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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (19)
- Plant Physiology
- Trends in Plant Science
- FEBS Letters
- Plant Physiology
- Plant Physiology
- The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology
- Trends in Plant Science
- FEBS Letters
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- Plant Signaling & Behavior
- The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology
- Current Opinion in Plant Biology
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- The Plant Cell
- Molecular Plant Pathology
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- EMBO Reports
- Trends in Plant Science
Articles by Uwe Conrath in JoVE
Detection of Histone Modifications in Plant Leaves
Michal Jaskiewicz1,2, Christoph Peterhansel3, Uwe Conrath2
1Department of Botany, RWTH Aachen University, 2Department of Plant Physiology, RWTH Aachen University, 3Department of Botany, Leibniz University
A reliable and useful approach to detect histone modifications on specific plant genes is described. The approach combines chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and real-time quantitative PCR. It allows detection of histone modifications on specific genes with a role in diverse physiological processes.
Other articles by Uwe Conrath on PubMed
Benzothiadiazole-induced Priming for Potentiated Responses to Pathogen Infection, Wounding, and Infiltration of Water into Leaves Requires the NPR1/NIM1 Gene in Arabidopsis
Plant Physiology. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11891259
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant defense state that is induced, for example, after previous pathogen infection or by chemicals that mimic natural signaling compounds. SAR is associated with the ability to induce cellular defense responses more rapidly and to a greater degree than in noninduced plants, a process called "priming." Arabidopsis plants were treated with the synthetic SAR inducer benzothiadiazole (BTH) before stimulating two prominent cellular defense responses, namely Phe AMMONIA-LYASE (PAL) gene activation and callose deposition. Although BTH itself was essentially inactive at the immediate induction of these two responses, the pretreatment with BTH greatly augmented the subsequent PAL gene expression induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection, wounding, or infiltrating the leaves with water. The BTH pretreatment also enhanced the production of callose, which was induced by wounding or infiltrating the leaves with water. It is interesting that the potentiation by BTH pretreatment of PAL gene activation and callose deposition was not seen in the Arabidopsis nonexpresser of PR genes 1/noninducible immunity 1 mutant, which is compromised in SAR. In a converse manner, augmented PAL gene activation and enhanced callose biosynthesis were found, without BTH pretreatment, in the Arabidopsis constitutive expresser of pathogenesis-related genes (cpr)1 and constitutive expresser of pathogenesis-related genes 5 mutants, in which SAR is constitutive. Moreover, priming for potentiated defense gene activation was also found in pathogen-induced SAR. In sum, the results suggest that priming is an important cellular mechanism in acquired disease resistance of plants that requires the nonexpresser of PR genes 1/noninducible immunity 1 gene.
Trends in Plant Science. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11992826
Plants can acquire enhanced resistance to pathogens after treatment with necrotizing attackers, nonpathogenic root-colonizing pseudomonads, salicylic acid, beta-aminobutyric acid and many other natural or synthetic compounds. The induced resistance is often associated with an enhanced capacity to mobilize infection-induced cellular defence responses - a process called 'priming'. Although the phenomenon has been known for years, most progress in our understanding of priming has been made only recently. These studies show that priming often depends on the induced disease resistance key regulator NPR1 (also known as NIM1 or SAI1) and that priming has a major effect on the regulation of cellular plant defence responses.
Pretreatment with Salicylic Acid Primes Parsley Cells for Enhanced Ion Transport Following Elicitation
FEBS Letters. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12044869
Pretreatment with salicylic acid (SA), an inducer of plant disease resistance, enhanced the capacity of parsley cells for the induction of a rapid K(+)/pH response and the subsequent coumarin (phytoalexin) secretion. In SA-primed cells, a low elicitor dose induced these two responses to a similar extent as did a high elicitor dose in non-primed cells. These observations suggest that the SA-mediated augmentation of the early K(+)/pH response may contribute to the enhancement of subsequent coumarin secretion. As the amphotericin B-induced K(+)/pH response was not enhanced in SA-primed cells, it is concluded that signaling components that are improved by priming are located between elicitor signal perception and the plasma membrane transporters mediating the K(+)/pH response.
