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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (15)
- Biology of Reproduction
- Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- Journal of Andrology
- The Journal of Nutrition
- Journal of Andrology
- Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
- Journal of Wildlife Diseases
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Trends in Biotechnology
- Developmental Biology
- Nature Methods
- Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library
Articles by Vimal Selvaraj in JoVE
Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Oligodendrocyte Precursors
Peng Jiang, Vimal Selvaraj, Wenbin Deng
Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis
We describe a small molecule-based protocol for differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). This protocol generates Olig2+NG2+ OPCs with high efficiency by 30 days of differentiation. We also describe a method to generate "spiking" OPCs that can fire action potentials.
Other articles by Vimal Selvaraj on PubMed
Estrogenicity of the Isoflavone Metabolite Equol on Reproductive and Non-reproductive Organs in Mice
Biology of Reproduction. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15151933
Equol, a metabolite of the phytoestrogen daidzein, is present at significant levels in some humans who consume soy and in rodents fed soy-based diets. Equol is estrogenic in vitro, but there have been limited studies of its activity in vivo. We evaluated equol effects on reproductive and non-reproductive endpoints in mice. Ovariectomized age-matched (30-day-old) female C57BL/6 mice were fed phytoestrogen-free diets and given a racemic mixture of equol by daily injections (0, 4, 8, 12, or 20 mg [kg body weight](-1) day(-1)) or in the diet (0, 500, or 1,000 ppm) for 12 days. Mice were killed, and serum concentrations of total and aglycone equol were measured. Total serum equol concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 7.5 microM with increasing doses of injected equol, but uterine weight increased significantly only at 12 and 20 mg (kg body weight)(-1) day(-1). Dietary equol at 500 or 1,000 ppm produced total serum equol concentrations of 5.9 and 8.1 microM, respectively, comparable with those in rodents consuming certain high-soy chows; the proportion of equol present as the free aglycone was much lower with dietary administration than injections, which may be a factor in the greater biological effects induced by injections. Dietary equol did not significantly increase uterine weight. Increasing dietary and injected equol doses caused a dose-dependent increase in vaginal epithelial thickness. Uterine epithelial proliferation was increased by equol injections at 8-20 mg (kg body weight)(-1) day(-1) and 1,000 ppm dietary equol. Neither dietary nor injected equol decreased thymic or adipose weights. In conclusion, equol is a weak estrogen with modest effects on endpoints regulated by estrogen receptor alpha when present at serum levels seen in rodents fed soy-based diets, but quantities present in humans may not be sufficient to induce estrogenic effects, although additive effects of equol with other phytoestrogens may occur.
Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15947025
Estrogen regulates thymic development and involution and modulates immune function. Despite its critical role in thymus, as well as in autoimmune disorders, the mechanism by which estrogen affects the thymus is not well understood. We previously reported that the estrogenic soy isoflavone genistein, as well as 17beta-estradiol (E2), could induce thymic involution, but genistein effects were only partially mediated through estrogen receptors. To provide insights into mechanisms of estrogenic effects in the thymus, we investigated thymic gene expression changes induced by E2 (125 ng/day) and genistein (1500 ppm in feed) in weanling mice using high-density DNA arrays. We identified several E2-responsive genes involved in thymic development and thymocyte signaling during selection and maturation. Functional characterization indicated effects on genes involved in transcription, apoptosis, and the cell cycle. This study also identified changes in several E2-regulated transcripts essential to maintain immune self-tolerance. E2 upregulated more genes than genistein, while genistein downregulated more genes than E2. Though each treatment regulated several genes not altered by the other, there was considerable overlap in the genes regulated by E2 and genistein. Changes in transcription factors and cell cycle factors were consistent with decreases in cell proliferation induced by both genistein and E2. As indicated by the regulation of non-E2-responsive genes, genistein also induced unique effects through non-estrogenic mechanisms. The specific downregulation of the CD4 coreceptor transcript by genistein was consistent with the decline of CD4+ thymocytes in genistein-treated mice in our previous study. This is the first study identifying E2 and genistein target genes in the thymus. These findings provide new mechanistic insights toward explaining estrogen action on thymocyte development, selection, and maturation, as well as the effects of genistein on prenatal and neonatal thymic development and function.
