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In JoVE (1)
- Magnetische Resonantie Spectroscopie van leven Drosophila melanogaster Met behulp van Magic Angle Spinning
Other Publications (13)
- Eukaryotic Cell
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- EMBO Reports
- PloS One
- Nature Protocols
- PloS One
- Cell Host & Microbe
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- PLoS Pathogens
- International Journal of Molecular Medicine
- Disease Models & Mechanisms
- PLoS Pathogens
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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Articles by Yiorgos Apidianakis in JoVE
Magnetische Resonantie Spectroscopie van leven Drosophila melanogaster Met behulp van Magic Angle Spinning
Valeria Righi1,2,3, Yiorgos Apidianakis2,4, Laurence G. Rahme2,4, A. Aria Tzika1,2,3
1NMR Surgical Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Shriners Burn Institute, 3Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center of Biomedical Imaging, Harvard Medical School, 4Molecular Surgery Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Deze techniek maakt het gebruik van hoge-resolutie magic angle spinning proton MR spectroscopie (HRMAS 1H-MRS) voor de moleculaire karakterisering van levende
Other articles by Yiorgos Apidianakis on PubMed
Challenge of Drosophila Melanogaster with Cryptococcus Neoformans and Role of the Innate Immune Response
Eukaryotic Cell. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15075271
We found that the ingestion of Cryptococcus neoformans by Drosophila melanogaster resulted in the death of the fly but that the ingestion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the nonpathogenic Cryptococcus kuetzingii or Cryptococcus laurentii did not. The C. neoformans protein kinase A and RAS signal transduction pathways, previously shown to be involved in virulence in mammals, also played a role in killing Drosophila. Mutation of the Toll immune response pathway, the predominant antifungal pathway of the fly, did not play a role in Drosophila defense following ingestion of the yeast. However, the Toll pathway was necessary for the clearance of C. neoformans introduced directly into the hemolymph of D. melanogaster and for the survival of systemically infected flies.
Profiling Early Infection Responses: Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Eludes Host Defenses by Suppressing Antimicrobial Peptide Gene Expression
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15695583
Insights into the host factors and mechanisms mediating the primary host responses after pathogen presentation remain limited, due in part to the complexity and genetic intractability of host systems. Here, we employ the model Drosophila melanogaster to dissect and identify early host responses that function in the initiation and progression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenesis. First, we use immune potentiation and genetic studies to demonstrate that flies mount a heightened defense against the highly virulent P. aeruginosa strain PA14 when first inoculated with strain CF5, which is avirulent in flies; this effect is mediated via the Imd and Toll signaling pathways. Second, we use whole-genome expression profiling to assess and compare the Drosophila early defense responses triggered by the PA14 vs. CF5 strains to identify genes whose expression patterns are different in susceptible vs. resistant host-pathogen interactions, respectively. Our results identify pathogenesis- and defense-specific genes and uncover a previously undescribed mechanism used by P. aeruginosa in the initial stages of its host interaction: suppression of Drosophila defense responses by limiting antimicrobial peptide gene expression. These results provide insights into the genetic factors that mediate or restrict pathogenesis during the early stages of the bacterial-host interaction to advance our understanding of P. aeruginosa-human infections.
EMBO Reports. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17571073
The stable subdivision of Drosophila limbs into anterior and posterior compartments is a consequence of asymmetrical signalling by Hedgehog (Hh), from the posterior to anterior cells. The activity of the homeodomain protein Engrailed in posterior cells helps to generate this asymmetry by inducing the expression of Hh in the posterior compartment and, at the same time, repressing the expression of the essential downstream component Cubitus interruptus (Ci). Therefore, only anterior cells that receive the Hh signal across the compartment boundary will respond by stabilizing Ci. Here, we describe a new molecular mechanism that helps to maintain the Hh-expressing and Hh-responding cells in different non-overlapping cell populations. Master of thickveins (mtv) - a target of Hh activity encoding a nuclear zinc-finger protein - is required to repress hh expression in anterior cells. Mtv exerts this action in a protein complex with Groucho (Gro) - the founding member of a superfamily of transcriptional corepressors that are conserved throughout eukaryotes. Therefore, Hh restricts its own expression domain in the Drosophila wing through the activity of Mtv and Gro.
