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In JoVE (1)
- Mutagenesis and Analysis of Genetic Mutations in the GC-rich KISS1 Receptor Sequence Identified in Humans with Reproductive Disorders
Other Publications (9)
- Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
- The New England Journal of Medicine
- Thyroid : Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
- Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Articles by Suzy D.C. Bianco in JoVE
Mutagenesis and Analysis of Genetic Mutations in the GC-rich KISS1 Receptor Sequence Identified in Humans with Reproductive Disorders
Luciana Madeira da Silva1, Lauren Vandepas1, Suzy D.C. Bianco1,2
1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Mutations in the kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) are associated with reproductive disorders in patients. Here we describe how to introduce mutations of interest in the GC-rich sequence of KISS1R as well as the use of KISS1R constructs to characterize the degradation pathway of the receptor by immunoprecipitation and western blot.
Other articles by Suzy D.C. Bianco on PubMed
Marked Disturbance of Calcium Homeostasis in Mice with Targeted Disruption of the Trpv6 Calcium Channel Gene
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17129178
We report the phenotype of mice with targeted disruption of the Trpv6 (Trpv6 KO) epithelial calcium channel. The mice exhibit disordered Ca(2+) homeostasis, including defective intestinal Ca(2+) absorption, increased urinary Ca(2+) excretion, decreased BMD, deficient weight gain, and reduced fertility. Although our Trpv6 KO affects the closely adjacent EphB6 gene, the phenotype reported here is not related to EphB6 dysfunction. INTRODUCTIOn: The mechanisms underlying intestinal Ca(2+) absorption are crucial for overall Ca(2+) homeostasis, because diet is the only source of all new Ca(2+) in the body. Trpv6 encodes a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel responsible for vitamin D-dependent intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Trpv6 is expressed in the intestine and also in the skin, placenta, kidney, and exocrine organs.
The Small Polyphenolic Molecule Kaempferol Increases Cellular Energy Expenditure and Thyroid Hormone Activation
Diabetes. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17327447
Disturbances in energy homeostasis can result in obesity and other metabolic diseases. Here we report a metabolic pathway present in normal human skeletal muscle myoblasts that is activated by the small polyphenolic molecule kaempferol (KPF). Treatment with KPF leads to an approximately 30% increase in skeletal myocyte oxygen consumption. The mechanism involves a several-fold increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) generation and protein kinase A activation, and the effect of KPF can be mimicked via treatment with dibutyryl cAMP. Microarray and real-time PCR studies identified a set of metabolically relevant genes influenced by KPF including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, mitochondrial transcription factor 1, citrate synthase, and uncoupling protein-3, although KPF itself is not a direct mitochondrial uncoupler. The cAMP-responsive gene for type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2), an intracellular enzyme that activates thyroid hormone (T3) for the nucleus, is approximately threefold upregulated by KPF; furthermore, the activity half-life for D2 is dramatically and selectively increased as well. The net effect is an approximately 10-fold stimulation of D2 activity as measured in cell sonicates, with a concurrent increase of approximately 2.6-fold in the rate of T3 production, which persists even 24 h after KPF has been removed from the system. The effects of KPF on D2 are independent of sirtuin activation and only weakly reproduced by other small polyphenolic molecules such as quercetin and fisetin. These data document a novel mechanism by which a xenobiotic-activated pathway can regulate metabolically important genes as well as thyroid hormone activation and thus may influence metabolic control in humans.
The New England Journal of Medicine. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18272894
Gonadotropin-dependent, or central, precocious puberty is caused by early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In girls, this condition is most often idiopathic. Recently, a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54, and its ligand, kisspeptin, were described as an excitatory neuroregulator system for the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In this study, we have identified an autosomal dominant GPR54 mutation--the substitution of proline for arginine at codon 386 (Arg386Pro)--in an adopted girl with idiopathic central precocious puberty (whose biologic family was not available for genetic studies). In vitro studies have shown that this mutation leads to prolonged activation of intracellular signaling pathways in response to kisspeptin. The Arg386Pro mutant appears to be associated with central precocious puberty.
Thyroid : Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18279016
The sympathoadrenal system, including the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla, interacts with thyroid hormone (TH) at various levels. Both systems are evolutionary old and regulate independent functions, playing probably independent roles in poikilothermic species. With the advent of homeothermy, TH acquired a new role, which is to stimulate thermogenic mechanisms and synergize with the sympathoadrenal system to produce heat and maintain body temperature. An important part of this new function is mediated through coordinated and, most of the time, synergistic interactions with the sympathoadrenal system. Catecholamines can in turn activate TH in a tissue-specific manner, most notably in brown adipose tissue. Such interactions are of great adaptive value in cold adaptation and in states needing high-energy output. Conversely, in states of emergency where energy demand should be reduced, such as disease and starvation, both systems are turned down. In pathological states, where one of the systems is fixed at a high or a low level, coordination is lost with disruption of the physiology and development of symptoms. Exaggerated responses to catecholamines dominate the manifestations of thyrotoxicosis, while hypothyroidism is characterized by a narrowing of adaptive responses (e.g., thermogenic, cardiovascular, and lipolytic). Finally, emerging results suggest the possibility that disrupted interactions between the two systems contribute to explain metabolic variability, for example, fuel efficiency, energy expenditure, and lipolytic responses.
