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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
- The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
- The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
- The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
- Bioconjugate Chemistry
- PloS One
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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Articles by Tuhina Banerjee in JoVE
सतह plasmon अनुनाद द्वारा विष स्थानान्तरण के होस्ट cytosol में जांच
Michael Taylor, Tuhina Banerjee, Neyda VanBennekom, Ken Teter
Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, University of Central Florida
इस रिपोर्ट में, हम का वर्णन कैसे सतह plasmon अनुनाद मेजबान cytosol में विष प्रविष्टि का पता लगाने के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है. यह बेहद संवेदनशील विधि साइटोसोलिक विष की मात्रा पर मात्रात्मक डेटा प्रदान करते हैं, कर सकते हैं और यह विषाक्त पदार्थों की एक श्रृंखला के लिए लागू किया जा सकता है.
Other articles by Tuhina Banerjee on PubMed
2,2,2-trifluoroethanol-induced Molten Globule State of Concanavalin a and Energetics of 8-anilinonaphthalene Sulfonate Binding: Calorimetric and Spectroscopic Investigation
The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16853949
The interaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) with concanavalin A has been investigated by using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy at pH 2.5 and 5.2. All of the calorimetric transitions at both the pH values were found to be irreversible. In the presence of 4 mol kg(-1) TFE at pH 2.5, concanavalin A is observed to be in a partially folded state with significant loss of native tertiary structure. The loss of specific side chain interactions in the transition from native to the TFE-induced partially folded state is demonstrated by the loss of cooperative thermal transition and reduction of the CD bands in the aromatic region. Acrylamide quenching, 8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding, and energy transfer also suggest that in the presence of 4 mol kg(-1) TFE at pH 2.5 concanavalin A is in a molten globule state. ITC has been used for the first time to characterize the energetics of ANS binding to the molten globule state. ITC results indicate that the binding of ANS to the molten globule state and acid-induced state at pH 2.5 displays heterogeneity with two classes of non-interacting binding sites. The results provide insights into the role of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions in the binding of ANS to concanavalin A. The results also demonstrate that ITC can be used to characterize the partially folded states of the protein both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Does the Anesthetic 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol Interact with Bovine Serum Albumin by Direct Binding or by Solvent-mediated Effects? A Calorimetric and Spectroscopic Investigation
Biopolymers. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15739180
Thermal unfolding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied in the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) using high-sensitivity microdifferential scanning calorimetry. Quantitative thermodynamic parameters accompanying the thermal transitions have been evaluated. TFE is observed to be a stabilizer or a destabilizer of the folded state of BSA depending on the pH. CD spectroscopy revealed an increase in the alpha-helical content of BSA and a decrease in the tertiary structure in the presence of increasing molalities of TFE. Isothermal titration calorimetric results do not indicate appreciable binding of the TFE molecules to BSA. TFE quenches the steady-state tryptophan fluorescence of BSA only at higher molalities and there is no effect on the tryptophan fluorescence at lower molalities. The calorimetric and spectroscopic results obtained in this work suggest that solvent-mediated effects dominate the interaction of TFE with BSA and the binding component may be very weak. Since the binding component is very weak, one of the possibilities of anesthetic action of TFE molecules on the actual targets may be through perturbation of the structural and dynamic properties of the lipid bilayer so that the function of crucial but unspecified membrane proteins is affected.
