance' in the signaling strength between the activating NKG2D and inhibiting Ly49 receptors. Balance in the signaling strength depends on the expression levels of activating ligands on the target cells. Qualitative and quantitative variations of MHC class I molecules expressed on the target cells also plays a major role in determining this 'altered-balance'. Consequently, the nature of Ly49 receptors expressed on specific NK subsets determines the level of NKG2D-mediated NK cell activation. These observations provide a firm basis of 'altered-balance' in NK signaling and describe an active interplay between inhibitory Ly49 and activating NKG2D receptors.
Differential and Nonredundant Roles of Phospholipase Cgamma2 and Phospholipase Cgamma1 in the Terminal Maturation of NK Cells
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17015722
NK cells play a central role in mediating innate immune responses. Activation of NK cells results in cytotoxicity, cytokine, and chemokine secretions. In this study, we show that in mice with targeted deletion of phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma)2, one of the key signal transducers, there are profound effects on the development and terminal maturation of NK cells. Lack of PLCgamma2 significantly impaired the ability of lineage-committed NK precursor cells to acquire subset-specific Ly49 receptors and thereby terminal maturation of NK cells. Overexpression of isozyme, PLCgamma1, in PLCgamma2-deficient NK cells resulted in the successful Ly49 acquisition and terminal maturation of the NK cells; however, it could only partially rescue NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity with no cytokine production. Furthermore, PLCgamma2-deficient NK cells failed to mediate antitumor cytotoxicity and inflammatory cytokine production, displaying a generalized hyporesponsiveness. Our results strongly demonstrate that PLCgamma1 and PLCgamma2 play nonredundant and obligatory roles in NK cell ontogeny and in its effector functions.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17785812
Activating receptors such as NKG2D and Ly49D mediate a multitude of effector functions including cytotoxicity and cytokine generation in NK cells. However, specific signaling events that are responsible for the divergence of distinct effector functions have yet to be determined. In this study, we show that lack of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein Bcl10 significantly affected receptor-mediated cytokine and chemokine generation, but not cytotoxicity against tumor cells representing "missing-self" or "induced-self." Lack of Bcl10 completely abrogated the generation of GM-CSF and chemokines and it significantly reduced the generation of IFN-gamma (>75%) in NK cells. Commitment, development, and terminal maturation of NK cells were largely unaffected in the absence of Bcl10. Although IL-2-activated NK cells could mediate cytotoxicity to the full extent, the ability of the freshly isolated NK cells to mediate cytotoxicity was somewhat reduced. Therefore, we conclude that the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 signaling axis is critical for cytokine and chemokine generation, although it is dispensable for cytotoxic granule release depending on the activation state of NK cells. These results indicate that Bcl10 represents an exclusive "molecular switch" that links the upstream receptor-mediated signaling to cytokine and chemokine generations.
