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In JoVE (1)
- Een snelle High-throughput Methode voor Mapping Ribonucleoproteins (RNP's) op de menselijke pre-mRNA
Other Publications (12)
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Nucleic Acids Research
- PLoS Biology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
- Genome Research
- Genes & Development
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
- Genome Research
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- PloS One
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Articles by William G. Fairbrother in JoVE
Een snelle High-throughput Methode voor Mapping Ribonucleoproteins (RNP's) op de menselijke pre-mRNA
Katherine H. Watkins1, Allan Stewart1, William G. Fairbrother1,2
1Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Brown University, 2Center for Computational Molecular Biology, Brown University
Vanwege het tijdelijke karakter van de pre-mRNA, kan het moeilijk zijn te isoleren en te bestuderen
Other articles by William G. Fairbrother on PubMed
Science (New York, N.Y.). Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12114529
Specific short oligonucleotide sequences that enhance pre-mRNA splicing when present in exons, termed exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs), play important roles in constitutive and alternative splicing. A computational method, RESCUE-ESE, was developed that predicts which sequences have ESE activity by statistical analysis of exon-intron and splice site composition. When large data sets of human gene sequences were used, this method identified 10 predicted ESE motifs. Representatives of all 10 motifs were found to display enhancer activity in vivo, whereas point mutants of these sequences exhibited sharply reduced activity. The motifs identified enable prediction of the splicing phenotypes of exonic mutations in human genes.
Nucleic Acids Research. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15215377
A typical gene contains two levels of information: a sequence that encodes a particular protein and a host of other signals that are necessary for the correct expression of the transcript. While much attention has been focused on the effects of sequence variation on the amino acid sequence, variations that disrupt gene processing signals can dramatically impact gene function. A variation that disrupts an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE), for example, could cause exon skipping which would result in the exclusion of an entire exon from the mRNA transcript. RESCUE-ESE, a computational approach used in conjunction with experimental validation, previously identified 238 candidate ESE hexamers in human genes. The RESCUE-ESE method has recently been implemented in three additional species: mouse, zebrafish and pufferfish. Here we describe an online ESE analysis tool (http://genes.mit.edu/burgelab/rescue-ese/) that annotates RESCUE-ESE hexamers in vertebrate exons and can be used to predict splicing phenotypes by identifying sequence changes that disrupt or alter predicted ESEs.
PLoS Biology. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15340491
Because deleterious alleles arising from mutation are filtered by natural selection, mutations that create such alleles will be underrepresented in the set of common genetic variation existing in a population at any given time. Here, we describe an approach based on this idea called VERIFY (variant elimination reinforces functionality), which can be used to assess the extent of natural selection acting on an oligonucleotide motif or set of motifs predicted to have biological activity. As an application of this approach, we analyzed a set of 238 hexanucleotides previously predicted to have exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) activity in human exons using the relative enhancer and silencer classification by unanimous enrichment (RESCUE)-ESE method. Aligning the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the public human SNP database to the chimpanzee genome allowed inference of the direction of the mutations that created present-day SNPs. Analyzing the set of SNPs that overlap RESCUE-ESE hexamers, we conclude that nearly one-fifth of the mutations that disrupt predicted ESEs have been eliminated by natural selection (odds ratio = 0.82 +/- 0.05). This selection is strongest for the predicted ESEs that are located near splice sites. Our results demonstrate a novel approach for quantifying the extent of natural selection acting on candidate functional motifs and also suggest certain features of mutations/SNPs, such as proximity to the splice site and disruption or alteration of predicted ESEs, that should be useful in identifying variants that might cause a biological phenotype.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15778377
As an important component of the innate immune system, complement provides the initial response to prevent infections by pathogenic microorganisms. Patients with dysfunction of C5 display a propensity for severe recurrent infections. In this study, we present a patient with C5 deficiency demonstrated by immunochemical and functional analyses. Direct sequencing of all C5 exons displayed no mutation of obvious functional significance, except for an A to G transition in exon 10 predicting an exchange from lysine to arginine. This sequence alteration was present in only one allele of family members with a reduced serum C5 concentration and in both alleles of the patient with almost complete C5 deficiency, suggesting that this alteration may be producing the phenotype. Recent findings indicate that distinct nucleotide sequences, termed exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs), influence the splicing process. cDNA from all family members harboring the mutated allele showed skipping of exon 10, which resulted in a premature STOP codon, explaining the lack of C5 in the propositus. Sequence analysis of the mutated region revealed the substitution to be located within an ESE, as predicted by the RESCUE-ESE program. The altered ESE sequence is located close to the 5' splicing site and also lowers the predicted strength of the splice site itself. This apparently inconsequential sequence alteration represents a noncanonical splicing mutation altering an ESE. Our finding sheds a new light on the role of putative silent/conservative mutations in disease-associated genes.
BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18081004
A myriad of coordinated signals control cellular differentiation. Reprogramming the cell's proteome drives global changes in cell morphology and function that define cell phenotype. A switch in alternative splicing of many pre-mRNAs encoding neuronal-specific proteins accompanies neuronal differentiation. Three groups recently showed that the global splicing repressor, polypyrimidine track-binding protein (PTB), regulates this switch.1-3 Although a subset of neuronal genes are turned on in both non-neuronal and neuronal cells, restricted expression of PTB in non-neuronal cells diverts their mRNAs to nonsense-mediated decay and prevents protein expression. When the PTB brake is released, the cell splices like a neuron.
High-throughput Biochemical Analysis of in Vivo Location Data Reveals Novel Distinct Classes of POU5F1(Oct4)/DNA Complexes
Genome Research. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18212089
The transcription factor POU5F1 is a key regulator of embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency and a known oncoprotein. We have developed a novel high-throughput binding assay called MEGAshift (microarray evaluation of genomic aptamers by shift) that we use to pinpoint the exact location, affinity, and stoichiometry of the DNA-protein complexes identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. We consider all genomic regions identified as POU5F1-ChIP-enriched in both human and mouse. Compared with regions that are ChIP-enriched in a single species, we find these regions more likely to be near actively transcribed genes in ES cells. We resynthesize these genomic regions as a pool of tiled 35-mers. This oligonucleotide pool is then assayed for binding to recombinant POU5F1 by gel shift. The degree of binding for each oligonucleotide is accurately measured on a custom oligonucleotide microarray. We explore the relationship between experimentally determined and computationally predicted binding strengths, find many novel functional combinations of POU5F1 half sites, and demonstrate efficient motif discovery by incorporating binding information into a motif finding algorithm. In addition to further refining location studies for transcription factors, this method holds promise for the high-throughput screening of promoters, SNP regions, and epigenetic modifications for factor binding.
A General Mechanism for Transcription Regulation by Oct1 and Oct4 in Response to Genotoxic and Oxidative Stress
Genes & Development. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19171782
Oct1 and Oct4 are homologous transcription factors with similar DNA-binding specificities. Here we show that Oct1 is dynamically phosphorylated in vivo following exposure of cells to oxidative and genotoxic stress. We further show that stress regulates the selectivity of both proteins for specific DNA sequences. Mutation of conserved phosphorylation target DNA-binding domain residues in Oct1, and Oct4 confirms their role in regulating binding selectivity. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that association of Oct4 and Oct1 with a distinct group of in vivo targets is inducible by stress, and that Oct1 is essential for a normal post-stress transcriptional response. Finally, using an unbiased Oct1 target screen we identify a large number of genes targeted by Oct1 specifically under conditions of stress, and show that several of these inducible Oct1 targets are also inducibly bound by Oct4 in embryonic stem cells following stress exposure.
Next-generation SELEX Identifies Sequence and Structural Determinants of Splicing Factor Binding in Human Pre-mRNA Sequence
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19861426
Many splicing factors interact with both mRNA and pre-mRNA. The identification of these interactions has been greatly improved by the development of in vivo cross-linking immunoprecipitation. However, the output carries a strong sampling bias in favor of RNPs that form on more abundant RNA species like mRNA. We have developed a novel in vitro approach for surveying binding on pre-mRNA, without cross-linking or sampling bias. Briefly, this approach entails specifically designed oligonucleotide pools that tile through a pre-mRNA sequence. The pool is then partitioned into bound and unbound fractions, which are quantified by a two-color microarray. We applied this approach to locating splicing factor binding sites in and around approximately 4000 exons. We also quantified the effect of secondary structure on binding. The method is validated by the finding that U1snRNP binds at the 5' splice site (5'ss) with a specificity that is nearly identical to the splice donor motif. In agreement with prior reports, we also show that U1snRNP appears to have some affinity for intronic G triplets that are proximal to the 5'ss. Both U1snRNP and the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) avoid exonic binding, and the PTB binding map shows increased enrichment at the polypyrimidine tract. For PTB, we confirm polypyrimidine specificity and are also able to identify structural determinants of PTB binding. We detect multiple binding motifs enriched in the PTB bound fraction of oligonucleotides. These motif combinations augment binding in vitro and are also enriched in the vicinity of exons that have been determined to be in vivo targets of PTB.
