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In JoVE (2)
Other Publications (30)
- Brain Research
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Archives of Neurology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Cell Stem Cell
- Trends in Genetics : TIG
- American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
- Trends in Biotechnology
- EMBO Reports
- BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
- Annals of Neurology
- Nature Reviews. Neurology
- Panminerva Medica
- Archives of Neurology
- Neuron Glia Biology
- Neurobiology of Disease
- Stem Cell Reviews
- Nature Protocols
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Experimental Neurology
- Neurobiology of Disease
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library
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Articles by Wenbin Deng in JoVE
עכבר מודלים של לויקומלציה periventricular
Yan Shen, Jennifer M. Plane, Wenbin Deng
Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine School of, University of California, Davis
הקמנו מודלים של העכבר לויקומלציה periventricular (PVL), את הפגיעה במוח השולט על פגים מאופיין periventricular נגעים בחומר הלבן. היפוקסיה / איסכמיה עם / בלי זיהום מערכתי הם הגורמים העיקריים של PVL. קשירת הראש חד צדדית וחשיפה היפוקסיה עם / בלי זריקה lipopolysaccharide יוצר PVL כמו נגעים בעכברים P6.
התמיינות של תאים עובריים לתוך מבשרי Oligodendrocyte
Peng Jiang, Vimal Selvaraj, Wenbin Deng
Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis
אנו מתארים בסיס מולקולות קטנות פרוטוקול התמיינות תאים העכבר גזע עובריים לתאי מבשר oligodendrocyte (OPCs). פרוטוקול זה יוצר Olig2 NG2 + + OPCs עם יעילות גבוהה של 30 ימים של בידול. כמו כן, אנו מתארים שיטה להפקת "מתחזקים" בצורה OPCs שיכולים אש הפוטנציאלים לפעולה.
Other articles by Wenbin Deng on PubMed
Protein Kinase C Activation is Required for the Lead-induced Inhibition of Proliferation and Differentiation of Cultured Oligodendroglial Progenitor Cells
Brain Research. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11852034
Lead (Pb) is a common neurotoxicant of major public health concern. Previous studies revealed that cultured oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are highly vulnerable to Pb toxicity. The present study examines the effect of Pb on the survival, proliferation and differentiation of OPCs in vitro. Dose-response studies showed that> or = l5-10 microM Pb is cytotoxic to OPCs within 24 h. However, 1 microM of Pb was found to inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs without affecting cell viability. Pb markedly decreased the proliferative capability of OPCs and inhibited cell-intrinsic lineage progression of OPCs at a late progenitor stage. The Pb-induced decrease of proliferation and differentiation was abolished by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with bisindolylmaleimide I, while the effect of the PKC-activating agent phorbol-12,13-didecanoate was potentiated by Pb. Furthermore, Pb exposure of OPCs caused the translocation of PKC from the cytoplasm to membrane without an increase in total cellular PKC enzymic activity. These results indicate that Pb inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in vitro through a mechanism requiring PKC activation.
Neurotoxicology. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12606289
The developing nervous system has been long recognized as a primary target for a variety of toxicants. To date, most efforts to understand the impact of neurotoxic agents on the brain have focused primarily on neurons and to a lesser degree astroglia as cellular targets. The role of oligodendroglia, the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS), in developmental neurotoxicity has been emphasized only in recent years. Oligodendrocytes originate from migratory, mitotic progenitors that mature progressively into postmitotic myelinating cells. During differentiation, oligodendroglial lineage cells pass through a series of distinct phenotypic stages that are characterized by different proliferative capacities and migratory abilities, as well as dramatic changes in morphology with sequential expression of unique developmental markers. In recent years, it has become appreciated that oligodendrocyte lineage cells have important functions other than those related to myelin formation and maintenance, including participation in neuronal survival and development, as well as neurotransmission and synaptic function. Substantial knowledge has accumulated on the control of oligodendroglial survival, migration, proliferation, and differentiation, as well as the cellular and molecular events involved in oligodendroglial development and myelin formation. Recently, studies have been initiated to address the role of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in neurotoxic processes. This article examines recent progress in oligodendroglial biology, focuses attention on the characteristic features of the oligodendrocyte developmental lineage as a model system for neurotoxicological studies, and explores the role of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in developmental neurotoxicity. The potential role of oligodendroglia in environmental lead neurotoxicity is presented to exemplify this thesis.
