JoVE   
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  JoVE Biology

  
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  JoVE Neuroscience

  
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  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
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  JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

  
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  JoVE Bioengineering

  
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  JoVE Applied Physics

  
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  JoVE Chemistry

  
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  JoVE Behavior

  
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  JoVE Environment

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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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Model Organisms II

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Essentials of
Neuroscience

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In JoVE (14)

Other Publications (8)

Articles by Wendy Chao in JoVE

 JoVE Editorial

June 2012: This Month in JoVE

1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production


JoVE 4467

Back in 1905, in what is now the Czech Republic, Eduard Zirm performed the first corneal transplantation surgery (keratoplasty), which restored vision to a patient blinded by corneal injury. Today, eye banks all over the world prepare, store, and distribute donated corneas to hospitals so that thousands of sight-saving keratoplasties can be performed every year. In June 2012, JoVE has its eye on two research groups, one from Italy and the other from Michigan, who demonstrate two distinct methods for corneal graft preparation prior to transplantation.

 JoVE Editorial

July 2012: This Month in JoVE

1JoVE Content Production, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear


JoVE 5010

Historically, JoVE, The Journal of Visualized Experiments, has focused primarily on biomedical research and has developed subsections for Bioengineering, Clinical and Translational Medicine, Immunology and Infection, and Neuroscience. This July, JoVE launches its Applied Physics section, which includes a range of content from Plasma Physics to Materials Science. We begin the new section with a notable article from Purdue University, where researchers in the Center for Laser-Based Manufacturing are studying.

 JoVE Editorial

August 2012: This Month in JoVE

1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production


JoVE 5016

Traditional microscopy requires lens objectives to magnify specimens, and can involve numerous optical components like additional objectives, filters, and mirrors to refract and direct light to optical sensors. The August 2012 issue of JoVE (Journal of Visualized Experiments) is marked by the third publication from the Ozcan Lab (University of California, Los Angeles) on their lens-free "on-chip" microscopy platform, which they have pioneered.

 JoVE Editorial

September 2012: This Month in JoVE

1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production


JoVE 5022

This September in JoVE, researchers from the School of Medicine at the Free University of Berlin demonstrate a novel method for studying how stroke patients compensate for visual field defects. To do this, our authors make use of a driving simulator complete with brakes, a steering wheel, and turn signals. Using driving simulation software and sophisticated eye tracking, researchers can compare the gaze behavior of stroke patients as they navigate through virtual driving courses with varying degrees of complexity. Though posterior cerebral artery infarction can lead to similar visual deficits in patients, some are able to navigate through the driving courses by developing compensatory eye movements, while others crash into dangerous obstacles, like wild boars. Through the analysis of compensatory gaze behavior employed by patients, our authors see great potential for using driving simulation as a tool to rehabilitate stroke patients trying to overcome the blind spots in their visual fields.

 JoVE Editorial

November 2012: This Month in JoVE

1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production


JoVE 5044

In this issue, Oestreicher et al. show us how to isolate magnetotactic bacteria from freshwater samples, and concentrate the bacteria at one end of a glass capillary. The magnetotactic bacteria can then be visualized by light and transmission electron microscopy, and used for various other assays.

Other articles by Wendy Chao on PubMed

CTCF, a Candidate Trans-acting Factor for X-inactivation Choice

In mammals, X-inactivation silences one of two female X chromosomes. Silencing depends on the noncoding gene, Xist (inactive X-specific transcript), and is blocked by the antisense gene, Tsix. Deleting the choice/imprinting center in Tsix affects X-chromosome selection. Here, we identify the insulator and transcription factor, CTCF, as a candidate trans-acting factor for X-chromosome selection. The choice/imprinting center contains tandem CTCF binding sites that function in an enhancer-blocking assay. In vitro binding is reduced by CpG methylation and abolished by including non-CpG methylation. We postulate that Tsix and CTCF together establish a regulatable epigenetic switch for X-inactivation.