Inhibition of the Plastidic ATP/ADP Transporter Protein Primes Potato Tubers for Augmented Elicitation of Defense Responses and Enhances Their Resistance Against Erwinia Carotovora
Plant Physiology. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12177473
Tubers of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants with decreased activity of the plastidic ATP/ADP transporter AATP1 display reduced levels of starch, modified tuber morphology, and altered concentrations of primary metabolites. Here, we demonstrate that the spontaneous production of hydrogen peroxide, the endogenous content of salicylic acid, and the levels of mRNAs of various defense-related genes are similar in tuber discs of wild-type and AATP1(St) antisense plants. However, upon challenging the tissue with fungal elicitors or culture supernatants of the soft rot-causing pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, the AATP1(St) antisense tubers exhibit highly potentiated activation of defense responses when compared with wild-type tissue. The augmented defense responses comprise enhanced accumulation of transcripts of five defense-related genes (beta-1,3-GLUCANASE B2 and A1, CHITINASE B3 and A2, and Phe AMMONIA-LYASE) and enhanced elicitation (up to 21-fold) of the early hydrogen peroxide burst. The potentiated activation of cellular defense responses in AATP1(St) antisense tubers is not accompanied by a precedent increase in endogenous salicylic acid levels, but is associated with a strongly enhanced resistance of the tissue to E. carotovora. From these results, we conclude that inhibition of primary metabolic reactions induces a primed state that sensitizes the potato tubers for improved elicitation of various cellular defense responses, which likely contribute to enhanced E. carotovora resistance.
A Strobilurin Fungicide Enhances the Resistance of Tobacco Against Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Pseudomonas Syringae Pv Tabaci
Plant Physiology. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12226492
The strobilurin class of fungicides comprises a variety of synthetic plant-protecting compounds with broad-spectrum antifungal activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that a strobilurin fungicide, F 500 (Pyraclostrobin), enhances the resistance of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi nc) against infection by either tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) or the wildfire pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci. F 500 was also active at enhancing TMV resistance in NahG transgenic tobacco plants unable to accumulate significant amounts of the endogenous inducer of enhanced disease resistance, salicylic acid (SA). This finding suggests that F 500 enhances TMV resistance in tobacco either by acting downstream of SA in the SA signaling mechanism or by functioning independently of SA. The latter assumption is the more likely because in infiltrated leaves, F 500 did not cause the accumulation of SA-inducible pathogenesis-related (PR)-1 proteins that often are used as conventional molecular markers for SA-induced disease resistance. However, accumulation of PR-1 proteins and the associated activation of the PR-1 genes were elicited upon TMV infection of tobacco leaves and both these responses were induced more rapidly in F 500-pretreated plants than in the water-pretreated controls. Taken together, our results suggest that F 500, in addition to exerting direct antifungal activity, may also protect plants by priming them for potentiated activation of subsequently pathogen-induced cellular defense responses.
Enhanced Resistance to Phytophthora Infestans and Alternaria Solani in Leaves and Tubers, Respectively, of Potato Plants with Decreased Activity of the Plastidic ATP/ADP Transporter
Planta. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12721851
Recently, it has been reported that tubers of transgenic potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) plants with decreased activity of the plastidic ATP/ADP transporter (AATP1) contain less starch, despite having an increased glucose level [P. Geigenberger et al. (2001) Plant Physiol 125:1667-1678]. The metabolic alterations correlated with enhanced resistance to the bacterium Erwinia carotovora. Here it is shown that transgenic potato tubers, possessing less starch yet increased glucose levels due to the expression of a cytoplasm-localized yeast invertase, exhibit drastic susceptibility to E. carotovora. In addition, it is demonstrated that AATP1 anti-sense tubers show an increased capacity to ward off the pathogenic fungus Alternaria solani. In contrast to AATP1 anti-sense tubers, the corresponding leaf tissue does not show changes in carbohydrate accumulation. However, upon elicitor treatment, AATP1 anti-sense leaves possess an increased capacity to release H(2)O(2) and activate various defence-related genes, reactions that are associated with substantially delayed appearance of disease symptoms caused by Phytophthora infestans. Grafting experiments between AATP1 anti-sense plants and wild-type plants indicate the presence of a signal that is generated in AATP1 rootstocks and primes wild-type scions for potentiated activation of cellular defence responses in leaves. Together, the results suggest that (i) the enhanced pathogen tolerance of AATP1 anti-sense tubers is not due to "high sugar resistance", (ii) the increased disease resistance of AATP1 anti-sense tubers is effective against different types of pathogen and (iii) a systemic signal induced by antisensing the plastidic ATP/ADP transporter in potato tubers confers increased resistance to pathogens.
