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In JoVE (1)
- Fluorescens-baserad Mätning av Store-drivs kalcium Entry i levande celler: från odlade Cancer Cell till skelettmuskulatur Fiber
Other Publications (47)
- Nature Cell Biology
- Biophysical Journal
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library
- Cell Calcium
- The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Molecular Pharmacology
- The Biochemical Journal
- Molecular Pharmacology
- Cell Research
- Nature Cell Biology
- Cancer Research
- Biophysical Journal
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Molecular Carcinogenesis
- Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
- Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Biochemical Journal
- Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
- Journal of Cell Science
- Cell Research
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Nature Cell Biology
- American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
- FEMS Microbiology Letters
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
- The EMBO Journal
- The American Journal of Gastroenterology
- Pharmaceutical Research
- PloS One
- Chemical Research in Toxicology
- International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Channels (Austin, Tex.)
- Infection and Immunity
- The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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Articles by Zui Pan in JoVE
Fluorescens-baserad Mätning av Store-drivs kalcium Entry i levande celler: från odlade Cancer Cell till skelettmuskulatur Fiber
Zui Pan1, Xiaoli Zhao2, Marco Brotto3
1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Confocal Microscopy and Cell Imaging Core, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 3Muscle Biology Research Group-MUBIG Schools of Nursing & Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City
Omfattningen av butiken som drivs Ca
Other articles by Zui Pan on PubMed
Nature Cell Biology. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11988740
The store-operated calcium channel (SOC) located in the plasma membrane (PM) mediates capacitative entry of extracellular calcium after depletion of intracellular calcium stores in the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). An intimate interaction between the PM and the ER/SR is essential for the operation of this calcium signalling pathway. Mitsugumin 29 (MG29) is a synaptophysin-family-related protein located in the junction between the PM and SR of skeletal muscle. Here, we identify SOC in skeletal muscle and characterise its regulation by MG29 and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) located in the SR. Targeted deletion of mg29 alters the junctional membrane structure, causes severe dysfunction of SOC and SR calcium homeostasis and increases the susceptibility of muscle to fatigue stimulation. Severe dysfunction of SOC is also identified in muscle cells lacking both type 1 and type 3 RyRs, indicating that SOC activation requires an intact interaction between the PM and the SR, and is linked to conformational changes of RyRs. Whereas defective SOC seems to be inconsequential to short-term excitation-contraction coupling, the slow cumulative calcium entry through SOC is crucial for long-term calcium homeostasis, such that reduced SOC activity exaggerates muscle fatigue under conditions of intensive exercise.
Ca(2+)-dependent Interaction Between FKBP12 and Calcineurin Regulates Activity of the Ca(2+) Release Channel in Skeletal Muscle
Biophysical Journal. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12414688
Calcineurin is a Ca(2+) and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase with diverse cellular functions. Here we examined the physical and functional interactions between calcineurin and ryanodine receptor (RyR) in a C2C12 cell line derived from mouse skeletal muscle. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the association between RyR and calcineurin exhibits a strong Ca(2+) dependence. This association involves a Ca(2+) dependent interaction between calcineurin and FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), an accessory subunit of RyR. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, enhanced the caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) in C2C12 cells. This effect was similar to those of FK506 and rapamycin, two drugs known to cause dissociation of FKBP12 from RyR. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of calcineurin in C2C12 cells, DeltaCnA(391-521) (deletion of the last 131 amino acids from calcineurin), resulted in a decrease in CICR. This decrease in CICR activity was partially recovered by pretreatment with cyclosporin A. Furthermore, overexpression of an endogenous calcineurin inhibitor (cain) or an inactive form of calcineurin (DeltaCnA(H101Q)) in C2C12 cells resulted in up-regulation of CICR. Taken together, our data suggest that a trimeric-interaction among calcineurin, FKBP12, and RyR is important for the regulation of the RyR channel activity and may play an important role in the Ca(2+) signaling of muscle contraction and relaxation.
