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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
Articles by Theo van Laar in JoVE
Spheroid Assay to Measure TGF-β-induced Invasion
Hildegonda P.H. Naber, Eliza Wiercinska, Peter ten Dijke, Theo van Laar
Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Centre for Biomedial Genetics, Leiden University Medical Centre
An assay to quantitatively measure Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β-induced invasion in 3-dimensional collagen gels is described. This assay takes advantage of the MCF10A series of cell lines, which represent different stages of breast cancer development. This method can be adopted to be used with other cell lines and might be used to investigate other potential activators or inhibitors of invasion.
Other articles by Theo van Laar on PubMed
Mutation Research. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11804604
Treatment of cells with genotoxic agents affects protein degradation in both positive and negative ways. Exposure of S. cerevisiae to the alkylating agent MMS resulted in activation of genes that are involved in ubiquitin- and 26S proteasome-dependent protein degradation. This process partially overlaps with the activation of the ER-associated protein degradation pathway. The DNA repair protein Rad23p and its mammalian homologues have been shown to inhibit degradation of specific substrates in response to DNA damage. Particularly the recently identified inhibition of degradation by mouse Rad23 protein (mHR23) of the associated nucleotide excision repair protein XPC was shown to stimulate DNA repair.Recently, it was shown that Rad23p and the mouse homologue mHR23B also associate with Png1p, a deglycosylation enzyme. Png1p-mediated deglycosylation plays a role in ER-associated protein degradation after accumulation of malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, if stabilization of proteins that are associated with the C-terminus of Rad23p is a general phenomenon, then Rad23 might be implicated in the stimulation of ER-associated protein degradation as well. Interestingly, the recently identified HHR23-like protein Mif1 is also thought to play a role in ER-associated protein degradation. The MIF1 gene is strongly activated in response to ER-stress. Mif1 contains a ubiquitin-like domain which is most probably involved in binding to S5a, a subunit of the 19S regulatory complex of the 26S proteasome. On the basis of its localization in the ER-membrane, it is hypothesized that Mif1 could play a role in the translocation of the 26S proteasome towards the ER-membrane, thereby enhancing ER-associated protein degradation.
Nature. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15329723
Metastasis is a major factor in the malignancy of cancers, and is often responsible for the failure of cancer treatment. Anoikis (apoptosis resulting from loss of cell-matrix interactions) has been suggested to act as a physiological barrier to metastasis; resistance to anoikis may allow survival of cancer cells during systemic circulation, thereby facilitating secondary tumour formation in distant organs. In an attempt to identify metastasis-associated oncogenes, we designed an unbiased, genome-wide functional screen solely on the basis of anoikis suppression. Here, we report the identification of TrkB, a neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, as a potent and specific suppressor of caspase-associated anoikis of non-malignant epithelial cells. By activating the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/protein kinase B pathway, TrkB induced the formation of large cellular aggregates that survive and proliferate in suspension. In mice, these cells formed rapidly growing tumours that infiltrated lymphatics and blood vessels to colonize distant organs. Consistent with the ability of TrkB to suppress anoikis, metastases--whether small vessel infiltrates or large tumour nodules--contained very few apoptotic cells. These observations demonstrate the potent oncogenic effects of TrkB and uncover a specific pro-survival function that may contribute to its metastatic capacity, providing a possible explanation for the aggressive nature of human tumours that overexpress TrkB.
The Biochemical Journal. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15673284
In the present study, the human TEB4 is identified as a novel ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-resident ubiquitin ligase. TEB4 has homologues in many species and has a number of remarkable properties. TEB4 contains a conserved RING (really interesting new gene) finger and 13 predicted transmembrane domains. The RING finger of TEB4 and its homologues is situated at the N-terminus and has the unconventional C4HC3 configuration. The N-terminus of TEB4 is located in the cytosol. We show that the isolated TEB4 RING domain catalyses ubiquitin ligation in vitro in a reaction that is ubiquitin Lys48-specific and involves UBC7 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 7). These properties are reminiscent of E3 enzymes, which are involved in ER-associated protein degradation. TEB4 is an ER degradation substrate itself, promoting its own degradation in a RING finger- and proteasome-dependent manner.
Mutations of the PU.1 Ets Domain Are Specifically Associated with Murine Radiation-induced, but Not Human Therapy-related, Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Oncogene. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15750630
Murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is characterized by loss of one copy of chromosome 2. Previously, we positioned the critical haematopoietic-specific transcription factor PU.1 within a minimally deleted region. We now report a high frequency (>65%) of missense mutation at codon 235 in the DNA-binding Ets domain of PU.1 in murine AML. Earlier studies, outside the context of malignancy, determined that conversion of arginine 235 (R235) to any other amino-acid residue leads to ablation of DNA-binding function and loss of expression of downstream targets. We show that mutation of R235 does not lead to protein loss, and occurs specifically in those AMLs showing loss of one copy of PU.1 (P=0.001, Fisher's exact test). PU.1 mutations were not found in the coding region, UTRs or promoter of human therapy-related AMLs. Potentially regulatory elements upstream of PU.1 were located but no mutations found. In conclusion, we have identified the cause of murine radiation-induced AML and have shown that loss of one copy of PU.1, as a consequence of flanking radiation-sensitive fragile domains on chromosome 2, and subsequent R235 conversion are highly specific to this mouse model. Such a mechanism does not operate, or is extremely rare, in human AML.
Expression of BNIP3 in Invasive Breast Cancer: Correlations with the Hypoxic Response and Clinicopathological Features
BMC Cancer. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19505343
Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family induced under hypoxia. Low or absent expression has recently been described in human tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, resulting in poor prognosis. Little is known about BNIP3 expression in invasive breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of BNIP3 in invasive breast cancer at the mRNA and protein level in correlation with the hypoxic response and clinicopathological features.