Involvement of Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulatory Network in Susceptibility to Wound Infection Following Trauma
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18159239
Despite recent advances in our understanding the pathophysiology of trauma, the basis of the predisposition of trauma patients to infection remains unclear. A Drosophila melanogaster/Pseudomonas aeruginosa injury and infection model was used to identify host genetic components that contribute to the hyper-susceptibility to infection that follows severe trauma. We show that P. aeruginosa compromises skeletal muscle gene (SMG) expression at the injury site to promote infection. We demonstrate that activation of SMG structural components is under the control of cJun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) Kinase, Hemipterous (Hep), and activation of this pathway promotes local resistance to P. aeruginosa in flies and mice. Our study links SMG expression and function to increased susceptibility to infection, and suggests that P. aeruginosa affects SMG homeostasis locally by restricting SMG expression in injured skeletal muscle tissue. Local potentiation of these host responses, and/or inhibition of their suppression by virulent P. aeruginosa cells, could lead to novel therapies that prevent or treat deleterious and potentially fatal infections in severely injured individuals.
Nature Protocols. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19680242
Conservation of host signaling pathways and tissue physiology between Drosophila melanogaster and mammals allows for the modeling of human host-pathogen interactions in Drosophila. Here we present the use of genetically tractable Drosophila models of bacterial pathogenesis to study infection with the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We describe and compare two protocols commonly used to infect Drosophila with P. aeruginosa: needle-pricking and injector-pumping. Each model has relevance for examining host components and bacterial factors in host defense and virulence. Fly survival and bacterial proliferation within host flies can be assessed as a measure of host susceptibility and pathogen virulence potential. The profiles of host responses toward P. aeruginosa virulent and non-virulent strains can be determined, enabling the identification of interaction-specific genes that could potentially favor or limit the initiation and progression of infection. Both of the protocols presented herein may be adapted for the inoculation and study of other microbial pathogens. P. aeruginosa cell preparation requires 24 h, fly inoculation 1 h, and fly survival and bacterial proliferation 1-4 d.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19779606
Identification of novel virulence factors is essential for understanding bacterial pathogenesis and designing antibacterial strategies. In this study, we uncover such a factor, termed KerV, in Proteobacteria. Experiments carried out in a variety of eukaryotic host infection models revealed that the virulence of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa kerV null mutant was compromised when it interacted with amoebae, plants, flies, and mice. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that KerV is a hypothetical methyltransferase and is well-conserved across numerous Proteobacteria, including both well-known and emerging pathogens (e.g., virulent Burkholderia, Escherichia, Shigella, Vibrio, Salmonella, Yersinia and Brucella species). Furthermore, among the 197 kerV orthologs analyzed in this study, about 89% reside in a defined genomic neighborhood, which also possesses essential DNA replication and repair genes and detoxification gene. Finally, infection of Drosophila melanogaster with null mutants demonstrated that KerV orthologs are also crucial in Vibrio cholerae and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis pathogenesis. Our findings suggested that KerV has a novel and broad significance as a virulence factor in pathogenic Proteobacteria and it might serve as a new target for antibiotic drug design.