A Retrograde Signal from Calsequestrin for the Regulation of Store-operated Ca2+ Entry in Skeletal Muscle
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12419813
Calsequestrin (CSQ) is a high capacity Ca(2+)-binding protein present in the lumen of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in striated muscle cells and has been shown to regulate the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel activity through interaction with other proteins present in the SR. Here we show that overexpression of wild-type CSQ or a CSQ mutant lacking the junction binding region (amino acids 86-191; Delta junc-CSQ) in mouse skeletal C2C12 myotube enhanced caffeine- and voltage-induced Ca(2+) release by increasing the Ca(2+) load in SR, whereas overexpression of a mutant CSQ lacking a Ca(2+) binding, aspartate-rich domain (amino acids 352-367; Delta asp-CSQ) showed the opposite effects. Depletion of SR Ca(2+) by thapsigargin initiated store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in C2C12 myotubes. A large component of SOCE was inhibited by overexpression of wild-type CSQ or Delta junc-CSQ, whereas myotubes transfected with Delta asp-CSQ exhibited normal function of SOCE. These results indicate that the aspartate-rich segment of CSQ, under conditions of overexpression, can sustain structural interactions that interfere with the SOCE mechanism. Such retrograde activation mechanisms are possibly taking place at the junctional site of the SR.
Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12456355
The store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOC) located on the plasma membrane (PM) mediates capacitative entry of extracellular Ca2+ following depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores in the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). It plays important roles in a variety of cell signaling processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, gene regulation and motility. In skeletal muscle, the L-type Ca2+ channel on the surface membrane has slow kinetics of activation in response to voltage stimulation, and therefore does not support entry of extracellular Ca2+. Recent studies have provided functional evidence for the existence of SOC in muscle cells. Severe dysfunction of SOC is identified in muscle cells lacking either ryanodine receptors located on the SR membrane, or mitsugumin 29 - a membrane protein located in the triad junction of skeletal muscle. These results indicate that SOC activation requires an intact interaction between PM and SR, and is linked to conformational changes of ryanodine receptors. The cumulative entry of Ca2+ through SOC not only provides the mechanism for refilling of intracellular Ca2+ stores, but may also add to the Ca2+ needed for muscle contraction under conditions of intensive exercise and fatigue. The proper coupling of PM with ER/SR, in the triad junction in skeletal muscle or dyad junction in cardiac muscle, is essential not only for the membrane excitation-induced intracellular Ca2+ release but also for the store depletion-initiated capacitative Ca2+ entry.
Cell Calcium. May-Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12765683
Store-operated Ca2+ entry represents an important mechanism for refilling of a depleted intracellular-reticulum Ca2+ store following sustained activation of the IP3 receptor or ryanodine receptor RyR/Ca2+ release channel in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOC) in muscle cells, whose activation process appears to be coupled to conformational changes of the RyR. Regulation of the plasma membrane (PM)-resided SOC by the SR-located RyR requires an integrity of the junctional membrane structure between SR and PM. Proteins that interact with RyR or influence the Ca2+ buffering capacity in the ER or SR lumen also participate in the activation process of SOC. Calsequestrin (CSQ) and calreticulin (CRT) are SR/ER-resident proteins, with highly negative charged regions at the carboxyl-terminal end that exhibit high buffering capacity for luminal Ca2+. CSQ and CRT not only modulate the intracellular Ca2+ release process but also might provide retrograde signals to regulate the function of SOC. The functional interplay between CSQ, RyR and SOC may serve essential roles of Ca2+ signaling in muscle contraction and development. A tight link between the expression of CRT and operation of SOC exist in certain cancer cells, where the reduced sensitivity to apoptosis may correlate with the altered function of SOC.