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16222699
Lipid rafts, membrane sub-domains enriched in sterols and sphingolipids, are controversial because demonstrations of rafts have often utilized fixed cells. We showed in living sperm that the ganglioside G(M1) localized to a micron-scale membrane sub-domain in the plasma membrane overlying the acrosome. We investigated four models proposed for membrane sub-domain maintenance. G(M1) segregation was maintained in live sperm incubated under non-capacitating conditions, and after sterol efflux, a membrane alteration necessary for capacitation. The complete lack of G(M1) diffusion to the post-acrosomal plasma membrane (PAPM) in live cells argued against the transient confinement zone model. However, within seconds after cessation of sperm motility, G(M1) dramatically redistributed several microns from the acrosomal sub-domain to the post-acrosomal, non-raft sub-domain. This redistribution was not accompanied by movement of sterols, and was induced by the pentameric cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). These data argued against a lipid-lipid interaction model for sub-domain maintenance. Although impossible to rule out a lipid shell model definitively, mice lacking caveolin-1 maintained segregation of both sterols and G(M1), arguing against a role for lipid shells surrounding caveolin-1 in sub-domain maintenance. Scanning electron microscopy of sperm freeze-dried without fixation identified cytoskeletal structures at the sub-domain boundary. Although drugs used to disrupt actin and intermediate filaments had no effect on the segregation of G(M1), we found that disulfide-bonded proteins played a significant role in sub-domain segregation. Together, these data provide an example of membrane sub-domains extreme in terms of size and stability of lipid segregation, and implicate a protein-based membrane compartmentation mechanism.
Recipient Preparation and Mixed Germ Cell Isolation for Spermatogonial Stem Cell Transplantation in Domestic Cats
Journal of Andrology. Mar-Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16304210
The loss of genetic diversity poses a serious threat to the conservation of endangered species, including wild felids. We are attempting to develop spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the cat as a tool to preserve and propagate male germ-plasm from genetically valuable animals, be they threatened wild species or lines of cats used as models for inherited diseases. In this study, we investigated the use of local external beam radiation treatment to deplete the endogenous germ cells of male domestic cats, a step necessary to prepare them for use as recipients for transplantation. Testes of 5-month-old domestic cats were irradiated with a fractionated dose of 3 Gy per fraction for 3 consecutive days. These cats were castrated at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks posttreatment, and progress of spermatogenesis was evaluated histologically and compared against age-matched controls. Even at the latest time points, less than 10% of tubules contained germ cells at any stage of meiosis, showing the efficacy of this protocol. In addition, male germ cells were isolated from the testes of domestic cats using a 2-step enzymatic dissociation to establish a protocol for the preparation of donor cells. The presence and viability of spermatogonia within this population were demonstrated by successful transplantation into, and colonization of, mouse seminiferous tubules. The success of these protocols provides a foundation to perform spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the domestic cat.
The Journal of Nutrition. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16484547
Estrogen regulates thymic development and immune function. Despite the critical role of estrogens in inducing thymic involution and modulating immune responses, the mechanism of this effect is unclear. Similarly, humans and animals are exposed to increasing amounts of the estrogenic soy isoflavone genistein in the diet, but whether genistein can induce immune changes has not been definitively established. We reported previously that genistein induces thymic atrophy in mice, and decreases both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. These thymic effects of genistein occur via estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated and non-ER-mediated pathways. Genistein injections produced the most pronounced effects, but dietary administration to mice that produced serum genistein concentrations similar to those reported in human infants consuming soy formula also had demonstrable effects. Microarray analysis of the effects of estradiol and genistein on neonatal thymus indicated that estradiol affected genes involved in transcription, apoptosis, cell cycle, and thymic development and function; genistein had similar effects on many estradiol target genes, but also had unique actions not replicated by estradiol. Despite extensive work showing inhibitory effects of genistein on immunity, other rodent studies reported that genistein or other phytoestrogens stimulate various aspects of immune function. Although the present data strongly indicate that genistein can regulate immune function, possibly at physiologic concentrations, further work is required to definitively establish overall thymic and immune effects of genistein and soy, which may vary with age, species, and specific end point.