Nature Reviews. Endocrinology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19707180
Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) has an incidence of 1-10 cases per 100,000 births. About 60% of patients with IHH present with associated anosmia, also known as Kallmann syndrome, characterized by total or partial loss of olfaction. Many of the gene mutations associated with Kallmann syndrome have been mapped to KAL1 or FGFR1. However, together, these mutations account for only about 15% of Kallmann syndrome cases. More recently, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 have been linked to the syndrome and may account for an additional 5-10% of cases. The remaining 40% of patients with IHH have a normal sense of smell. Prior to 2003, the only gene linked to normosmic IHH was the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene. However, mutations in this receptor are believed to account for only 10% of cases. Subsequently, mutations in KISS1R, TAC3 and TACR3 were identified as causes of normosmic IHH. Certain genes, including PROK2 and FGFR1, are associated with both anosmic and normosmic IHH. Despite recent advances in the field, the genetic causes of the majority of cases of IHH remain unknown. This Review discusses genes associated with hypogonadotropic disorders and the molecular mechanisms by which mutations in these genes may result in IHH.
Expression of Uncoupling Protein 1 in Mouse Brown Adipose Tissue is Thyroid Hormone Receptor-beta Isoform Specific and Required for Adaptive Thermogenesis
Endocrinology. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19906816
Cold-induced adaptive (or nonshivering) thermogenesis in small mammals is produced primarily in brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT has been identified in humans and becomes more active after cold exposure. Heat production from BAT requires sympathetic nervous system stimulation, T(3), and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Our previous studies with a thyroid hormone receptor-beta (TR beta) isoform-selective agonist demonstrated that after TR beta stimulation alone, adaptive thermogenesis was markedly impaired, although UCP-1 expression in BAT was normal. We used mice with a dominant-negative TR beta PV mutation (frameshift mutation in resistance to thyroid hormone patient PV) to determine the role of TR beta in adaptive thermogenesis and UCP1 expression. Wild-type and PV mutant mice were made hypothyroid and replaced with T(3) (7 ng/g x d) for 10 d to produce similar serum thyroid hormone concentration in the wild-type and mutant mice. The thermogenic response of interscapular BAT, as determined by heat production during iv infusions of norepinephrine, was reduced in PV beta heterozygous and homozygous mutant mice. The level of UCP1, the key thermogenic protein in BAT, was progressively reduced in PV beta(+/-) and PV beta(-/-) mutant mice. Brown adipocytes isolated from PV mutant mice had some reduction in cAMP and glycerol production in response to adrenergic stimulation. Defective adaptive thermogenesis in TR beta PV mutant mice is due to reduced UCP1 expression and reduced adrenergic responsiveness. TR beta mediates T(3) regulation of UCP1 in BAT and is required for adaptive thermogenesis.
KISS1R Intracellular Trafficking and Degradation: Effect of the Arg386Pro Disease-associated Mutation
Endocrinology. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21285314
The goal of this study was to investigate how the Arg386Pro mutation prolongs KiSS-1 receptor (KISS1R) responsiveness to kisspeptin, contributing to human central precocious puberty. Confocal imaging showed colocalization of wild-type (WT) KISS1R with a membrane marker, which persisted for up to 5 h of stimulation. Conversely, no colocalization with a lysosome marker was detected. Also, overnight treatment with a lysosome inhibitor did not affect WT KISS1R protein, whereas overnight treatment with a proteasome inhibitor increased protein levels by 24-fold. WT and Arg386Pro KISS1R showed time-dependent internalization upon stimulation. However, both receptors were recycled back to the membrane. The Arg386Pro mutation did not affect the relative distribution of KISS1R in membrane and internalized fractions when compared to WT KISS1R for up to 120 min of stimulation, demonstrating that this mutation does not affect KISS1R trafficking rate. Nonetheless, total Arg386Pro KISS1R was substantially increased compared with WT after 120 min of kisspeptin stimulation. This net increase was eliminated by blockade of detection of recycled receptors, demonstrating that recycled receptors account for the increased responsiveness of this mutant to kisspeptin. We therefore conclude the following: 1) WT KISS1R is degraded by proteasomes rather than lysosomes; 2) WT and Arg386Pro KISS1R are internalized upon stimulation, but most of the internalized receptors are recycled back to the membrane rather than degraded; 3) the Arg386Pro mutation does not affect the rate of KISS1R trafficking--instead, it prolongs responsiveness to kisspeptin by decreasing KISS1R degradation, resulting in the net increase on mutant receptor recycled back to the plasma membrane.
Targeted Deletion of One or Two Copies of the G Protein β Subunit Gβ5 Gene Has Distinct Effects on Body Weight and Behavior in Mice
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21804131
We investigated the physiological role of Gβ5, a unique G protein β subunit that dimerizes with regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins of the R7 family instead of Gγ. Gβ5 is essential for stability of these complexes, so that its knockout (KO)causes degradation of the entire Gβ5-R7 family. We report that the Gβ5-KO mice remain leaner than the wild type (WT) throughout their lifetime and are resistant to a high-fat diet. They have a 5-fold increase in locomotor activity, increased thermogenesis, and lower serum insulin, all of which correlate with a higher level of secreted epinephrine. Heterozygous (HET) mice are 2-fold more active than WT mice. Surprisingly, with respect to body weight, the HET mice display a phenotype opposite to that of the KO mice: by the age of 6 mo, they are ≥ 15% heavier than the WT and have increased adiposity, insulin resistance, and liver steatosis. These changes occur in HET mice fed a normal diet and without apparent hyperphagia, mimicking basic characteristics of human metabolic syndrome. We conclude that even a partial reduction in Gβ5-R7 level can perturb normal animal metabolism and behavior. Our data on Gβ5 haploinsufficient mice may explain earlier observations of genetic linkage between R7 family mutations and obesity in humans.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21880801
KISS1 is a candidate gene for GnRH deficiency.