Ca2+ Dynamics of Thrombin-stimulated Rat Heart-derived Embryonic Myocytes: Relationship to Protein Synthesis and Cell Growth
The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12824066
Various cell types respond to the serum protease, thrombin, with increased proliferation rates. In non-dividing postnatal mammalian cardiomyocytes, however, thrombin induces cellular hypertrophy. Both growth responses are associated with early Ca2+ signaling. The present study was conducted to characterize Ca2+ dynamics in thrombin stimulated, dividing embryonic cardiomyocytes, and to ascertain whether such dynamics support hypertrophic or hyperplastic growth. H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts responded to thrombin with immediate, large increments in free Ca2+ that arose principally from the release of S(E)R sequestered Ca2+ and that persisted for only a few min. Ca2+ stores were refilled within 1h. Thrombin also increased rates of overall protein synthesis for several hours. This translational up-regulation, which required gene transcription, was abolished if cells were incubated at low extracellular Ca2+ during the first hour with thrombin. The protease conferred protective effects against toxicity resulting from serum deprivation and doxorubicin treatment. However, thrombin induced neither cellular hypertrophy, as is seen with arginine vasopressin, nor hyperplasia, as is observed with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In comparison with vasopressin or PDGF-BB, thrombin promoted brief Ca2+ signaling, little cation movement to the extracellular fluid, and more rapid refilling of the S(E)R. It is concluded that the Ca2+ signaling generated by thrombin and the translational stimulation shown in this report to depend on this Ca2+ signaling are insufficient to sustain a major growth response in these embryonic cardiomyocytes.
Co-expression of MG29 and Ryanodine Receptor Leads to Apoptotic Cell Death: Effect Mediated by Intracellular Ca2+ Release
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15039443
Perturbation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis has been shown to regulate the process of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our previous studies show that mitsugumin 29 (MG29), a synaptophysin-related protein localized in the triad junction of skeletal muscle, serves an essential role in muscle Ca2+ signaling by regulating the process of store-operated Ca2+ entry. Here we report a functional interaction between MG29 and the ryanodine receptor (RyR)/Ca2+ release channel. The purified MG29 protein enhances activity of the RyR/Ca2+ release channel incorporated into the lipid bilayer membrane. Co-expression of MG29 and RyR in Chinese hamster ovary cells leads to apoptotic cell death resulting from depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores, despite neither protein expression alone exhibits any significant effect on cell viability. In transient expression studies, the presence of RyR in the endoplasmic reticulum leads to retention of MG29 from the plasma membrane into the intracellular organelles. This functional interaction between MG29 and RyR could have important implications in the Ca2+ signaling processes of muscle cells. Our data also show that perturbation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis can serve as a key signal in the initiation of apoptosis.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15073175
Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria is a major event during apoptosis. Released cytochrome c has been shown to activate caspase-dependent apoptotic signals. In this report, we provide evidence for a novel role of cytochrome c in caspase-independent nuclear apoptosis. We showed that cytochrome c, released from mitochondria upon apoptosis induction, gradually accumulates in the nucleus as evidenced by both immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation. Parallel to nuclear accumulation of cytochrome c, acetylated histone H2A, but not unmodified H2A, was released from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Addition of purified cytochrome c to isolated nuclei recapitulated the preferential release of acetylated, but not deacetylated, histone H2A. Cytochrome c was also found to induce chromatin condensation. These results suggest that the nuclear accumulation of cytochrome c may be directly involved in the remodeling of chromatin. Our results provide evidence of a novel role for cytochrome c in inducing nuclear apoptosis.