Recognition of Allo-peptide is Governed by Novel Anchor Imposition and Limited Variations in TCR Contact Residues
Molecular Immunology. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17981332
Immune specificity of a T cell is determined by the TCR contact residues exposed on the antigenic peptide/MHC complex. Naturally processed, biallelic epitopes from H7 minor histocompatibility (mH) antigen vary in position 7 (p7) from aspartic acid (D) to a glutamic acid (E), which differ by an additional methylene (-CH(2)) in the side chain. Here, we show that this variation generates a strong anti-H7a or anti-H7b cytotoxic T cell responses. Further, the H7 allelic peptides use p6 asparagine as their central anchor residue and amino acid variations in either the canonical p5 or the predicted p6 anchor positions in the antigenic epitope were detrimental for TCR recognition. In addition, introduction of any other amino acids, except asparagine, in the polymorphic p7 significantly abolished the ability of anti-H7b TCR recognition. This demonstrates that only an asparagine with an amine group as a side chain instead of a charged oxygen radical could effectively stimulate the anti-H7b specific T cells. Our findings provide evidence that mH antigen-specific TCRs are highly stringent in recognizing their cognate epitopes.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18714009
Rap1 is a small GTPase that belongs to Ras superfamily. This ubiquitously expressed GTPase is a key regulator of integrin functions. Rap1 exists in two isoforms: Rap1a and Rap1b. Although Rap1 has been extensively studied, its isoform-specific functions in B cells have not been elucidated. In this study, using gene knockout mice, we show that Rap1b is the dominant isoform in B cells. Lack of Rap1b significantly reduced the absolute number of B220(+)IgM(-) pro/pre-B cells and B220(+)IgM(+) immature B cells in bone marrow. In vitro culture of bone marrow-derived Rap1b(-/-) pro/pre-B cells with IL-7 showed similar proliferation levels but reduced adhesion to stromal cell line compared with wild type. Rap1b(-/-) mice displayed reduced splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells, and increased newly forming B cells, whereas the number of follicular B cells was normal. Functionally, Rap1b(-/-) mice showed reduced T-dependent but normal T-independent humoral responses. B cells from Rap1b(-/-) mice showed reduced migration to SDF-1, CXCL13 and in vivo homing to lymph nodes. MZ B cells showed reduced sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced migration and adhesion to ICAM-1. However, absence of Rap1b did not affect splenic B cell proliferation, BCR-mediated activation of Erk1/2, p38 MAPKs, and AKT. Thus, Rap1b is crucial for early B cell development, MZ B cell homeostasis and T-dependent humoral immunity.
Impaired Survival of Peripheral T Cells, Disrupted NK/NKT Cell Development, and Liver Failure in Mice Lacking Gimap5
Blood. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18796632
The loss of Gimap5 (GTPase of the immune-associated protein 5) gene function is the underlying cause of lymphopenia and autoimmune diabetes in the BioBreeding (BB) rat. The in vivo function of murine gimap5 is largely unknown. We show that selective gene ablation of the mouse gimap5 gene impairs the final intrathymic maturation of CD8 and CD4 T cells and compromises the survival of postthymic CD4 and CD8 cells, replicating findings in the BB rat model. In addition, gimap5 deficiency imposes a block of natural killer (NK)- and NKT-cell differentiation. Development of NK/NKT cells is restored on transfer of gimap5(-/-) bone marrow into a wild-type environment. Mice lacking gimap5 have a median survival of 15 weeks, exhibit chronic hepatic hematopoiesis, and in later stages show pronounced hepatocyte apoptosis, leading to liver failure. This pathology persists in a Rag2-deficient background in the absence of mature B, T, or NK cells and cannot be adoptively transferred by transplanting gimap5(-/-) bone marrow into wild-type recipients. We conclude that mouse gimap5 is necessary for the survival of peripheral T cells, NK/NKT-cell development, and the maintenance of normal liver function. These functions involve cell-intrinsic as well as cell-extrinsic mechanisms.
The P110 Delta of PI3K Plays a Critical Role in NK Cell Terminal Maturation and Cytokine/chemokine Generation
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18809712
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play a critical role in regulating B cell receptor- and T cell receptor-mediated signaling. However, their role in natural killer (NK) cell development and functions is not well understood. Using mice expressing p110 delta(D910A), a catalytically inactive p110 delta, we show that these mice had reduced NK cellularity, defective Ly49C and Ly49I NK subset maturation, and decreased CD27(High) NK numbers. p110 delta inactivation marginally impaired NK-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. However, NKG2D, Ly49D, and NK1.1 receptor-mediated cytokine and chemokine generation by NK cells was severely affected in these mice. Further, p110 delta(D910A/D910A) NK cell-mediated antiviral responses through natural cytotoxicity receptor 1 were reduced. Analysis of signaling events demonstrates that p110 delta(D910A/D910A) NK cells had a reduced c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in response to NKG2D-mediated activation. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role of PI3K-p110 delta in NK cell development and effector functions.