Calcium-permeable AMPA/kainate Receptors Mediate Toxicity and Preconditioning by Oxygen-glucose Deprivation in Oligodendrocyte Precursors
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12743362
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in premature infants results in cerebral white matter lesions with prominent oligodendroglial injury and loss, a disorder termed periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We have previously shown that glutamate receptors mediate hypoxic-ischemic injury to oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) in a model of PVL in the developing rodent brain. We used primary OPC cultures to examine the mechanism of cellular toxicity induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to simulate brain ischemia. OPCs were more sensitive to OGD-induced toxicity than mature oligodendrocytes, and OPC toxicity was attenuated by nonselective [2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo[f]quinoxaline (NBQX), 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione], alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-preferring (GYKI 52466), kainate-preferring (gamma-d-glutamylaminomethanesulfonic acid), or Ca2+-permeable AMPA/kainate receptor antagonists (joro spider toxin, JSTx) administered either during or after OGD. Furthermore, NBQX or JSTx blocked OGD-induced Ca2+ influx. Relevant to recurrent hypoxic-ischemic insults in developing white matter, we examined the effects of sublethal OGD preconditioning. A prior exposure of OPCs to sublethal OGD resulted in enhanced vulnerability to subsequent excitotoxic or OGD-induced injury associated with an increased Ca2+ influx. AMPA/kainate receptor blockade with NBQX or JSTx either during or after sublethal OGD prevented its priming effect. Furthermore, OGD preconditioning resulted in a down-regulation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 on cell surface that increased Ca2+ permeability of the receptors. Overall, these data suggest that aberrantly enhanced activation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA/kainate receptors may be a major mechanism in acute and repeated hypoxic-ischemic injury to OPCs in disorders of developing cerebral white matter, such as PVL.
Glutamate Receptor-mediated Oligodendrocyte Toxicity in Periventricular Leukomalacia: a Protective Role for Topiramate
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15128855
Periventricular leukomalacia is a form of hypoxic-ischemic cerebral white matter injury seen most commonly in premature infants and is the major antecedent of cerebral palsy. Glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity is a predominant mechanism of hypoxic-ischemic injury to developing cerebral white matter. We have demonstrated previously the protective effect of AMPA-kainate-type glutamate receptor blockade in a rodent model of periventricular leukomalacia. The present study explores the therapeutic potential of glutamate receptor blockade for hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury. We demonstrate that AMPA receptors are expressed on developing human oligodendrocytes that populate fetal white matter at 23-32 weeks gestation, the period of highest risk for periventricular leukomalacia. We show that the clinically available anticonvulsant topiramate, when administered post-insult in vivo, is protective against selective hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury and decreases the subsequent neuromotor deficits. We further demonstrate that topiramate attenuates AMPA-kainate receptor-mediated cell death and calcium influx, as well as kainate-evoked currents in developing oligodendrocytes, similar to the AMPA-kainate receptor antagonist 6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo-(f)quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX). Notably, protective doses of NBQX and topiramate do not affect normal maturation and proliferation of oligodendrocytes either in vivo or in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that AMPA-kainate receptor blockade may have potential for translation as a therapeutic strategy for periventricular leukomalacia and that the mechanism of protective efficacy of topiramate is caused at least in part by attenuation of excitotoxic injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes in developing white matter.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15136737
Developing oligodendrocytes (OLs) are highly vulnerable to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, both of which are important in the pathogenesis of many brain disorders. OL excitotoxicity is mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate type on these cells. Here we report that metabotropic GluRs (mGluRs) are highly expressed in OL precursors but are down-regulated in mature OLs. Activation of group 1 mGluRs attenuates OL excitotoxicity by controlling downstream oxidative stress after iGluR overactivation and also prevents nonexcitotoxic forms of oxidative stress by inhibiting reactive oxygen species accumulation and intracellular glutathione loss. The modulating effect of group 1 mGluRs on hypoxic-ischemic OL injury is not due to iGluR endocytosis that occurs in neurons in response to mGluR activation but requires activation of PKC alpha after G protein coupling to phospholipase C. Our results reveal a previously undescribed role for mGluRs in limiting OL injury and suggest that targeting group 1 mGluRs may be a useful therapeutic strategy for treating disorders that involve excitotoxic injury and/or oxidative stress to OLs.