Binding of 8-anilinonaphthalene Sulfonate to Dimeric and Tetrameric Concanavalin A: Energetics and Its Implications on Saccharide Binding Studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and Spectroscopy
The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16571017
The binding of 8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonate to concanavalin A has been investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and circular dichroism studies have been performed under different experimental conditions to understand the binding quantitatively and evaluate contributions of different forces responsible for it. Isothermal titration calorimetric results of concanavalin A with ANS at pH 5.2 and 2.5, where it exists as a dimer, indicated binding heterogeneity and two classes of noninteracting sites. Enhancement of the binding constants from native to pH 2.5 suggests that the ANS binding is strongly influenced by the protein charge and the favorable alteration in the structure of concanavalin A as suggested by near-UV CD results. No binding was observed with the tetrameric form of concanavalin A, indicating shielding of sites due to dimerization of canonical dimers. The results have also demonstrated existence of a hydrophobic binding site that is distinct from the saccharide binding site.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17125386
Binding of the drugs naproxen (which is an anti-inflammatory) and amitriptyline (which is an anti-depressant) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), in combination with fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies. Naproxen is observed to bind more strongly to BSA than amitriptyline. The temperature-dependent ITC results indicate the interaction of one molecule of naproxen with more than one protein molecule. On the other hand, amitriptyline binds to BSA with a reaction stoichiometry that varies from 1:1.2 to 1:2.9. The van't Hoff enthalpy, which is calculated from the temperature dependence of the binding constant, agrees well with the calorimetric enthalpy in the case of naproxen binding to BSA, indicating adherence to a two-state binding process. However, their disagreement in the case of amitriptyline indicates conformational changes in the protein upon ligand binding, as well as with the rise in temperature. The spectroscopic results did not suggest appreciable conformational changes as a result of binding; hence, the discrepancy could be attributed to the temperature-induced conformational changes. With increases in the ionic strength, a reduction in the binding affinity of naproxen to BSA is observed. This suggests the prevailing electrostatic interactions in the complexation process. The preponderance of the hydrophobic interactions in the binding of amitriptyline to BSA is indicated by the absence of any dependence of the ionic strength. A predominance of electrostatic interactions in the case of naproxen binding to BSA and that of hydrophobic interactions in the case of amitriptyline binding to BSA is further strengthened by the results of the binding experiments performed in the presence of ionic and nonionic surfactants. The binding parameters indicate that Triton X-100 blocks the hydrophobic binding sites on BSA, thereby altering the binding affinity of amitriptyline toward BSA. A partial overlap of the binding sites for these drugs is indicated by the binding parameters obtained in the titration of naproxen to the amitriptyline-BSA complex and vice versa. Thus, the results provide a quantitative understanding of the binding of naproxen and amitriptyline to BSA, which is important in understanding their effect as therapeutic agents individually and in combination therapy.
Stabilization of the Tertiary Structure of the Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit Inhibits Toxin Dislocation and Cellular Intoxication
Journal of Molecular Biology. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19748510
Cholera toxin (CT) moves from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by retrograde vesicular transport. The catalytic subunit of CT (CTA1) then crosses the ER membrane and enters the cytosol in a process that involves the quality control mechanism of ER-associated degradation. The molecular details of this dislocation event have not been fully characterized. Here, we report that thermal instability in the CTA1 subunit-specifically, the loss of CTA1 tertiary structure at 37 degrees C-triggers toxin dislocation. Biophysical studies found that glycerol preferentially stabilized the tertiary structure of CTA1 without having any noticeable effect on the thermal stability of its secondary structure. The thermal disordering of CTA1 tertiary structure normally preceded the perturbation of its secondary structure, but in the presence of 10% glycerol the temperature-induced loss of CTA1 tertiary structure occurred at higher temperatures in tandem with the loss of CTA1 secondary structure. The glycerol-induced stabilization of CTA1 tertiary structure blocked CTA1 dislocation from the ER and instead promoted CTA1 secretion into the extracellular medium. This, in turn, inhibited CT intoxication. Glycerol treatment also inhibited the in vitro degradation of CTA1 by the core 20S proteasome. Collectively, these findings indicate that toxin thermal instability plays a key role in the intoxication process. They also suggest the stabilization of CTA1 tertiary structure is a potential goal for novel antitoxin therapeutic agents.
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. Mar-Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20228545
In the last 10 years, different studies have shown interesting geographical variations in the prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor.
Biochemistry. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20839789
The catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CTA1) is an ADP-ribosyltransferase with three distinct subdomains: CTA1(1) forms the catalytic core of the toxin, CTA1(2) is an extended linker between CTA1(1) and CTA1(3), and CTA1(3) is a compact globular region. CTA1 crosses the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to enter the cytosol where it initiates a cytopathic effect. Toxin translocation involves ER-associated degradation (ERAD), a quality control system that exports misfolded proteins from the ER to the cytosol. At the physiological temperature of 37 °C, the free CTA1 subunit is in a partially unfolded conformation that triggers its ERAD-mediated translocation to the cytosol. Thus, the temperature sensitivity of CTA1 structure is an important determinant of its function. Here, we examined the contribution of CTA1 subdomain structure to the thermal unfolding of CTA1. Biophysical measurements demonstrated that the CTA1(1) subdomain is thermally unstable and that the CTA1(2) subdomain provides a degree of conformational stability to CTA1(1). The CTA1(3) subdomain does not affect the overall stability of CTA1, but the thermal unfolding of CTA1 appears to begin with a local loss of structure in the CTA1(3) subdomain: glycerol and acidic pH both inhibited the thermal disordering of full-length CTA1 but not the disordering of a CTA1 construct lacking the A1(3) subdomain. These observations provide mechanistic insight regarding the thermal unfolding of CTA1, an event which facilitates its subsequent translocation to the cytosol.