Molecular Immunology. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19081632
Unlike T and B cells, NK cells lack variable, clonotypic receptors that recognize foreign antigens. Instead, NK cells depend on conserved receptors such as NKG2D. NKG2D recognizes a variety of inducible self-proteins that belong to the non-classical MHC class I family. They include ULBP (1-3), MIC (A & B) in human and H60 (a, b & c), Rae-1 (alpha-epsilon) and Mult1 in mice. These self-proteins are expressed due to pathological stimuli, share limited amino acid homology and form the molecular basis for NKG2D-mediated activation. Recent studies have vastly improved our understanding of NKG2D receptor-mediated activation, signaling and function. However, a detailed knowledge on the immunobiology of its ligands is lacking. How many is too many? Is NKG2D the only receptor for these ligands? Where are these ligands expressed? What are the molecular mechanisms that regulate their expression? Do normal cells express these ligands? Does the communication between NKG2D receptor and its ligands travel through a two way road? If so, what do the 'target' cells get in turn, only death? How efficient are these ligands as molecular targets for NK cell-mediated tumor immunotherapy?
Immunology and Cell Biology. Nov-Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19721456
Natural killer (NK) cells have a critical role in clearing influenza virus, which primarily infects the lung epithelial cells. However, the ability of influenza virus to infect and manipulate NK cells has not been studied. In this context, we hypothesized that influenza virus can target NK cells leading to a functional impairment in their ability to mediate cytotoxicity and cytokine/chemokine generations. Here, we show influenza virus, PR8, can enter and infect NK cells. This infection did not alter the expression levels of activating, inhibitory or developmental receptors of NK cells. However, infection of NK cells by PR8 reduced the cytotoxicity to tumor cells that represent 'induced-self' and 'missing-self'. PR8-infection also significantly downregulated the NCR1, NKG2D, Nkpr1c, Ly49D and CD244 receptors-mediated generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Mutations in the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza virus further augmented the functional impairment of NK cells. Our observations show the presence of a new, but yet to be explored, mechanism by which the influenza virus can evade immune detection.
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20733035
Rap1 GTPases control immune synapse formation and signaling in lymphocytes. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which Rap1 regulates natural killer (NK) cell activation is not known. Using Rap1a or Rap1b knockout mice, we identify Rap1b as the major isoform in NK cells. Its absence significantly impaired LFA1 polarization, spreading, and microtubule organizing center (MTOC) formation in NK cells. Neither Rap1 isoform was essential for NK cytotoxicity. However, absence of Rap1b impaired NKG2D, Ly49D, and NCR1-mediated cytokine and chemokine production. Upon activation, Rap1b colocalized with the scaffolding protein IQGAP1. This interaction facilitated sequential phosphorylation of B-Raf, C-Raf, and ERK1/2 and helped IQGAP1 to form a large signalosome in the perinuclear region. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role for Rap1b in NK cell signaling and effector functions.
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20844584
Both CD28 and NKG2D can function as co-stimulatory receptors in human CD8+ T cells. However, their independent functional contributions in distinct CD8+ T cell subsets are not well understood. In this study, CD8+ T cells in human peripheral blood- and lung-derived lymphocytes were analyzed for CD28 and NKG2D expression and function. We found a higher level of CD28 expression in PBMC-derived naïve (CD45RA+CD27+) and memory (CD45RA-CD27+) CD8+ T cells (CD28Hi), while its expression was significantly lower in effector (CD45RA+CD27-) CD8+ T cells (CD28Lo). Irrespective of the differences in the CD28 levels, NKG2D expression was comparable in all three CD8+ T cell subsets. CD28 and NKG2D expressions followed similar patterns in human lung-resident GILGFVFTL/HLA-A2-pentamer positive CD8+ T cells. Co-stimulation of CD28Lo effector T cells via NKG2D significantly increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, irrespective of its comparable levels, NKG2D-mediated co-stimulation failed to augment IFN-γ and TNF-α production in CD28Hi naïve/memory T cells. Additionally, CD28-mediated co-stimulation was obligatory for IL-2 generation and thereby its production was limited only to the CD28Hi naïve/memory subsets. MICA, a ligand for NKG2D was abundantly expressed in the tracheal epithelial cells, validating the use of NKG2D as the major co-stimulatory receptor by tissue-resident CD8+ effector T cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that NKG2D may provide an expanded level of co-stimulation to tissue-residing effector CD8+ T cells. Thus, incorporation of co-stimulation via NKG2D in addition to CD28 is essential to activate tumor or tissue-infiltrating effector CD8+ T cells. However, boosting a recall immune response via memory CD8+ T cells or vaccination to stimulate naïve CD8+ T cells would require CD28-mediated co-stimulation.