Oligodendrocyte Excitotoxicity Determined by Local Glutamate Accumulation and Mitochondrial Function
Journal of Neurochemistry. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16606353
Developing oligodendrocytes (OL precursors, pre-OLs) express alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs) and are highly vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced excitotoxic injury, yet the mechanisms of injury remain unclear. Here we investigated the role of glutamate accumulation and mitochondrial function in OGD-induced pre-OL toxicity in vitro. Bulk glutamate concentration in the culture medium did not increase during OGD and OGD-conditioned medium did not transfer toxicity to naïve cells. Facilitation of glutamate diffusion by constant agitation of the culture reduced, while inhibition of glutamate diffusion by increasing medium viscosity with dextran enhanced, OGD-induced pre-OL injury. Depletion of extracellular glutamate by the glutamate scavenging system, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase plus pyruvate, attenuated pre-OL injury during OGD. Together these data suggest that local glutamate accumulation is critical for OGD toxicity. Interestingly, under normoxic conditions, addition of glutamate to pre-OLs did not cause receptor-mediated toxicity, but the toxicity could be unmasked by mitochondrial impairment with mitochondrial toxins. Furthermore, OGD caused mitochondrial potential collapse that was independent of AMPAR activation, and OGD toxicity was enhanced by mitochondrial toxins. These data demonstrate that pre-OL excitotoxicity is exacerbated by mitochondrial dysfunction during OGD. Overall, our results indicate that OGD-induced pre-OL injury is a novel form of excitotoxicity caused by the combination of local glutamate accumulation that occurs without an increase in bulk glutamate concentration and mitochondrial dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies targeting local glutamate concentration and mitochondrial injury during hypoxia-ischemia may be relevant to human disorders associated with pre-OL excitotoxicity.
Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole Propionate Receptor Subunit Composition and CAMP-response Element-binding Protein Regulate Oligodendrocyte Excitotoxicity
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16990276
Developing oligodendrocytes (OLs) are highly vulnerable to glutamate excitotoxicity. Although OL excitotoxicity is mainly mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs) and is Ca2+-dependent, the molecular basis for AMPAR-mediated Ca2+ influx in OLs remains largely unclear. Ca2+ permeability of AMPARs is inversely correlated with the abundance of the AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2). Here we report that GluR2-containing and GluR2-lacking AMPARs are co-expressed in individual OLs and that a subset of AMPARs on each OL are Ca2+-permeable and mediate OL excitotoxicity. Virus-mediated overexpression of GluR2 reduces OL excitotoxicity, whereas expression of its unedited form GluR2(Q) enhances the excitotoxicity. These findings indicate that GluR2 critically controls OL excitotoxicity. During OL excitotoxicity, the transcriptional factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is transiently phosphorylated and subsequently down-regulated. Virus-mediated expression of a constitutively active form of CREB, both in cultured OLs in vitro and in developing cerebral white matter in vivo, up-regulates GluR2, inhibits Ca2+ permeability, and protects OLs from excitotoxicity. Overall, these data suggest that targeting GluR2-lacking AMPARs or CREB may be a useful strategy for treating nervous system disorders associated with OL excitotoxicity.
Archives of Neurology. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18852342
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the predominant form of brain injury and the leading known cause of cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits in premature infants. The number of low-birth-weight infants who survive to demonstrate these neurologic deficts is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroimaging techniques provide greater diagnostic sensitivity for PVL than does head ultrasonography and often document the involvement of telencephalic gray matter and long tracts in addition to periventricular white matter. The neuropathologic hallmarks of PVL are microglial activation and focal and diffuse periventricular depletion of premyelinating oligodendroglia. Premyelinating oligodendroglia are highly vulnerable to death caused by glutamate, free radicals, and proinflammatory cytokines. Studies in animal models of PVL suggest that pharmacologic interventions that target these toxic molecules will be useful in diminishing the severity of PVL.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19628872
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, the role of PARP-1 in autoimmune CNS injury remains poorly understood. Therefore, we studied experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis in mice with a targeted deletion of PARP-1. We identified inherent physiological abnormalities in the circulating and splenic immune composition between PARP-1(-/-) and wild type (WT) mice. Upon EAE induction, PARP-1(-/-) mice had an earlier onset and developed a more severe EAE compared with WT cohorts. Splenic response was significantly higher in PARP-1(-/-) mice largely because of B cell expansion. Although formation of Th1 and Th17 effector T lymphocytes was unaffected, PARP-1(-/-) mice had significantly earlier CD4+ T lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration into the CNS during EAE. However, we did not detect significant differences in cytokine profiles between PARP-1(-/-) and WT spinal cords at the peak of EAE. Expression analysis of different PARP isozymes in EAE spinal cords showed that PARP-1 was down-regulated in WT mice and that PARP-3 but not PARP-2 was dramatically up-regulated in both PARP-1(-/-) and WT mice, suggesting that these PARP isozymes could have distinct roles in different CNS pathologies. Together, our results indicate that PARP-1 plays an important role in regulating the physiological immune composition and in immune modulation during EAE; our finding identifies a new aspect of immune regulation by PARPs in autoimmune CNS pathology.