IGF2: Epigenetic Regulation and Role in Development and Disease

Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) is perhaps the most intricately regulated of all growth factors characterized to date. Its gene is imprinted--only one allele is active, depending on parental origin--and this pattern of expression is maintained epigenetically in almost all tissues. IGF2 activity is further controlled through differential expression of receptors and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) that determine protein availability. This complex and multifaceted regulation emphasizes the importance of accurate IGF2 expression and activity. This review will examine the regulation of the IGF2 gene and what it has revealed about the phenomenon of imprinting, which is frequently disrupted in cancer. IGF2 protein function will be discussed, along with diseases that involve IGF2 overexpression. Roles for IGF2 in sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and angiogenesis will also be explored.

Chia (Salvia Hispanica): a Systematic Review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration

To evaluate the scientific evidence on chia (Salvia hispanica) including history, folkloric precedent, expert opinion, pharmacology, dosing, interactions, adverse effects, and toxicology. This review serves as a clinical support tool.

An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Green-Lipped Mussel (Perna Canaliculus) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration

This paper is an evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. Search strategy. To prepare each Natural Standard review, electronic searches are conducted in nine databases, including AMED, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, CISCOM, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, HerbMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Medline, and NAPRALERT. Search terms include the common name(s), scientific name(s), and all listed synonyms for each topic. Hand searches are conducted of 20 additional journals (not indexed in common databases), and of bibliographies from 50 selected secondary references. No restrictions are placed on language or quality of publications. Researchers in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are consulted for access to additional references or ongoing research. Selection Criteria. All literature is collected pertaining to efficacy in humans (regardless of study design, quality, or language), dosing, precautions, adverse effects, use in pregnancy/lactation, interactions, alteration of laboratory assays, and mechanism of action (in vitro, animal research, human data). Standardized inclusion/exclusion criteria are utilized for selection. Data Analysis. Data extraction and analysis are performed by healthcare professionals conducting clinical work and/or research at academic centers, using standardized instruments that pertain to each review section (defining inclusion/exclusion criteria and analytic techniques, including validated measures of study quality). Data are verified by a second reviewer. Review Process. A blinded review is conducted by multidisciplinary research-clinical faculty at major academic centers with expertise in epidemiology and biostatistics, pharmacology, toxicology, CAM research, and clinical practice. In cases of editorial disagreement, a three-member panel of the Editorial Board addresses conflicts, and consults experts when applicable. Authors of studies are contacted when clarification is required.

Phytochemicals in the Oncology Setting

Phytochemicals--the bioactive compounds found in plants--not only hold historical significance in various medical traditions, but also form the basis of many modern-day drugs. Phytochemicals are often used for primary disease prevention or as adjuncts to conventional therapies--despite uncertain effectiveness or safety. On the other hand, phytochemicals have given rise to numerous conventional drugs, which are widely used in mainstream medicine and compose the primary therapeutic strategies for numerous conditions (including cancer). In this review, we will discuss general safety considerations for integrating phytochemicals in the oncology setting. The supportive evidence and safety concerns of popular plant-based cancer therapies will also be summarized. Finally, a brief overview of the established and emerging anticancer drugs with botanical origins will be provided.

An Evidence-based Systematic Review of Vitamin a by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration

ABSTRACT An evidence-based systematic review of vitamin A by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated and reproducible grading rationale. This paper includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

An Evidence-based Systematic Review of Vanadium by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration

An evidence-based systematic review of vanadium by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

Central Sensitization As a Component of Post-deployment Syndrome

Many service members and veterans report chronic unexplained symptoms such as pain, fatigue and memory complaints, which have most recently been characterized as post-deployment syndrome (PDS). Chronic widespread pain is a component of this syndrome, producing significant disability and considerable health care costs. The similarity between the nature of these complaints and other medically unexplained illnesses such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome suggest that they may share a common mechanism. Here, we provide support for PDS as a consequence of pain and sensory amplification secondary to neuroplastic changes within the central nervous system, a phenomenon often termed central sensitization. We also discuss how factors such as stress and genetics may promote chronic widespread pain in veterans and service members who develop PDS.

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