GM1 Dynamics As a Marker for Membrane Changes Associated with the Process of Capacitation in Murine and Bovine Spermatozoa
Journal of Andrology. Jul-Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17377143
We previously showed that in live murine and bovine sperm heads, the ganglioside G(M1) localizes to the sterol-rich plasma membrane overlying the acrosome (APM). Labeling G(M1) using the pentameric cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) induced a dramatic redistribution of signal from the APM to the sterol-poor postacrosomal plasma membrane (PAPM) upon sperm death. We now show a similar phenomenon in the flagellum where CTB induces G(M1) redistribution to sterol-poor membrane subdomains of the annulus and flagellar zipper. Because sterol efflux from the plasma membrane is required for capacitation, we examined whether G(M1) localization might be useful to detect membrane changes associated with capacitation and/or acrosomal exocytosis. First, incubation of murine and bovine sperm with their respective stimuli for capacitation did not change G(M1) distribution in live cells. However, incubation of sperm of both species with specific stimuli for capacitation, followed by the use of specific fixation conditions, induced reproducible, stimulus-specific patterns of G(M1) distribution. By assessing changes in G(M1) distribution in response to progesterone-induced AE, we show that these patterns reflect the response of murine sperm populations to capacitating stimuli. These data suggest that G(M1) localization can be used as a diagnostic tool for evaluating sperm response to stimuli for capacitation and/or AE. Such information could be useful when deciding between technologies of assisted reproduction or when screening for male fertility. Furthermore, stimulus-specific changes in G(M1) distribution showed that sperm could respond to NaHCO(3) or mediators of sterol efflux independently, thereby refining existing models of capacitation.
Reproduction, Fertility, and Development. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17897590
Ectopic xenografting of 'donor' feline testicular tissue into a 'recipient' immunodeficient mouse is a promising tool to preserve the male genome from genetically valuable felids. To define parameters under which the technique can succeed, we compared the effect of donor age on xenograft spermatogenesis among four age groups of domestic cats (Felis catus; age range 8 weeks to 15 months). In all cases, fresh tissue was grafted into castrated mice and collected 10, 30 and 50 weeks later. The percentage of xenografts recovered decreased as donor age increased. Mature testicular spermatozoa were observed in xenografts from the 8 and 9-16 week age groups; only a single 7-month-old donor produced elongating spermatids and xenografts from donors >/= 8 months of age degenerated. Seminal vesicle weight, an indicator of bioactive testosterone, was not significantly different between donors aged 8 weeks to 7 months and controls, suggesting that xenograft Leydig cells were ultimately functional even in the 5-7 month age group. Regardless of donor age, production of mature spermatozoa from xenografts was markedly delayed compared with controls. Comparison of xenografts that produced sperm with normal controls revealed a decrease in tubule cross-sections having post-meiotic germ cells. Together, these results indicate that the maximum practical donor age was just before the onset of puberty and that even successful xenografts had abnormalities in spermatogenesis.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18436689
Standard hematology parameters were determined for 122 sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) at the Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India (27 degrees 0'N; 77 degrees 45'E), and the Bannerghatta Biological Park, Karnataka, India (12 degrees 48'N; 77 degrees 34'E) from March 2003 to July 2006. These two native sloth bear habitats have different climatic conditions and provided an opportunity to examine the effect of climate on the physiologic hematology values of these bears. We primarily analyzed the influence of age, sex, season, and body weight on the different hematology parameters. Several values were significantly different in sloth bear cubs (= 1 yr) when compared to adult and sub-adult bears (>1 yr). The cubs had a lower erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCV) values when compared to adult and subadult bears. The cubs also had higher leukocyte counts, due to higher circulating neutrophils, as compared to adult and subadult bears. Within subadult and adult bears, we also identified a sexual dimorphic difference in leukocyte count in adult and subadult bears, wherein female bears had higher counts than males. This difference was the result of a significantly higher number of circulating neutrophils in female bears. Platelet counts were also higher in females as compared to males. On comparing different seasons, leukocyte counts were higher in winter as compared to the summer and monsoon seasons. When compared based on location, erythrocyte counts were higher in subadult and adult bears at Bannerghatta, which was at a higher altitude than Sur Sarovar. Within subadult and adult bears, we did not find any significant influence of age or body weight on the different hematologic parameters. In this study we have obtained mean hematologic values for sloth bears in their native habitat to serve as a reference for this species. This report will be useful to develop and evaluate health profiles of sloth bears under various ecological conditions.