Molecular Pharmacology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15102942
Human organic anion transporter 4 (hOAT4) belongs to a superfamily of organic ion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs, including anti-HIV therapeutics, antitumor drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. In this study, we investigated the role of conserved glycine residues in hOAT4 function. We mutagenized each of the six glycine residues (at positions 11, 241, 383, 388, 400, and 466) to serine, and their functional properties were analyzed in COS-7 cells by measuring the uptake of [(3)H]estrone sulfate. Our results showed that mutants G11S, G383S, G388S, and G466S exhibited transport activities comparable with those of wild-type hOAT4. In contrast, mutants G241S and G400S almost completely lost transport function. We then further characterized Gly-241 and Gly-400 by mutagenizing these residues to amino acids with varying sizes of side chains, including alanine, valine, and leucine. We demonstrated that increasingly larger side chains at positions 241 and 400 increasingly impaired hOAT4 function. Cell-surface biotinylation using an impermeant biotinylating reagent showed that mutations of Gly-241 and Gly-400 interfered with the trafficking of the transporter onto cell surface. Immunofluorescence analysis of mutant-transfected cells confirmed these results. Substitutions of amino acids with large side chains at positions 241 and 400 resulted in decreased V(max) and increased K(m.) These results suggest that Gly-241 and Gly-400 are important both in targeting the transporter to the plasma membrane and in substrate binding. This is the first identification and characterization of critical amino acid residues in hOAT4 and may provide important insights into the structure-function relationships of the organic ion transporter family.
The Biochemical Journal. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15291761
Human organic anion transporter 4 (hOAT4) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters which play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs, including anti-HIV therapeutics, antitumour drugs, antibiotics, anti-hypertensives and anti-inflammatories. hOAT4-mediated transport of the organic anion oestrone sulphate in COS-7 cells was inhibited by the histidine-modifying reagent DEPC (diethyl pyrocarbonate). Therefore the role of histidine residues in the function of hOAT4 was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. All five histidine residues of hOAT4 were converted into alanine, singly or in combination. Single replacement of His-47, or simultaneous replacement of His-47/52/83 or His-47/52/83/305/469 (H-less) led to a 50-80% decrease in transport activity. The decreased transport activity of these mutants was correlated with a decreased amount of cell-surface expression, although the total cell expression of these mutants was similar to that of wild-type hOAT4. These results suggest that mutation at positions 47, 47/52/83 and 47/52/83/305/469 impaired membrane expression rather than function. We also showed that, although most of the histidine mutants of hOAT4 were sensitive to inhibition by DEPC, H469A (His-469-->Ala) was completely insensitive to inhibition by this reagent. Therefore modification of His-469 is responsible for the inhibition of hOAT4 by DEPC.
The Role of N-linked Glycosylation in Protein Folding, Membrane Targeting, and Substrate Binding of Human Organic Anion Transporter HOAT4
Molecular Pharmacology. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15576633
We used a novel approach to evaluate how the addition/acquisition and processing/modification of N-linked oligosaccharides play a role in the functional maturation of human organic anion transporter hOAT4. Inhibition of acquisition of oligosaccharides in hOAT4 by mutating asparagine to glutamine and by tunicamycin treatment was combined with the expression of wild-type hOAT4 in a series of mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-Lec cells defective in the different steps of glycosylation processing. We showed that both the disruption of the glycosylation sites by mutagenesis and the inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin treatment resulted in a nonglycosylated hOAT4, which was unable to target to the cell surface. In contrast, hOAT4 synthesized in mutant CHO-Lec cells, carrying different structural forms of sugar moieties (mannose-rich in Lec1 cells, sialic acid-deficient in Lec2 cells, and sialic acid/galactose-deficient in Lec8 cells) were able to traffic to the cell surface. However, hOAT4 expressed in CHO-Lec1 cells had significantly lower binding affinity for its substrates compared with that expressed in parental CHO cells. This study provided novel information that addition/acquisition of oligosaccharides but not the processing of the added oligosaccharides participates in the membrane insertion of hOAT4. Processing of added oligosaccharides from mannose-rich type to complex type is important for enhancing the binding affinity of hOAT4 for its substrates. Glycosylation could therefore serve as a means to specifically regulate hOAT4 function in vivo.