Cell Stem Cell. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19796612
Pluripotency and tumorgenicity appear fundamentally linked. Recent investigations into the role of PARylation in chromatin remodeling (Ahel et al., 2009; Gottschalk et al., 2009), combined with the demonstration that p53 serves as a barrier to pluripotency (Banito et al., 2009), further strengthen this connection.
Trends in Genetics : TIG. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19801173
Genome integrity is a fundamental issue in both cancer and stem cell biology. A series of recent studies revealed that a tumor suppressor p53, which is required for genome integrity, is critical also for stem cell pluripotency and reprogramming, further strengthening the fundamental link between cancer and pluripotency. p53 and other tumor suppressors might be barriers to reprogramming somatic cells for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and simultaneously and systematically destroying these barriers would improve reprogramming efficiency. Therefore, it is also crucial to determine the tumorgenicity of the cells derived from iPSCs for any future therapeutic use.
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19955484
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can self-renew while maintaining their pluripotency. Direct reprogramming of adult somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been reported. Although hESCs and human iPSCs have been shown to share a number of similarities, such basic properties as the electrophysiology of iPSCs have not been explored. Previously, we reported that several specialized ion channels are functionally expressed in hESCs. Using transcriptomic analyses as a guide, we observed tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive (IC(50) = 3.3 +/- 2.7 mM) delayed rectifier K(+) currents (I(KDR)) in 105 of 110 single iPSCs (15.4 +/- 0.9 pF). I(KDR) in iPSCs displayed a current density of 7.6 +/- 3.8 pA/pF at +40 mV. The voltage for 50% activation (V(1/2)) was -7.9 +/- 2.0 mV, slope factor k = 9.1 +/- 1.5. However, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current (I(KCa)), hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker current (I(f)), and voltage-gated sodium channel (Na(V)) and voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(V)) currents could not be measured. TEA inhibited iPSC proliferation (EC(50) = 7.8 +/- 1.2 mM) and viability (EC(50) = 5.5 +/- 1.0 mM). By contrast, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) inhibited viability (EC(50) = 4.5 +/- 0.5 mM) but had less effect on proliferation (EC(50) = 0.9 +/- 0.5 mM). Cell cycle analysis further revealed that K(+) channel blockers inhibited proliferation primarily by arresting the mitotic phase. TEA and 4-AP had no effect on iPSC differentiation as gauged by ability to form embryoid bodies and expression of germ layer markers after induction of differentiation. Neither iberiotoxin nor apamin had any function effects, consistent with the lack of I(KCa) in iPSCs. Our results reveal further differences and similarities between human iPSCs and hESCs. A better understanding of the basic biology of iPSCs may facilitate their ultimate clinical application.
Switching Cell Fate: the Remarkable Rise of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Lineage Reprogramming Technologies
Trends in Biotechnology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20149468
Cell reprogramming, in which a differentiated cell is made to switch its fate, is an emerging field with revolutionary prospects in biotechnology and medicine. The recent discovery of induced pluripotency by means of in vitro reprogramming has made way for unprecedented approaches for regenerative medicine, understanding human disease and drug discovery. Moreover, recent studies on regeneration and repair by direct lineage reprogramming in vivo offer an attractive novel alternative to cell therapy. Although we continue to push the limits of current knowledge in the field of cell reprogramming, the mechanistic elements that underlie these processes remain largely elusive. This article reviews landmark developments in cell reprogramming, current knowledge, and technological developments now on the horizon with significant promise for biomedical applications.
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Paths to New Medicines. A Catalyst for Disease Modelling, Drug Discovery and Regenerative Therapy
EMBO Reports. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20168328
AID in Reprogramming: Quick and Efficient: Identification of a Key Enzyme Called AID, and Its Activity in DNA Demethylation, May Help to Overcome a Pivotal Epigenetic Barrier in Reprogramming Somatic Cells Toward Pluripotency
BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20394066
Current methods of reprogramming differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem cells remain slow and inefficient. In a recent report published online in Nature, Bhutani et al.1 developed a cell fusion strategy, achieving quick and efficient reprogramming toward pluripotency. Using this assay, they identified an immune system protein called activation-induced cytidine deaminase, or AID, which unexpectedly is actually able to "aid" in reprogramming due to its involvement in DNA demethylation that is required for induction of the two key pluripotency genes, Oct4 and Nanog. More recently, Popp et al. 2 also reported online in Nature that AID is important for complete cell reprogramming in mammals. Together, these findings provide new insights into how cells are reprogrammed, identify the specific role of AID in cell fate reversal, and advance the field of regenerative medicine.