Biochemical Characterization of Membrane Fractions in Murine Sperm: Identification of Three Distinct Sub-types of Membrane Rafts
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19006178
Despite enormous interest in membrane raft micro-domains, no studies in any cell type have defined the relative compositions of the raft fractions on the basis of their major components--sterols, phospholipids, and proteins--or additional raft-associating lipids such as the ganglioside, G(M1). Our previous localization data in live sperm showed that the plasma membrane overlying the acrosome represents a stabilized platform enriched in G(M1) and sterols. These findings, along with the physiological requirement for sterol efflux for sperm to function, prompted us to characterize sperm membrane fractions biochemically. After confirming limitations of commonly used detergent-based approaches, we utilized a non-detergent-based method, separating membrane fractions that were reproducibly distinct based on sterol, G(M1), phospholipid, and protein compositions (both mass amounts and molar ratios). Based on fraction buoyancy and biochemical composition, we identified at least three highly reproducible sub-types of membrane raft. Electron microscopy revealed that raft fractions were free of visible contaminants and were separated by buoyancy rather than morphology. Quantitative proteomic comparisons and fluorescence localization of lipids suggested that different organelles contributed differentially to individual raft sub-types, but that multiple membrane micro-domain sub-types could exist within individual domains. This has important implications for scaffolding functions broadly associated with rafts. Most importantly, we show that the common practice of characterizing membrane domains as either "raft" or "non-raft" oversimplifies the actual biochemical complexity of cellular membranes.
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19012288
We demonstrate for the first time that a stable, micron-scale segregation of focal enrichments of sterols exists at physiological temperature in the plasma membrane of live murine and human sperm. These enrichments of sterols represent microheterogeneities within this membrane domain overlying the acrosome. Previously, we showed that cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), which binds the glycosphingolipid, G(M1), localizes to this same domain in live sperm. Interestingly, the G(M1) undergoes an unexplained redistribution upon cell death. We now demonstrate that G(M1) is also enriched in the acrosome, an exocytotic vesicle. Transfer of lipids between this and the plasma membrane occurs at cell death, increasing G(M1) in the plasma membrane without apparent release of acrosomal contents. This finding provides corroborative support for an emerging model of regulated exocytosis in which membrane communications might occur without triggering the "acrosome reaction." Comparison of the dynamics of CTB-bound endogenous G(M1) and exogenous BODIPY-G(M1) in live murine sperm demonstrate that the sub-acrosomal ring (SAR) functions as a specialized diffusion barrier segregating specific lipids within the sperm head plasma membrane. Our data show significant differences between endogenous lipids and exogenous lipid probes in terms of lateral diffusion. Based on these studies, we propose a hierarchical model to explain the segregation of this sterol- and G(M1)-enriched domain in live sperm, which is positioned to regulate sperm fertilization competence and mediate interactions with the oocyte. Moreover, our data suggest potential origins of subtypes of membrane raft microdomains enriched in sterols and/or G(M1) that can be separated biochemically.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19628872
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, the role of PARP-1 in autoimmune CNS injury remains poorly understood. Therefore, we studied experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis in mice with a targeted deletion of PARP-1. We identified inherent physiological abnormalities in the circulating and splenic immune composition between PARP-1(-/-) and wild type (WT) mice. Upon EAE induction, PARP-1(-/-) mice had an earlier onset and developed a more severe EAE compared with WT cohorts. Splenic response was significantly higher in PARP-1(-/-) mice largely because of B cell expansion. Although formation of Th1 and Th17 effector T lymphocytes was unaffected, PARP-1(-/-) mice had significantly earlier CD4+ T lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration into the CNS during EAE. However, we did not detect significant differences in cytokine profiles between PARP-1(-/-) and WT spinal cords at the peak of EAE. Expression analysis of different PARP isozymes in EAE spinal cords showed that PARP-1 was down-regulated in WT mice and that PARP-3 but not PARP-2 was dramatically up-regulated in both PARP-1(-/-) and WT mice, suggesting that these PARP isozymes could have distinct roles in different CNS pathologies. Together, our results indicate that PARP-1 plays an important role in regulating the physiological immune composition and in immune modulation during EAE; our finding identifies a new aspect of immune regulation by PARPs in autoimmune CNS pathology.