Bioconjugate Chemistry. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21226491
When covalently bound to an appropriate ligand, iron oxide nanoparticles can bind to a specific target of interest. This interaction can be detected through changes in the solution's spin-spin relaxation times (T2) via magnetic relaxation measurements. In this report, a strategy of molecular mimicry was used in order to identify targeting ligands that bind to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). The cellular CTB-receptor, ganglioside GM1, contains a pentasaccharide moiety consisting in part of galactose and glucose units. We therefore predicted that CTB would recognize carbohydrate-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles as GM1 mimics, thus producing a detectable change in the T2 relaxation times. Magnetic relaxation experiments demonstrated that CTB interacted with the galactose-conjugated nanoparticles. This interaction was confirmed via surface plasmon resonance studies using either the free or nanoparticle-conjugated galactose molecule. The galactose-conjugated nanoparticles were then used as CTB sensors achieving a detection limit of 40 pM. Via magnetic relaxation studies, we found that CTB also interacted with dextran-coated nanoparticles, and surface plasmon resonance studies also confirmed this interaction. Additional experiments demonstrated that the dextran-coated nanoparticle can also be used as CTB sensors and that dextran can prevent the internalization of CTB into GM1-expressing cells. Our work indicates that magnetic nanoparticle conjugates and magnetic relaxation detection can be used as a simple and fast method to identify targeting ligands via molecular mimicry. Furthermore, our results show that the dextran-coated nanoparticles represent a low-cost approach for CTB detection.
A Therapeutic Chemical Chaperone Inhibits Cholera Intoxication and Unfolding/translocation of the Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21526142
Cholera toxin (CT) travels as an intact AB(5) protein toxin from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of an intoxicated cell. In the ER, the catalytic A1 subunit dissociates from the rest of the toxin. Translocation of CTA1 from the ER to the cytosol is then facilitated by the quality control mechanism of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Thermal instability in the isolated CTA1 subunit generates an unfolded toxin conformation that acts as the trigger for ERAD-mediated translocation to the cytosol. In this work, we show by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy that exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) inhibited the thermal unfolding of CTA1. This, in turn, blocked the ER-to-cytosol export of CTA1 and productive intoxication of either cultured cells or rat ileal loops. In cell culture studies PBA did not affect CT trafficking to the ER, CTA1 dissociation from the holotoxin, or functioning of the ERAD system. PBA is currently used as a therapeutic agent to treat urea cycle disorders. Our data suggest PBA could also be used in a new application to prevent or possibly treat cholera.
Protein-disulfide Isomerase Displaces the Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit from the Holotoxin Without Unfolding the A1 Subunit
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21543321
Protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to exhibit an "unfoldase" activity against the catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CT). Unfolding of the CTA1 subunit is thought to displace it from the CT holotoxin and to prepare it for translocation to the cytosol. To date, the unfoldase activity of PDI has not been demonstrated for any substrate other than CTA1. An alternative explanation for the putative unfoldase activity of PDI has been suggested by recent structural studies demonstrating that CTA1 will unfold spontaneously upon its separation from the holotoxin at physiological temperature. Thus, PDI may simply dislodge CTA1 from the CT holotoxin without unfolding the CTA1 subunit. To evaluate the role of PDI in CT disassembly and CTA1 unfolding, we utilized a real-time assay to monitor the PDI-mediated separation of CTA1 from the CT holotoxin and directly examined the impact of PDI binding on CTA1 structure by isotope-edited Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our collective data demonstrate that PDI is required for disassembly of the CT holotoxin but does not unfold the CTA1 subunit, thus uncovering a new mechanism for CTA1 dissociation from its holotoxin.
Colonization with Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Containing VanA Resistance Gene in a Tertiary Care Centre, North India
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22337975
Nasal carriage survey for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care unit detected four strains of MRSA with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. vanA gene was found in two of these vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains. Absence of selective vancomycin pressure might have resulted in reduced expression of the resistant gene.