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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Winco W.H. Wu in JoVE
Purification and Visualization of Influenza A Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
Winco W.H. Wu, Lindsay L. Weaver, Nelly Panté
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia - UBC
The genome of the influenza A virus consists of eight separate complexes of RNA and proteins, termed viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs). This paper describes the glycerol gradient purification and transmission electron microscopy visualization of influenza A vRNPs.
Other articles by Winco W.H. Wu on PubMed
Defective Discoidin Domain Structure, Subunit Assembly, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Processing of Retinoschisin Are Primary Mechanisms Responsible for X-linked Retinoschisis
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12746437
Retinoschisin is a 24-kDa discoidin domain-containing protein that is secreted from photoreceptor and bipolar cells as a large disulfide-linked multisubunit complex. It functions as a cell adhesion protein to maintain the cellular organization and synaptic structure of the retina. Over 125 different mutations in the RS1 gene are associated with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, the most common form of early onset macular degeneration in males. To identify molecular determinants important for retinoschisin structure and function and elucidate molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, we have analyzed the expression, protein folding, disulfide-linked subunit assembly, intracellular localization, and secretion of wild-type retinoschisin, 15 Cys-to-Ser variants and 12 disease-linked mutants. Our studies, together with molecular modeling of the discoidin domain, identify Cys residues involved in intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonds essential for protein folding and subunit assembly. We show that misfolding of the discoidin domain, defective disulfide-linked subunit assembly, and inability of retinoschisin to insert into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane as part of the protein secretion process are three primary mechanisms responsible for the loss in the function of retinoschisin as a cell adhesion protein and the pathogenesis of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.
RS1, a Discoidin Domain-containing Retinal Cell Adhesion Protein Associated with X-linked Retinoschisis, Exists As a Novel Disulfide-linked Octamer
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15644328
RS1, also known as retinoschisin, is an extracellular protein that plays a crucial role in the cellular organization of the retina. Mutations in RS1 are responsible for X-linked retinoschisis, a common, early-onset macular degeneration in males that results in a splitting of the inner layers of the retina and severe loss in vision. RS1 is assembled and secreted from photoreceptors and bipolar cells as a homo-oligomeric protein complex. Each subunit consists of a 157-amino acid discoidin domain flanked by two small segments of 39 and 5 amino acids. To begin to understand how the structure of RS1 relates to its role in retinal cell adhesion and X-linked retinoschisis, we have determined the subunit organization and disulfide bonding pattern of RS1 by SDS gel electrophoresis, velocity sedimentation, and mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that RS1 exists as a novel octamer in which the eight subunits are joined together by Cys(59)-Cys(223) intermolecular disulfide bonds. Subunits within the octamer are further organized into dimers mediated by Cys(40)-Cys(40) bonds. These cysteines lie just outside the discoidin domain indicating that these flanking segments primarily function in the octamerization of RS1. Within the discoidin domain, two cysteine pairs (Cys(63)-Cys(219) and Cys(110)-Cys(142)) form intramolecular disulfide bonds that are important in protein folding, and one cysteine (Cys(83)) exists in its reduced state. Because mutations that disrupt subunit assembly cause X-linked retinoschisis, the assembly of RS1 into a disulfide-linked homo-octamer appears to be critical for its function as a retinal cell adhesion protein.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17249585
Nuclear Import of Influenza A Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes is Mediated by Two Nuclear Localization Sequences on Viral Nucleoprotein
Virology Journal. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17547769
The influenza A virus replicates in the nucleus of its host cell. Thus, entry of the influenza genome into the cell nucleus is necessary for establishing infection. The genome of the influenza A virus consists of eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA molecules, individually packed with several copies of the viral nucleoprotein (NP) into ribonucleoprotein particles (vRNPs). These vRNPs are large, rod-shaped complexes containing a core of NP, around which the RNA is helically wrapped. The vRNPs are the entities that enter the nucleus, and their nuclear import must be mediated by nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) exposed on the vRNPs. NP contains at least two putative NLSs, one at the N-terminus (NLS1) and one in the middle (NLS2) of the protein. These NP NLSs have been shown to mediate the nuclear import of recombinant NP molecules. However, it remains to be determined which NLS mediates the nuclear import of influenza vRNP complexes.