Cell Host & Microbe. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19837370
To maintain tissue homeostasis and avoid disease, epithelial cells damaged by pathogens need to be readily replenished, and this is mainly achieved by the activation of stem cells. In this Short Review, we discuss recent developments in the exciting field of host epithelia-pathogen interaction in Drosophila as well as in mammals.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19934041
Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperproliferating intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, maintenance, and metastasis. In addition, chronic inflammation and infection have been increasingly recognized for their roles in cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which bacterial infections can initiate SC-mediated tumorigenesis remain elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human opportunistic bacterial pathogen, activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, a hallmark of the host stress response. This, in turn, causes apoptosis of enterocytes, the largest class of differentiated intestinal cells, and promotes a dramatic proliferation of SCs and progenitors that serves as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism to replenish the apoptotic enterocytes. However, we find that this homeostatic mechanism can lead to massive over-proliferation of intestinal cells when infection occurs in animals with a latent oncogenic form of the Ras1 oncogene. The affected intestines develop excess layers of cells with altered apicobasal polarity reminiscent of dysplasia, suggesting that infection can directly synergize with the genetic background in predisposed individuals to initiate SC-mediated tumorigenesis. Our results provide a framework for the study of intestinal bacterial infections and their effects on undifferentiated and mature enteric epithelial cells in the initial stages of intestinal cancer. Assessment of progenitor cell responses to pathogenic intestinal bacteria could provide a measure of predisposition for apoptotic enterocyte-assisted intestinal dysplasias in humans.
PLoS Pathogens. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20300606
Pathogenic bacteria use interconnected multi-layered regulatory networks, such as quorum sensing (QS) networks to sense and respond to environmental cues and external and internal bacterial cell signals, and thereby adapt to and exploit target hosts. Despite the many advances that have been made in understanding QS regulation, little is known regarding how these inputs are integrated and processed in the context of multi-layered QS regulatory networks. Here we report the examination of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs) MvfR regulatory network and determination of its interaction with the QS acyl-homoserine-lactone (AHL) RhlR network. The aim of this work was to elucidate paradigmatically the complex relationships between multi-layered regulatory QS circuitries, their signaling molecules, and the environmental cues to which they respond. Our findings revealed positive and negative homeostatic regulatory loops that fine-tune the MvfR regulon via a multi-layered dependent homeostatic regulation of the cell-cell signaling molecules PQS and HHQ, and interplay between these molecules and iron. We discovered that the MvfR regulon component PqsE is a key mediator in orchestrating this homeostatic regulation, and in establishing a connection to the QS rhlR system in cooperation with RhlR. Our results show that P. aeruginosa modulates the intensity of its virulence response, at least in part, through this multi-layered interplay. Our findings underscore the importance of the homeostatic interplay that balances competition within and between QS systems via cell-cell signaling molecules and environmental cues in the control of virulence gene expression. Elucidation of the fine-tuning of this complex relationship offers novel insights into the regulation of these systems and may inform strategies designed to limit infections caused by P. aeruginosa and related human pathogens.
In Vivo High-resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Drosophila Melanogaster at 14.1 T Shows Trauma in Aging and in Innate Immune-deficiency is Linked to Reduced Insulin Signaling
International Journal of Molecular Medicine. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20596596
In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a non-destructive biochemical tool for investigating live organisms, has yet to be used in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a useful model organism for investigating genetics and physiology. We developed and implemented a high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS) MRS method to investigate live Drosophila at 14.1 T. We demonstrated, for the first time, the feasibility of using HRMAS MRS for molecular characterization of Drosophila with a conventional MR spectrometer equipped with an HRMAS probe. We showed that the metabolic HRMAS MRS profiles of injured, aged wild-type (wt) flies and of immune deficient (imd) flies were more similar to chico flies mutated at the chico gene in the insulin signaling pathway, which is analogous to insulin receptor substrate1-4 (IRS1-4) in mammals and less to those of adipokinetic hormone receptor (akhr) mutant flies, which have an obese phenotype. We thus provide evidence for the hypothesis that trauma in aging and in innate immune-deficiency is linked to insulin signaling. This link may explain the mitochondrial dysfunction that accompanies insulin resistance and muscle wasting that occurs in trauma, aging and immune system deficiencies, leading to higher susceptibility to infection. Our approach advances the development of novel in vivo non-destructive research approaches in Drosophila, suggests biomarkers for investigation of biomedical paradigms, and thus may contribute to novel therapeutic development.