Annals of Neurology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20437588
Thrombin mediates the life-threatening cerebral edema that occurs after intracerebral hemorrhage. Therefore, we examined the mechanisms of thrombin-induced injury to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent mechanisms of BBB repair.
Nature Reviews. Neurology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20479779
Owing to improved survival rates of premature newborns, the number of very low birth weight infants is rising. Preterm infants display a greater propensity for brain injury caused by hypoxic or ischemic events, infection and/or inflammation that results in prominent white matter injury (WMI) than infants carried to full term. The intrinsic vulnerability of developing oligodendroglia to excitotoxic, oxidative and inflammatory forms of injury is a major factor in the pathogenesis of this condition. Furthermore, activated microglia and astrogliosis are critically involved in triggering WMI. Currently, no specific treatment is available for this kind of injury. Injury to the premature brain can substantially influence brain development and lead to disability. Impairment of the main motor pathways, such as the corticospinal tract, in the perinatal period contributes substantially to clinical outcome. Advanced neuroimaging techniques have led to greater understanding of the nature of both white and gray matter injury in preterm infants. Further research is warranted to examine the translational potential of preclinical therapeutic strategies for controlling such injury and preserving the integrity of motor pathways in preterm infants.
Panminerva Medica. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20517198
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been recognized as the "gold standard" for research on pluripotency and differentiation, and hold great promise for advancing our knowledge of human development, biology, disease and therapy. However, traditional techniques for generating hESCs rely on surplus IVF embryos and are incompatible with the generation of genetically diverse, patient- or disease-specific stem cells. A recent breakthrough in stem cell biology is the success of converting human somatic cells into pluripotent cells by using defined "reprogramming factors". While these reprogrammed cells have similar developmental potential as authentic hESCs, they are not derived from human embryos, and are thus termed "induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)". The iPSC technology would prove useful for generation of individual cell lines from many different patients to study the nature and complexity of disease. Moreover, problems of immune rejection for future therapeutic applications would be greatly relieved by being able to generate reprogrammed cells from individual patients. Although iPSC generation is still slow, inefficient, fraught with pitfalls, and unsafe for human use, recent research has yielded exciting insights into the understanding of the technology, logic, safety, and utility of iPSCs, and has led to the use of these unusual cells for disease modeling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine, paving paths to new therapeutics.
Archives of Neurology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20697034
Minocycline is a clinically available antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug that also demonstrates neuroprotective properties in a variety of experimental models of neurological diseases. There have thus far been more than 300 publications on minocycline neuroprotection, including a growing number of human studies. Our objective is to critically review the biological basis and translational potential of this action of minocycline on the nervous system.
Developmental Regulation of Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in the Premature Brain and Their Protective Role in a Rodent Model of Periventricular Leukomalacia
Neuron Glia Biology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 22169210
Cerebral white matter injury in premature infants, known as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), is common after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). While ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) can mediate immature white matter injury, we have previously shown that excitotoxic injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes (preOLs) in vitro can be attenuated by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists. Thus, we evaluated mGluR expression in developing white matter in rat and human brain, and tested the protective efficacy of a central nervous system (CNS)-penetrating mGluR agonist on injury to developing oligodendrocytes (OLs) in vivo. Group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) were strongly expressed on OLs in neonatal rodent cerebral white matter throughout normal development, with highest expression early in development on preOLs. Specifically at P6, mGluR1 and mGLuR5 were most highly expressed on GalC-positive OLs compared to neurons, axons, astrocytes and microglia. Systemic administration of (1S,3R) 1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3,-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) significantly attenuated the loss of myelin basic protein in the white matter following HI in P6 rats. Assessment of postmortem human tissue showed both mGluR1 and mGluR5 localized on immature OLs in white matter throughout development, with mGluR5 highest in the preterm period. These data indicate group I mGluRs are highly expressed on OLs during the peak period of vulnerability to HI and modulation of mGluRs is protective in a rodent model of PVL. Group I mGluRs may represent important therapeutic targets for protection from HI-mediated white matter injury.