Non-invasive Online Detection of Nitric Oxide from Plants and Some Other Organisms by Mass Spectrometry
The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15165192
As nitric oxide (NO) is a key messenger in many organisms, reliable techniques for the detection of NO are essential. Here, it is shown that a combination of membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) and restriction capillary inlet mass spectrometry (RIMS) allows for the fast, specific, and non-invasive online detection of NO that has been emitted from tissue cultures of diverse organisms, or from whole plants. As an advantage over other NO assays, MIMS/RIMS discriminates nitrogen isotopes and simultaneously measures NO and O(2) (and other gases) from the same sample. MIMS/RIMS technology may thus help to identify the source of gaseous NO in cells, and elucidate the relationship between primary gas metabolism and NO formation. Using RIMS, it is demonstrated that the novel fungicide F 500((R)) triggers NO production in plants.
Trends in Plant Science. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16782395
DNA microarrays are valuable tools for analyzing global gene expression. Because of the increasing popularity and the large volume of data produced, tools for facile microarray data analysis are essential. FiRe, a recently introduced computer program, has now solved the seemingly insuperable discrepancy between simplicity and evaluation of DNA microarray data. The program is available as a macro for the popular Microsoft Office Excel software and is user-friendly, interactive, versatile and platform-independent, paving the way for a further push in the evaluation of DNA microarrays.
Exopolysaccharides of Pantoea Agglomerans Have Different Priming and Eliciting Activities in Suspension-cultured Cells of Monocots and Dicots
FEBS Letters. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16860795
Induced disease resistance of plants is often associated with an enhanced capacity to activate cellular defense responses to pathogen attack, named the "primed" state of the plant. Exopolysaccharides of Pantoea agglomerans have recently been reported as the first priming active component of bacterial origin in wheat cells. We now show that Pantoea exopolysaccharides also prime rice cells for better elicitation of a rapid oxidative burst. In contrast, in tobacco and parsley cell cultures Pantoea exopolysaccharides activate the oxidative burst response directly. Our results point to a different recognition and/or mode of action of Pantoea exopolysaccharides in monocot and dicot plants.
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17022170
Infection of plants by necrotizing pathogens or colonization of plant roots with certain beneficial microbes causes the induction of a unique physiological state called "priming." The primed state can also be induced by treatment of plants with various natural and synthetic compounds. Primed plants display either faster, stronger, or both activation of the various cellular defense responses that are induced following attack by either pathogens or insects or in response to abiotic stress. Although the phenomenon has been known for decades, most progress in our understanding of priming has been made over the past few years. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of priming in various induced-resistance phenomena in plants.
Plant Signaling & Behavior. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 19521483
Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of "plant memory". Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR.