Disease Models & Mechanisms. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21183483
Recent findings concerning Drosophila melanogaster intestinal pathology suggest that this model is well suited for the study of intestinal stem cell physiology during aging, stress and infection. Despite the physiological divergence between vertebrates and insects, the modeling of human intestinal diseases is possible in Drosophila because of the high degree of conservation between Drosophila and mammals with respect to the signaling pathways that control intestinal development, regeneration and disease. Furthermore, the genetic amenability of Drosophila makes it an advantageous model species. The well-studied intestinal stem cell lineage, as well as the tools available for its manipulation in vivo, provide a promising framework that can be used to elucidate many aspects of human intestinal pathology. In this Perspective, we discuss recent advances in the study of Drosophila intestinal infection and pathology, and briefly review the parallels and differences between human and Drosophila intestinal regeneration and disease.
A Quorum Sensing Regulated Small Volatile Molecule Reduces Acute Virulence and Promotes Chronic Infection Phenotypes
PLoS Pathogens. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21829370
A significant number of environmental microorganisms can cause serious, even fatal, acute and chronic infections in humans. The severity and outcome of each type of infection depends on the expression of specific bacterial phenotypes controlled by complex regulatory networks that sense and respond to the host environment. Although bacterial signals that contribute to a successful acute infection have been identified in a number of pathogens, the signals that mediate the onset and establishment of chronic infections have yet to be discovered. We identified a volatile, low molecular weight molecule, 2-amino acetophenone (2-AA), produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces bacterial virulence in vivo in flies and in an acute mouse infection model. 2-AA modulates the activity of the virulence regulator MvfR (multiple virulence factor regulator) via a negative feedback loop and it promotes the emergence of P. aeruginosa phenotypes that likely promote chronic lung infections, including accumulation of lasR mutants, long-term survival at stationary phase, and persistence in a Drosophila infection model. We report for the first time the existence of a quorum sensing (QS) regulated volatile molecule that induces bistability phenotype by stochastically silencing acute virulence functions in P. aeruginosa. We propose that 2-AA mediates changes in a subpopulation of cells that facilitate the exploitation of dynamic host environments and promote gene expression changes that favor chronic infections.
Down-regulation of Glutatione S-transferase α 4 (hGSTA4) in the Muscle of Thermally Injured Patients is Indicative of Susceptibility to Bacterial Infection
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22038048
Patients with severe burns are highly susceptible to bacterial infection. While immunosuppression facilitates infection, the contribution of soft tissues to infection beyond providing a portal for bacterial entry remains unclear. We showed previously that glutathione S-transferase S1 (gstS1), an enzyme with conjugating activity against the lipid peroxidation byproduct 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), is important for resistance against wound infection in Drosophila muscle. The importance of the mammalian functional counterpart of GstS1 in the context of wounds and infection has not been investigated. Here we demonstrate that the presence of a burn wound dramatically affects expression of both human (hGSTA4) and mouse (mGsta4) 4HNE scavengers. hGSTA4 is down-regulated significantly within 1 wk of thermal burn injury in the muscle and fat tissues of patients from the large-scale collaborative Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury multicentered study. Similarly, mGsta4, the murine GST with the highest catalytic efficiency for 4HNE, is down-regulated to approximately half of normal levels in mouse muscle immediately postburn. Consequently, 4HNE protein adducts are increased 4- to 5-fold in mouse muscle postburn. Using an open wound infection model, we show that deletion of mGsta4 renders mice more susceptible to infection with the prevalent wound pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while muscle hGSTA4 expression negatively correlates with burn wound infection episodes per patient. Our data suggest that hGSTA4 down-regulation and the concomitant increase in 4HNE adducts in human muscle are indicative of susceptibility to infection in individuals with severely thermal injuries.-Apidianakis, Y., Que, Y.-A., Xu, W., Tegos, G. P., Zimniak, P., Hamblin, M. R., Tompkins, R. G., Xiao, W., Rahme, L. G. Down-regulation of glutatione S-transferase α 4 (hGSTA4) in the muscle of thermally injured patients is indicative of susceptibility to bacterial infection.