In JoVE (51)

Other Publications (8)

Articles by Wendy Chao in JoVE

Other articles by Wendy Chao on PubMed

CTCF, a Candidate Trans-acting Factor for X-inactivation Choice

Science (New York, N.Y.). Jan, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11743158

In mammals, X-inactivation silences one of two female X chromosomes. Silencing depends on the noncoding gene, Xist (inactive X-specific transcript), and is blocked by the antisense gene, Tsix. Deleting the choice/imprinting center in Tsix affects X-chromosome selection. Here, we identify the insulator and transcription factor, CTCF, as a candidate trans-acting factor for X-chromosome selection. The choice/imprinting center contains tandem CTCF binding sites that function in an enhancer-blocking assay. In vitro binding is reduced by CpG methylation and abolished by including non-CpG methylation. We postulate that Tsix and CTCF together establish a regulatable epigenetic switch for X-inactivation.

IGF2: Epigenetic Regulation and Role in Development and Disease

Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. Apr, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18308616

Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) is perhaps the most intricately regulated of all growth factors characterized to date. Its gene is imprinted--only one allele is active, depending on parental origin--and this pattern of expression is maintained epigenetically in almost all tissues. IGF2 activity is further controlled through differential expression of receptors and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) that determine protein availability. This complex and multifaceted regulation emphasizes the importance of accurate IGF2 expression and activity. This review will examine the regulation of the IGF2 gene and what it has revealed about the phenomenon of imprinting, which is frequently disrupted in cancer. IGF2 protein function will be discussed, along with diseases that involve IGF2 overexpression. Roles for IGF2 in sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and angiogenesis will also be explored.

Chia (Salvia Hispanica): a Systematic Review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration

Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 20028328

To evaluate the scientific evidence on chia (Salvia hispanica) including history, folkloric precedent, expert opinion, pharmacology, dosing, interactions, adverse effects, and toxicology. This review serves as a clinical support tool.

An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Green-Lipped Mussel (Perna Canaliculus) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration

Journal of Dietary Supplements. 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 22435354

This paper is an evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. Search strategy. To prepare each Natural Standard review, electronic searches are conducted in nine databases, including AMED, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, CISCOM, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, HerbMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Medline, and NAPRALERT. Search terms include the common name(s), scientific name(s), and all listed synonyms for each topic. Hand searches are conducted of 20 additional journals (not indexed in common databases), and of bibliographies from 50 selected secondary references. No restrictions are placed on language or quality of publications. Researchers in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are consulted for access to additional references or ongoing research. Selection Criteria. All literature is collected pertaining to efficacy in humans (regardless of study design, quality, or language), dosing, precautions, adverse effects, use in pregnancy/lactation, interactions, alteration of laboratory assays, and mechanism of action (in vitro, animal research, human data). Standardized inclusion/exclusion criteria are utilized for selection. Data Analysis. Data extraction and analysis are performed by healthcare professionals conducting clinical work and/or research at academic centers, using standardized instruments that pertain to each review section (defining inclusion/exclusion criteria and analytic techniques, including validated measures of study quality). Data are verified by a second reviewer. Review Process. A blinded review is conducted by multidisciplinary research-clinical faculty at major academic centers with expertise in epidemiology and biostatistics, pharmacology, toxicology, CAM research, and clinical practice. In cases of editorial disagreement, a three-member panel of the Editorial Board addresses conflicts, and consults experts when applicable. Authors of studies are contacted when clarification is required.

Phytochemicals in the Oncology Setting

Current Treatment Options in Oncology. Dec, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 21116745

Phytochemicals--the bioactive compounds found in plants--not only hold historical significance in various medical traditions, but also form the basis of many modern-day drugs. Phytochemicals are often used for primary disease prevention or as adjuncts to conventional therapies--despite uncertain effectiveness or safety. On the other hand, phytochemicals have given rise to numerous conventional drugs, which are widely used in mainstream medicine and compose the primary therapeutic strategies for numerous conditions (including cancer). In this review, we will discuss general safety considerations for integrating phytochemicals in the oncology setting. The supportive evidence and safety concerns of popular plant-based cancer therapies will also be summarized. Finally, a brief overview of the established and emerging anticancer drugs with botanical origins will be provided.

An Evidence-based Systematic Review of Vitamin a by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration

Journal of Dietary Supplements. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23157584

ABSTRACT An evidence-based systematic review of vitamin A by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated and reproducible grading rationale. This paper includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

An Evidence-based Systematic Review of Vanadium by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration

Journal of Dietary Supplements. Sep, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22891992

An evidence-based systematic review of vanadium by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

Central Sensitization As a Component of Post-deployment Syndrome

NeuroRehabilitation. Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23232159

Many service members and veterans report chronic unexplained symptoms such as pain, fatigue and memory complaints, which have most recently been characterized as post-deployment syndrome (PDS). Chronic widespread pain is a component of this syndrome, producing significant disability and considerable health care costs. The similarity between the nature of these complaints and other medically unexplained illnesses such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome suggest that they may share a common mechanism. Here, we provide support for PDS as a consequence of pain and sensory amplification secondary to neuroplastic changes within the central nervous system, a phenomenon often termed central sensitization. We also discuss how factors such as stress and genetics may promote chronic widespread pain in veterans and service members who develop PDS.

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