Retinoschisin (RS1), the Protein Encoded by the X-linked Retinoschisis Gene, is Anchored to the Surface of Retinal Photoreceptor and Bipolar Cells Through Its Interactions with a Na/K ATPase-SARM1 Complex
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17804407
Retinoschisin or RS1 is a discoidin domain-containing protein encoded by the gene responsible for X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), an early onset macular degeneration characterized by a splitting of the retina. Retinoschisin, expressed and secreted from photoreceptors and bipolar cells as a homo-octameric complex, associates with the surface of these cells where it serves to maintain the cellular organization of the retina and the photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic structure. To gain insight into the role of retinoschisin in retinal cell adhesion and the pathogenesis of XLRS, we have investigated membrane components in retinal extracts that interact with retinoschisin. Unlike the discoidin domain-containing blood coagulation proteins Factor V and Factor VIII, retinoschisin did not bind to phospholipids or retinal lipids reconstituted into unilamellar vesicles or immobilized on microtiter plates. Instead, co-immunoprecipitation studies together with mass spectrometric-based proteomics and Western blotting showed that retinoschisin is associated with a complex consisting of Na/K ATPase (alpha3, beta2 isoforms) and the sterile alpha and TIR motif-containing protein SARM1. Double labeling studies for immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the co-localization of retinoschisin with Na/K ATPase and SARM1 in photoreceptors and bipolar cells of retina tissue. We conclude that retinoschisin binds to Na/K ATPase on photoreceptor and bipolar cells. This interaction may be part of a novel SARM1-mediated cell signaling pathway required for the maintenance of retinal cell organization and photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic structure.
Ultrastructural Analysis of the Nuclear Localization Sequences on Influenza A Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
Journal of Molecular Biology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17976646
The influenza A genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA molecules, each associated with an oligomeric core of the structural protein, nucleoprotein, to form a distinct viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex. vRNPs are the entities responsible for the transcription and replication of the influenza viral RNAs in the nuclei of host cells. Thus, nuclear targeting and localization of the vRNPs are a critical step in the infection and life cycle of influenza A. We have recently shown that the nuclear import of vRNPs derived from influenza A virions is independently mediated by two nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) on nucleoprotein: NLS1, spanning residues 1-13 at the N terminus, and NLS2, spanning residues 198-216 in the middle of the protein, with NLS1 being the principal mediator. To better understand the structural basis for the differences in the ability of NLS1 and that of NLS2 to mediate nuclear import of influenza vRNPs, we analyzed the levels of surface exposure of these NLSs on vRNPs by both dot blotting and immunogold labeling of vRNPs in their native state. We found that NLS1 is much more accessible to its corresponding antibody compared with NLS2. Electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled vRNPs further showed that 71% of vRNPs were labeled with one to six gold particles located throughout the vRNP for NLS1. In contrast, less than 10% of vRNPs were labeled with an antibody against NLS2, usually with a single gold particle located at one end of the vRNP. In addition, a regular periodicity of repeat was observed with gold particles labeling for NLS1, indicative of a highly regular helical conformation present in the vRNPs. These findings provide the underlying structural basis for the enhanced ability of NLS1 in mediating nuclear import of influenza vRNPs and add to our understanding of the ultrastructural features of vRNP complexes derived from influenza A virions.
Characterization and Purification of the Discoidin Domain-containing Protein Retinoschisin and Its Interaction with Galactose
Biochemistry. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18690710
RS1, also known as retinoschisin, is an extracellular discoidin domain-containing protein that has been implicated in maintaining the cellular organization and synaptic structure of the vertebrate retina. Mutations in the gene encoding RS1 are responsible for X-linked retinoschisis, a retinal degenerative disease characterized by the splitting of the retinal cell layers and visual impairment. To better understand the role of RS1 in retinal cell biology and X-linked retinoschisis, we have studied the interaction of wild-type and mutant RS1 with various carbohydrates coupled to agarose supports. RS1 bound efficiently to galactose-agarose and to a lesser extent lactose-agarose, but not agarose, N-acetylgalactosamine-agarose, N-acetylglucosamine-agarose, mannose-agarose, or heparin-agarose. RS1 cysteine mutants (C59S/C223S and C59S/C223S/C40S) which prevent disulfide-linked octamer formation exhibited little if any binding to galactose-agarose. The disease-causing R141H mutant bound galactose-agarose at levels similar to that of wild-type RS1, whereas the R141S mutant resulted in a marked reduction in the level of galactose-agarose binding. RS1 bound to galactose-agarose could be effectively displaced by incubation with isopropyl beta- d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). This property was used as a basis to develop an efficient purification procedure. Anion exchange and galactose affinity chromatography was used to purify RS1 from the culture media of stably transformed Sf21 insect cells that express and secrete RS1. This cell expression and protein purification method should prove useful in the isolation of RS1 for detailed structure-function studies.