The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17355434
When grown in short day conditions and at low light, leaves of Arabidopsis plants with mutations in the genes encoding two plastidial ATP/ADP transporters (so-called null mutants) spontaneously develop necrotic lesions. Under these conditions, the mutants also display light-induced accumulation of H(2)O(2) and constitutive expression of genes for copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 2 and ascorbate peroxidase 1. In the light phase, null mutants accumulate high levels of phototoxic protoporphyrin IX but have only slightly reduced levels of Mg protoporphyrin IX. The physiological changes are associated with reduced magnesium-chelatase activity. Since the expression of genes encoding any of the three subunits of magnesium-chelatase is similar in wild type and null mutants, decreased enzyme activity is probably due to post-translational modification which might be due to limited availability of ATP in plastids during the night. Surprisingly, the formation of necrotic lesions was absent when null mutants were grown either in long days and low light intensity or in short days and high light intensity. We ascribe the lack of lesion phenotype to increased nocturnal ATP supply due to glycolytic degradation of starch which may lead to additional substrate-level phosphorylation in the stroma. Thus, nocturnal import of ATP into chloroplasts represents a crucial, previously unknown process that is required for controlled chlorophyll biosynthesis and for preventing photooxidative damage.
Current Opinion in Plant Biology. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17644024
Upon treatment with necrotizing pathogens, many plants develop an enhanced capacity for activating defense responses to biotic and abiotic stress--a process called priming. The primed state can also be induced by colonization of plant roots with beneficial micro-organisms or by treatment of plants with various natural and synthetic compounds. Priming is thought to be the mechanism by which plants can show induced resistance against ostensibly virulent pathogens after a conditioning treatment. Although the phenomenon has been known for years, it has been appreciated just recently that priming for enhanced defense responses can result from plant-plant communication in nature and that priming can also boost the resistance of crops to biotic and abiotic stresses in the field.
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18842092
Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a devastating disease of soybean. We report the use of the nonhost plant Arabidopsis thaliana to identify the genetic basis of resistance to P. pachyrhizi. Upon attack by P. pachyrhizi, epidermal cells of wild-type Arabidopsis accumulated H2O2, which likely orchestrates the frequently observed epidermal cell death. However, even when epidermal cell death occurred, fungal hyphae grew on and infection was terminated at the mesophyll boundary. These events were associated with expression of PDF1.2, suggesting that P. pachyrhizi, an ostensible biotroph, mimics aspects of a necrotroph. Extensive colonization of the mesophyll occurred in Arabidopsis pen mutants with defective penetration resistance. Although haustoria were found occasionally in mesophyll cells, the successful establishment of biotrophy failed, as evidenced by the cessation of fungal growth. Double mutants affected in either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid signaling in the pen3-1 background revealed the involvement of both pathways in nonhost resistance (NHR) of Arabidopsis to P. pachyrhizi. Interestingly, expression of AtNHL10, a gene that is expressed in tissue undergoing the hypersensitive response, was only triggered in infected pen3-1 mutants. Thus, a suppression of P. pachyrhizi-derived effectors by PEN3 can be inferred. Our results demonstrate that Arabidopsis can be used to study mechanisms of NHR to ASR.
Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 Are Required for Full Priming of Stress Responses in Arabidopsis Thaliana
The Plant Cell. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19318610
In plants and animals, induced resistance (IR) to biotic and abiotic stress is associated with priming of cells for faster and stronger activation of defense responses. It has been hypothesized that cell priming involves accumulation of latent signaling components that are not used until challenge exposure to stress. However, the identity of such signaling components has remained elusive. Here, we show that during development of chemically induced resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana, priming is associated with accumulation of mRNA and inactive proteins of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs), MPK3 and MPK6. Upon challenge exposure to biotic or abiotic stress, these two enzymes were more strongly activated in primed plants than in nonprimed plants. This elevated activation was linked to enhanced defense gene expression and development of IR. Strong elicitation of stress-induced MPK3 and MPK6 activity is also seen in the constitutive priming mutant edr1, while activity was attenuated in the priming-deficient npr1 mutant. Moreover, priming of defense gene expression and IR were lost or reduced in mpk3 or mpk6 mutants. Our findings argue that prestress deposition of the signaling components MPK3 and MPK6 is a critical step in priming plants for full induction of defense responses during IR.