Transforming Growth Factor-beta-activated Kinase 1 Regulates Natural Killer Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Production
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21771792
Carma1, a caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase, initiates a unique signaling cascade via Bcl10 and Malt1 in NK cells. Carma1 deficiency results in reduced phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and activation of NF-κB that lead to impaired NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production. However, the precise identities of the downstream signaling molecules that link Carma1 to these effector functions were not defined. Here we show that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is abundantly present in NK cells, and activation via NKG2D results in its phosphorylation. Lack of Carma1 considerably reduced TAK1 phosphorylation, demonstrating the dependence of TAK1 on Carma1 in NKG2D-mediated NK cell activations. Pharmacological inhibitor to TAK1 significantly reduced NK-mediated cytotoxicity and its potential to generate IFN-γ, GM-CSF, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES. Conditional in vivo knockdown of TAK1 in NK cells from Mx1Cre(+)TAK1(fx/fx) mice resulted in impaired NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine/chemokine production. Inhibition or conditional knockdown of TAK1 severely impaired the NKG2D-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and activation of NF-κB and AP1. Our results show that TAK1 links Carma1 to NK cell-mediated effector functions.
Primary Vascularization of the Graft Determines the Immunodominance of Murine Minor H Antigens During Organ Transplantation
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21900176
Grafts can be rejected even when matched for MHC because of differences in the minor histocompatibility Ags (mH-Ags). H4- and H60-derived epitopes are known as immunodominant mH-Ags in H2(b)-compatible BALB.B to C57BL/6 transplantation settings. Although multiple explanations have been provided to explain immunodominance of Ags, the role of vascularization of the graft is yet to be determined. In this study, we used heart (vascularized) and skin (nonvascularized) transplantations to determine the role of primary vascularization of the graft. A higher IFN-γ response toward H60 peptide occurs in heart recipients. In contrast, a higher IFN-γ response was generated against H4 peptide in skin transplant recipients. Peptide-loaded tetramer staining revealed a distinct antigenic hierarchy between heart and skin transplantation: H60-specific CD8(+) T cells were the most abundant after heart transplantation, whereas H4-specific CD8(+) T cells were more abundant after skin graft. Neither the tissue-specific distribution of mH-Ags nor the draining lymph node-derived dendritic cells correlated with the observed immunodominance. Interestingly, non-primarily vascularized cardiac allografts mimicked skin grafts in the observed immunodominance, and H60 immunodominance was observed in primarily vascularized skin grafts. However, T cell depletion from the BALB.B donor prior to cardiac allograft induces H4 immunodominance in vascularized cardiac allograft. Collectively, our data suggest that immediate transmigration of donor T cells via primary vascularization is responsible for the immunodominance of H60 mH-Ag in organ and tissue transplantation.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20682623
NK cells are important innate immune effectors during influenza virus infection. However, the influenza virus seems able to use several tactics to counter NK cell recognition for immune evasion. In this review, we will summarize and discuss recent advances regarding the understanding of NK cell evasion mechanisms manipulated by the influenza virus to facilitate its rapid replication inside the respiratory epithelial cells.