VEGF and Inhibitors of TGFbeta Type-I Receptor Kinase Synergistically Promote Blood-vessel Formation by Inducing Alpha5-integrin Expression
Journal of Cell Science. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19706683
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) are potent regulators of angiogenesis. How VEGF and TGFbeta signaling pathways crosstalk is not well understood. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of the TGFbeta type-I-receptor inhibitors (SB-431542 and LY-2157299) and VEGF on endothelial cell (EC) function and angiogenesis. We show that SB-431542 dramatically enhances VEGF-induced formation of EC sheets from fetal mouse metatarsals. Sub-optimal doses of VEGF and SB-431542 synergistically induced EC migration and sprouting of EC spheroids, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active form of TGFbeta type-I receptor had opposite effects. Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that VEGF and SB-431542 synergistically upregulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, including the integrins alpha5 and beta3. Specific downregulation of alpha5-integrin expression or functional blocking of alpha5 integrin with a specific neutralizing antibody inhibited the cooperative effect of VEGF and SB-431542 on EC sprouting. In vivo, LY-2157299 induced angiogenesis and enhanced VEGF- and basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-induced angiogenesis in a Matrigel-plug assay, whereas adding an alpha5-integrin-neutralizing antibody to the Matrigel selectively inhibited this enhanced response. Thus, induction of alpha5-integrin expression is a key determinant by which inhibitors of TGFbeta type-I receptor kinase and VEGF synergistically promote angiogenesis.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21411632
The canonical Wnt pathway plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Activation of this signaling pathway causes disruption of the Axin/adenomatous polyposis coli/glycogen synthase kinase 3β complex, resulting in stabilization of β-catenin and its association with lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor in the nucleus. Here, we identify Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) as a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We found overexpression of FAF1 to strongly inhibit Wnt-induced transcriptional reporter activity and to counteract Wnt-induced β-catenin accumulation. Moreover, knockdown of FAF1 resulted in an increase in β-catenin levels and in activation of Wnt/β-catenin-induced transcription. FAF1 was found to interact with β-catenin upon inhibition of proteasome. Ectopic expression of FAF1 promoted β-catenin degradation by enhancing its polyubiquitination. Functional studies in C2C12 myoblasts and KS483 preosteoblastic cells showed that FAF1 depletion resulted in activation of endogenous Wnt-induced genes and enhanced osteoblast differentiation, whereas FAF1 overexpression had the opposite effect. These results identify FAF1 as a novel inhibitory factor of canonical Wnt signaling pathway.
Protein & Cell. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21626267
Amyloid beta (Aβ) precursor protein (APP) is a key protein in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both APP and its paralogue APLP1 (amyloid beta precursor-like protein 1) have multiple functions in cell adhesion and proliferation. Previously it was thought that autophagy is a novel beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ)-generating pathway activated in AD. However, the protein proteolysis of APLP1 is still largely unknown. The present study shows that APLP1 is rapidly degraded in neuronal cells in response to stresses, such as proteasome inhibition. Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by proteasome inhibitors induces autophagy, causing reduction of mature APLP1/APP. Blocking autophagy or JNK stress kinase rescues the protein expression for both APP and APLP1. Therefore, our results suggest that APP/APLP1 is degraded through autophagy and the APLP1 proteolysis is mainly mediated by autophagy-lysosome pathway.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21795403
Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) regulates diverse physiological processes, including metabolism, development, oncogenesis, and neuroprotection. GSK3β kinase activity has been reported to be critical for various types of cancer cells, but the mechanism has remained elusive. In this study we examine the mechanism by which GSK3β regulates the survival of leukemia cells. We demonstrate that upon GSK3β kinase inhibition different types of leukemia cells show severe proliferation defects as a result of apoptosis. The transcription factor c-Myb is found to be the main target of GSK3β inhibition in cell survival. GSK3β inactivation reduces the expression of c-Myb by promoting its ubiquitination-mediated degradation, thereby inhibiting the expression of c-Myb-dependent antiapoptotic genes Bcl2 and survivin. Coimmunoprecipitation, reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and knockdown studies show that c-Myb needs to interact and cooperate with transcription factor LEF-1 in the activation of Bcl2 and survivin and that both transcription factors are required for cell survival. These data reveal an as-yet-unknown mechanism by which GSK3β controls cell survival.
Wnt/β-catenin Signal Pathway Stabilizes APP Intracellular Domain (AICD) and Promotes Its Transcriptional Activity
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21798242
Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a key protein in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a type I transmembrane protein which can be cleaved by β- and γ-secretase to release the amyloidogenic β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). While Aβ has been widely believed to initiate pathogenic cascades culminating AD, the physiological functions and regulations of AICD remain elusive. In present study, endogenous AICD was demonstrated to be increased by canonical Wnt signal. Instead of due to γ-secretase activity, enhanced AICD expression was found due to the increased protein stability by Wnt/β-catenin. β-Catenin was demonstrated to be an associating partner of AICD, capable of promoting AICD mediated transcriptional activity. Investigation by AICD mutants proved that Fe65, a previously identified AICD binding partner, is not involved in this regulation. Taken together, our results suggest that AICD is stabilized and the AICD mediated transcriptional activity is promoted by canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling independent of Fe65.
BMP-7 Inhibits TGF-β-induced Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells Through Inhibition of Integrin β(3) Expression
Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht). Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21935711
The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily comprises cytokines such as TGF-β and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), which have a critical role in a multitude of biological processes. In breast cancer, high levels of TGF-β are associated with poor outcome, whereas inhibition of TGF-β-signaling reduces metastasis. In contrast, BMP-7 inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer cells.