Molecular Plant Pathology. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20447267
The plant pathogenic basidiomycete fungi Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Phakopsora meibomiae cause rust disease in soybean plants. Phakopsora pachyrhizi originated in Asia-Australia, whereas the less aggressive P. meibomiae originated in Latin America. In the New World, P. pachyrhizi was first reported in the 1990s to have spread to Hawaii and, since 2001, it has been found in South America. In 2004, the pathogen entered continental USA. This review provides detailed information on the taxonomy and molecular biology of the pathogen, and summarizes strategies to combat the threat of this devastating disease. TAXONOMY: Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd; uredial anamorph: Malupa sojae (syn. Uredo sojae); Domain Eukaryota; Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Basidiomycota; Order Uredinales; Class Urediniomycetes; Family Phakopsoraceae; Genus Phakopsora (http://www.indexfungorum.org). The nomenclature of rust spores and spore-producing structures used within this review follows Agrios GN (2005) Plant Pathology, 5th edn. London: Elsevier/Academic Press. HOST RANGE: In the field, P. pachyrhizi infects leaf tissue from a broad range (at least 31 species in 17 genera) of leguminous plants. Infection of an additional 60 species in other genera has been achieved under laboratory conditions. DISEASE SYMPTOMS: At the beginning of the disease, small, tan-coloured lesions, restricted by leaf veins, can be observed on infected soybean leaves. Lesions enlarge and, 5-8 days after initial infection, rust pustules (uredia, syn. uredinia) become visible. Uredia develop more frequently in lesions on the lower surface of the leaf than on the upper surface. The uredia open with a round ostiole through which uredospores are released.
Limitation of Nocturnal ATP Import into Chloroplasts Seems to Affect Hormonal Crosstalk, Prime Defense, and Enhance Disease Resistance in Arabidopsis Thaliana
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21039274
When grown under short-day conditions at low light, leaves of an Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Col-0) mutant with defects in the two genes encoding plastid ATP/ADP antiporters (so-called ntt1-2 null mutants) display a variety of physiological changes. These include the formation of necrotic lesions and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the leaves. Here, we show that, under short-day conditions, leaves of the ntt1-2 mutant display enhanced resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, Botrytis cinerea, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Resistance to these pathogens was associated with constitutively elevated levels of the plant hormone salicylic acid and, eventually, jasmonic acid, and constitutive or primed activation after pathogen attack of various defense genes that are dependent on these hormones. In addition, the antagonistic crosstalk between the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathways seems to be affected in ntt1-2. Because the enhanced resistance of ntt1-2 to H. arabidopsidis was not seen when the mutant was grown under long-day conditions, our findings argue that nocturnal ATP import into chloroplasts is crucial to keep A. thaliana from runaway activation of pathogen resistance.
Chromatin Modification Acts As a Memory for Systemic Acquired Resistance in the Plant Stress Response
EMBO Reports. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21132017
Priming of defence genes for amplified response to secondary stress can be induced by application of the plant hormone salicylic acid or its synthetic analogue acibenzolar S-methyl. In this study, we show that treatment with acibenzolar S-methyl or pathogen infection of distal leaves induce chromatin modifications on defence gene promoters that are normally found on active genes, although the genes remain inactive. This is associated with an amplified gene response on challenge exposure to stress. Mutant analyses reveal a tight correlation between histone modification patterns and gene priming. The data suggest a histone memory for information storage in the plant stress response.
Trends in Plant Science. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21782492
Plants can be primed for more rapid and robust activation of defence to biotic or abiotic stress. Priming follows perception of molecular patterns of microbes or plants, recognition of pathogen-derived effectors or colonisation by beneficial microbes. However the process can also be induced by treatment with some natural or synthetic compounds and wounding. The primed mobilization of defence is often associated with development of immunity and stress tolerance. Although the phenomenon has been known for decades, the molecular basis of priming is poorly understood. Here, I summarize recent progress made in unravelling molecular aspects of defence priming that is the accumulation of dormant mitogen-activated protein kinases, chromatin modifications and alterations of primary metabolism.