Apoptosis Inducing Factor Deficiency Causes Reduced Mitofusion 1 Expression and Patterned Purkinje Cell Degeneration
Neurobiology of Disease. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20974255
Alteration in mitochondrial dynamics has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) plays a key role in multiple cellular and disease processes. Using immunoblotting and flow cytometry analysis with Harlequin mutant mice that have a proviral insertion in the AIF gene, we first revealed that mitofusion 1 (Mfn1), a key mitochondrial fusion protein, is significantly diminished in Purkinje cells of the Harlequin cerebellum. Next, we investigated the cerebellar pathology of Harlequin mice in an age-dependent fashion, and identified a striking process of progressive and patterned Purkinje cell degeneration. Using immunohistochemistry with zebrin II, the most studied compartmentalization marker in the cerebellum, we found that zebrin II-negative Purkinje cells first started to degenerate at 7 months of age. By 11 months of age, almost half of the Purkinje cells were degenerated. Subsequently, most of the Purkinje cells disappeared in the Harlequin cerebellum. The surviving Purkinje cells were concentrated in cerebellar lobules IX and X, where these cells were positive for heat shock protein 25 and resistant to degeneration. We further showed that the patterned Purkinje cell degeneration was dependent on caspase but not poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation, and confirmed the marked decrease of Mfn1 in the Harlequin cerebellum. Our results identified a previously unrecognized role of AIF in Purkinje cell degeneration, and revealed that AIF deficiency leads to altered mitochondrial fusion and caspase-dependent cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in Harlequin mice. This study is the first to link AIF and mitochondrial fusion, both of which might play important roles in neurodegeneration.
Stem Cell Reviews. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21373881
A major road-block in stem cell therapy is the poor homing and integration of transplanted stem cells with the targeted host tissue. Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells are considered an excellent alternative to embryonic stem (ES) cells and we tested the feasibility of using small, physiological electric fields (EFs) to guide hiPS cells to their target. Applied EFs stimulated and guided migration of cultured hiPS cells toward the anode, with a stimulation threshold of <30 mV/mm; in three-dimensional (3D) culture hiPS cells remained stationary, whereas in an applied EF they migrated directionally. This is of significance as the therapeutic use of hiPS cells occurs in a 3D environment. EF exposure did not alter expression of the pluripotency markers SSEA-4 and Oct-4 in hiPS cells. We compared EF-directed migration (galvanotaxis) of hiPS cells and hES cells and found that hiPS cells showed greater sensitivity and directedness than those of hES cells in an EF, while hES cells migrated toward cathode. Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibition, a method to aid expansion and survival of stem cells, significantly increased the motility, but reduced directionality of iPS cells in an EF by 70-80%. Thus, our study has revealed that physiological EF is an effective guidance cue for the migration of hiPS cells in either 2D or 3D environments and that will occur in a ROCK-dependent manner. Our current finding may lead to techniques for applying EFs in vivo to guide migration of transplanted stem cells.
OLIG Gene Targeting in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Motor Neuron and Oligodendrocyte Differentiation
Nature Protocols. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21527921
Pluripotent stem cells can be genetically labeled to facilitate differentiation studies. In this paper, we describe a gene-targeting protocol to knock in a GFP cassette into key gene loci in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), and then use the genetically tagged hPSCs to guide in vitro differentiation, immunocytochemical and electrophysiological profiling and in vivo characterization after cell transplantation. The Olig transcription factors have key roles in the transcription regulatory pathways for the genesis of motor neurons (MNs) and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We have generated OLIG2-GFP hPSC reporter lines that reliably mark MNs and OLs for monitoring their sequential differentiation from hPSCs. The expression of the GFP reporter recapitulates the endogenous expression of OLIG genes. The in vitro characterization of fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified cells is consistent with cells of the MN or OL lineages, depending on the stages at which they are collected. This protocol is efficient and reliable and usually takes 5-7 months to complete. The genetic tagging-differentiation methodology used herein provides a general framework for similar work for differentiation of hPSCs into other lineages.