High-throughput Binding Analysis Determines the Binding Specificity of ASF/SF2 on Alternatively Spliced Human Pre-mRNAs
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20015017
High-throughput immunoprecipitation studies of transcription factors and splicing factors have revolutionized the fields of transcription and splicing. Recent location studies on Nova1/2 and Fox2 have identified a set of cellular targets of these splicing factors. One problem with identifying binding sites for splicing factors arises from the transient role of RNA in gene expression. The primary role of most splicing factors is to bind pre-mRNA co-transcriptionally and participate in the extremely rapid process of splice site selection and catalysis. Pre-mRNA is a labile species with a steady state level that is three orders of magnitude less abundant than mRNA. As many splicing factors also bind mRNA to some degree, these substrates tend to dominate the output of location studies. Here we present an in-vitro method for screening RNA protein interactions that circumvents these problems. We screen approximately 4000 alternatively spliced exons and the entire Hepatitis C genome for binding of ASF/SF2, the only splicing factor demonstrated to function as an oncogene. From the pre-mRNA sequences returned in this screen we discovered physiologically relevant ASF recognition element motifs. ASF binds two motifs: a C-rich and a purine rich motif. Comparisons with similar data derived from the hnRNP protein PTB reveals little overlap between strong PTB and ASF/SF2 sites. We illustrate how this method could be employed to screen disease alleles with the set of small molecules that have been shown to alter splicing in search for therapies for splicing diseases.
Genome Research. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21527551
The pluripotency control regions (PluCRs) are defined as genomic regions that are bound by POU5F1, SOX2, and NANOG in vivo. We utilized a high-throughput binding assay to record more than 270,000 different DNA/protein binding measurements along incrementally tiled windows of DNA within these PluCRs. This high-resolution binding map is then used to systematically define the context of POU factor binding, and reveals patterns of cooperativity and competition in the pluripotency network. The most prominent pattern is a pervasive binding competition between POU5F1 and the forkhead transcription factors. Like many transcription factors, POU5F1 is co-expressed with a paralog, POU2F1, that shares an apparently identical binding specificity. By analyzing thousands of binding measurements, we discover context effects that discriminate POU2F1 from POU5F1 binding. Proximal NANOG binding promotes POU5F1 binding, whereas nearby SOX2 binding favors POU2F1. We demonstrate by cross-species comparison and by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) that the contextual sequence determinants learned in vitro are sufficient to predict POU2F1 binding in vivo.
Using Positional Distribution to Identify Splicing Elements and Predict Pre-mRNA Processing Defects in Human Genes
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21685335
We present an intuitive strategy for predicting the effect of sequence variation on splicing. In contrast to transcriptional elements, splicing elements appear to be strongly position dependent. We demonstrated that exonic binding of the normally intronic splicing factor, U2AF65, inhibits splicing. Reasoning that the positional distribution of a splicing element is a signature of its function, we developed a method for organizing all possible sequence motifs into clusters based on the genomic profile of their positional distribution around splice sites. Binding sites for serine/arginine rich (SR) proteins tended to be exonic whereas heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) recognition elements were mostly intronic. In addition to the known elements, novel motifs were returned and validated. This method was also predictive of splicing mutations. A mutation in a motif creates a new motif that sometimes has a similar distribution shape to the original motif and sometimes has a different distribution. We created an intraallelic distance measure to capture this property and found that mutations that created large intraallelic distances disrupted splicing in vivo whereas mutations with small distances did not alter splicing. Analyzing the dataset of human disease alleles revealed known splicing mutants to have high intraallelic distances and suggested that 22% of disease alleles that were originally classified as missense mutations may also affect splicing. This category together with mutations in the canonical splicing signals suggest that approximately one third of all disease-causing mutations alter pre-mRNA splicing.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22132185
Regulator of G protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) is a protein that is highly enriched in the striatum, a brain region that mediates motivation, movement and reward responses. We identified a naturally occurring 5 nucleotide deletion polymorphism in the human RGS9 gene and found that the mean body mass index (BMI) of individuals with the deletion was significantly higher than those without. A splicing reporter minigene assay demonstrated that the deletion had the potential to significantly decrease the levels of correctly spliced RGS9 gene product. We measured the weights of rats after virally transduced overexpression of RGS9-2 or the structurally related RGS proteins, RGS7, or RGS11, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and observed a reduction in body weight after overexpression of RGS9-2 but not RGS7 or 11. Conversely, we found that the RGS9 knockout mice were heavier than their wild-type littermates and had significantly higher percentages of abdominal fat. The constituent adipocytes were found to have a mean cross-sectional area that was more than double that of corresponding cells from wild-type mice. However, food intake and locomotion were not significantly different between the two strains. These studies with humans, rats and mice implicate RGS9-2 as a factor in regulating body weight.