Switching Cell Fate: the Remarkable Rise of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Lineage Reprogramming Technologies
Trends in Biotechnology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20149468
Cell reprogramming, in which a differentiated cell is made to switch its fate, is an emerging field with revolutionary prospects in biotechnology and medicine. The recent discovery of induced pluripotency by means of in vitro reprogramming has made way for unprecedented approaches for regenerative medicine, understanding human disease and drug discovery. Moreover, recent studies on regeneration and repair by direct lineage reprogramming in vivo offer an attractive novel alternative to cell therapy. Although we continue to push the limits of current knowledge in the field of cell reprogramming, the mechanistic elements that underlie these processes remain largely elusive. This article reviews landmark developments in cell reprogramming, current knowledge, and technological developments now on the horizon with significant promise for biomedical applications.
Developmental Biology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20920498
The male germ cell-specific fatty acid-binding protein 9 (FABP9/PERF15) is the major component of the murine sperm perforatorium and perinuclear theca. Based on its cytoskeletal association and sequence homology to myelin P2 (FABP8), it has been suggested that FABP9 tethers sperm membranes to the underlying cytoskeleton. Furthermore, its upregulation in apoptotic testicular germ cells and its increased phosphorylation status during capacitation suggested multiple important functions for FABP9. Therefore, we investigated specific functions for FABP9 by means of targeted gene disruption in mice. FABP9(-/-) mice were viable and fertile. Phenotypic analysis showed that FABP9(-/-) mice had significant increases in sperm head abnormalities (~8% greater than their WT cohorts); in particular, we observed the reduction or absence of the characteristic structural element known as the "ventral spur" in ~10% of FABP9(-/-) sperm. However, deficiency of FABP9 affected neither membrane tethering to the perinuclear theca nor the fatty acid composition of sperm. Moreover, epididymal sperm numbers were not affected in FABP9(-/-) mice. Therefore, we conclude that FABP9 plays only a minor role in providing the murine sperm head its characteristic shape and is not absolutely required for spermatogenesis or sperm function.
Nature Methods. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21959133
Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22201733
Research on the biology of adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as cell-based strategies for treating nervous system disorders has begun to create the hope that these cells may be used for therapy in humans after injury or disease. In animal models of neurological diseases, transplantation of stem cells or their derivatives can improve function not only due to direct replacement of lost neurons or glia, but also by providing trophic support. Despite intense research efforts to translate these studies from the bench to bedside, critical problems remain at several steps in this process. Recent technological advancements in both the derivation of stem cells and their directed differentiation to lineage-committed progenitors have brought us closer to therapeutic applications. Several preclinical studies have already explored the behavior of transplanted cells with respect to proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival, especially in complex pathological disease environments. In this review, we examine the current status, progress, pitfalls, and potential of these stem cell technologies, focusing on directed differentiation of human stem cells into various neural lineages, including dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons, oligodendroglia, microglia, and astroglia, and on advancements in cell-based regenerative strategies for neural repair and criteria for successful therapeutic applications.