Concise Review: Quiescent and Active States of Endogenous Adult Neural Stem Cells: Identification and Characterization
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21557389
The adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) lacks the capacity for regeneration, making it a highly sought-after topic for researchers. The identification of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult CNS wiped out a long-held dogma that the adult brain contains a set number of neurons and is incapable of replacing them. The discovery of adult NSCs (aNSCs) stoked the fire for researchers who dream of brain self-repair. Unfortunately, the quiescent nature and limited plasticity of aNSCs diminish their regenerative potential. Recent studies evaluating aNSC plasticity under pathological conditions indicate that a switch from quiescent to active aNSCs in neurogenic regions plays an important role in both repairing the damaged tissue and preserving progenitor pools. Here, we summarize the most recent findings and present questions about characterizing the active and quiescent aNSCs in major neurogenic regions, and factors for maintaining their active and quiescent states, hoping to outline an emerging view for promoting the endogenous aNSC-based regeneration.
Neuroprotective Potential of Erythropoietin and Its Derivative Carbamylated Erythropoietin in Periventricular Leukomalacia
Experimental Neurology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21596035
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the predominant pathology in premature infants, characterized by prominent cerebral white matter injury, and commonly caused by hypoxia-ischemia and inflammation. Activated microglia trigger white matter damage and play a major role in the development of PVL. Erythropoietin (EPO) and its derivative carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO) have been shown to be neuroprotective in several brain disease models. Here we investigated whether EPO and CEPO could provide protection in mouse models of PVL induced by hypoxia-ischemia or hypoxia-ischemia-inflammation. We administered EPO or CEPO to mice with PVL, and found that both EPO and CEPO treatments decreased microglia activation, oligodendrocyte damage and myelin depletion. We also noted improved performance in neurological function assays. Inhibited disease progression in PVL mice by EPO or CEPO treatment was associated with decreased poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activity. PARP-1 activity was increased dramatically in activated microglia in untreated mice with PVL. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the neuroprotective properties of EPO and CEPO were diminished after PARP-1 gene depletion. The therapeutic doses of EPO and CEPO used in this study did not interfere with normal oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination. Together, our data demonstrate that EPO and CEPO are neuroprotective in cerebral white matter injury via a novel microglial PARP-1 dependent mechanism, and hold promise as a future treatment for PVL and other hypoxic-ischemic/inflammatory white matter diseases.
Low Dose Dextromethorphan Attenuates Moderate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inhibiting NOX2 and Reducing Peripheral Immune Cells Infiltration in the Spinal Cord
Neurobiology of Disease. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21704706
Dextromethorphan (DM) is a dextrorotary morphinan and a widely used component of cough medicine. Relatively high doses of DM in combination with quinidine are used for the treatment of mood disorders for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, at lower doses, morphinans exert anti-inflammatory activities through the inhibition of NOX2-dependent superoxide production in activated microglia. Here we investigated the effects of high (10 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-10") and low (0.1 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-0.1") doses of DM on the development and progression of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. We found no protection by high dose DM treatment. Interestingly, a minor late attenuation by low dose DM treatment was seen in severe EAE that was characterized by a chronic disease course and a massive spinal cord infiltration of CD45(+) cells including T-lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, in a less severe form of EAE, where lower levels of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, Iba1(+) microglia/macrophages and no significant infiltration of neutrophils were seen in the spinal cord, the treatment with DM-0.1 was remarkably more beneficial. The effect was the most significant at the peak of disease and was associated with an inhibition of NOX2 expression and a decrease in infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes into the spinal cord. In addition, chronic treatment with low dose DM resulted in decreased demyelination and reduced axonal loss in the lumbar spinal cord. Our study is the first report to show that low dose DM is effective in treating EAE of moderate severity. Our findings reveal that low dose morphinan DM treatment may represent a new promising protective strategy for treating MS.
Label-free Detection of Surface Markers on Stem Cells by Oblique-incidence Reflectivity Difference Microscopy
BioTechniques. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21781038
Conventional fluorescence microscopy is routinely used to detect cell surface markers through fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. However, fluorophore-conjugation of antibodies alters binding properties such as strength and specificity of the antibody in often uncharacterized ways. Here we present a method using an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) microscope for label-free, real-time detection of cell surface markers, and apply it to analysis of stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1) on stem cells. Mouse stem cells express SSEA1 on their surfaces, and the level of SSEA1 decreases when the cells start to differentiate. In this study, we immobilized mouse stem cells and non-stem cells (control) on a glass surface as a microarray and reacted the cell microarray with unlabeled SSEA1 antibodies. By monitoring the reaction with an OI-RD microscope in real time, we confirmed that the SSEA1 antibodies bind only to the surface of the stem cells and not to the surface of non-stem cells. From the binding curves, we determined the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the antibody with the SSEA1 markers on the stem cell surface. Thus, the OI-RD microscope can be used to detect binding affinities between cell surface markers and unlabeled antibodies bound to the cells; this information could be useful for determination of stem cell stages.
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21812016
The biology of cerebral white matter injury has been woefully understudied, in part because of the difficulty of reliably modeling this type of injury in rodents. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the predominant form of brain injury and the most common cause of cerebral palsy in premature infants. PVL is characterized by predominant white matter injury. No specific therapy for PVL is presently available, because the pathogenesis is not well understood. Here we report that two types of mouse PVL models have been created by hypoxia-ischemia with or without systemic coadministration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS coadministration exacerbated hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury and led to enhanced microglial activation and astrogliosis. Drug trials with the antiinflammatory agent minocycline, the antiexcitotoxic agent NBQX, and the antioxidant agent edaravone showed various degrees of protection in the two models, indicating that excitotoxic, oxidative, and inflammatory forms of injury are involved in the pathogenesis of injury to immature white matter. We then applied immunoelectron microscopy to reveal fine structural changes in the injured white matter and found that synapses between axons and oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) are quickly and profoundly damaged. Hypoxia-ischemia caused a drastic decrease in the number of postsynaptic densities associated with the glutamatergic axon-OPC synapses defined by the expression of vesicular glutamate transporters, vGluT1 and vGluT2, on axon terminals that formed contacts with OPCs in the periventricular white matter, resulted in selective shrinkage of the postsynaptic OPCs contacted by vGluT2 labeled synapses, and led to excitotoxicity mediated by GluR2-lacking, Ca(2+) -permeable AMPA receptors. Overall, the present study provides novel mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of PVL and reveals that axon-glia synapses are highly vulnerable to white matter injury in the developing brain. More broadly, the study of white matter development and injury has general implications for a variety of neurological diseases, including PVL, stroke, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis.
DNA Polymerase-β Mediates the Neurogenic Effect of β-amyloid Protein in Cultured Subventricular Zone Neurospheres
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22057776
β-Amyloid protein (Aβ) is thought to be responsible for neuronal apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Paradoxically, Aβ can also promote neurogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to differentiate into neurons. However, the mechanisms of Aβ-induced neurogenesis are unknown. Here we examined the role of DNA polymerase-β (DNA pol-β), a DNA repair enzyme that is required for proper neurogenesis during brain development and is also responsible for Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis. In neurospheres obtained from the adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ), the knockdown of DNA pol-β or its pharmacological blockade showed that the enzyme functioned both to repress proliferation of early nestin(+) progenitor cells and to promote the maturation of TuJ-1(+) neuronal cells. In neurospheres challenged with oligomers of synthetic Aβ(42) , the expression levels of DNA pol-β were rapidly increased. DNA pol-β knockdown prevented the Aβ(42) -promoted differentiation of nestin(+) progenitor cells into nestin(+) /Dlx-2(+) neuroblasts. Moreover, when neurospheres were seeded to allow full differentiation of their elements, blockade of DNA pol-β prevented Aβ(42) -induced differentiation of progenitors into MAP-2(+) neurons. Thus, our data demonstrate that Aβ(42) arrests the proliferation of a subpopulation of nestin(+) cells via the induction of DNA pol-β, thereby allowing for their differentiation toward the neuronal lineage. Our findings reveal a novel role of DNA pol-β in Aβ(42) -induced neurogenesis and identify DNA pol-β as a key mechanistic link between the neurogenic effect of Aβ(42) on NPCs and the proapoptotic effect of Aβ(42) on mature neurons.
Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22201733
Research on the biology of adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as cell-based strategies for treating nervous system disorders has begun to create the hope that these cells may be used for therapy in humans after injury or disease. In animal models of neurological diseases, transplantation of stem cells or their derivatives can improve function not only due to direct replacement of lost neurons or glia, but also by providing trophic support. Despite intense research efforts to translate these studies from the bench to bedside, critical problems remain at several steps in this process. Recent technological advancements in both the derivation of stem cells and their directed differentiation to lineage-committed progenitors have brought us closer to therapeutic applications. Several preclinical studies have already explored the behavior of transplanted cells with respect to proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival, especially in complex pathological disease environments. In this review, we examine the current status, progress, pitfalls, and potential of these stem cell technologies, focusing on directed differentiation of human stem cells into various neural lineages, including dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons, oligodendroglia, microglia, and astroglia, and on advancements in cell-based regenerative strategies for neural repair and criteria for successful therapeutic applications.