Cell Research. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15780177
NRP-154 is a tumorigenic epithelial cell line derived from the preneoplastic dorsal-lateral prostate of rats. These cells are exquisitely sensitive to TGF-beta induced apoptosis. In contrast, we find that NRP-154 cells can sustain overexpression of exogenous Bax protein, which is different from non-tumor cells where Bax functions as a ubiquitous stimulator of apoptosis. NRP-154 cells stably overexpressing Bax show increased sensitivity to TGF-beta induced apoptosis. The degree of TGF-beta induced apoptosis displays high correlation with cleavage of Bax at the amino-terminus. Our data indicate that prostate cancer cells can host high levels of latent Bax which can be activated through post-translational modification.
Nature Cell Biology. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15834406
Most excitable cells maintain tight control of intracellular Ca(2+) through coordinated interaction between plasma membrane and endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum. Quiescent sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release machinery is essential for the survival and normal function of skeletal muscle. Here we show that subtle membrane deformations induce Ca(2+) sparks in intact mammalian skeletal muscle. Spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks can be reversibly induced by osmotic shock, and participate in a normal physiological response to exercise. In dystrophic muscle with fragile membrane integrity, stress-induced Ca(2+) sparks are essentially irreversible. Moreover, moderate exercise in mdx muscle alters the Ca(2+) spark response. Thus, membrane-deformation-induced Ca(2+) sparks have an important role in physiological and pathophysiological regulation of Ca(2+) signalling, and uncontrolled Ca(2+) spark activity in connection with chronic activation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry may function as a dystrophic signal in mammalian skeletal muscle.
Inhibition of Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Apcmin/+ Mice by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, the Major Catechin in Green Tea
Cancer Research. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16288056
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of two main constituents of green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, on intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice, a recognized mouse model for human intestinal cancer, and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in the inhibitory action of the active constituent. We found that p.o. administration of EGCG at doses of 0.08% or 0.16% in drinking fluid significantly decreased small intestinal tumor formation by 37% or 47%, respectively, whereas caffeine at a dose of 0.044% in drinking fluid had no inhibitory activity against intestinal tumorigenesis. In another experiment, small intestinal tumorigenesis was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by p.o. administration of EGCG in a dose range of 0.02% to 0.32%. P.o. administration of EGCG resulted in increased levels of E-cadherin and decreased levels of nuclear beta-catenin, c-Myc, phospho-Akt, and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in small intestinal tumors. Treatment of HT29 human colon cancer cells with EGCG (12.5 or 20 micromol/L at different times) also increased protein levels of E-cadherin by 27% to 58%, induced the translocation of beta-catenin from nucleus to cytoplasm and plasma membrane, and decreased c-Myc and cyclin D1 (20 micromol/L EGCG for 24 hours). These results indicate that EGCG effectively inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice, possibly through the attenuation of the carcinogenic events, which include aberrant nuclear beta-catenin and activated Akt and ERK signaling.
Uncoupling Store-operated Ca2+ Entry and Altered Ca2+ Release from Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Through Silencing of Junctophilin Genes
Biophysical Journal. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16565048
Junctophilin (JP) mediates the close contact between cell surface and intracellular membranes in muscle cells ensuring efficient excitation-contraction coupling. Here we demonstrate that disruption of triad junction structure formed by the transverse tubular (TT) invagination of plasma membrane and terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by reduction of JP expression leads to defective Ca2+ homeostasis in muscle cells. Using adenovirus with small hairpin interference RNA (shRNA) against both JP1 and JP2 genes, we could achieve acute suppression of JPs in skeletal muscle fibers. The shRNA-treated muscles exhibit deformed triad junctions and reduced store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), which is likely due to uncoupled retrograde signaling from SR to TT. Knockdown of JP also causes a reduction in SR Ca2+ storage and altered caffeine-induced Ca2+ release, suggesting an orthograde regulation of the TT membrane on the SR Ca2+ release machinery. Our data demonstrate that JPs play an important role in controlling overall intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in muscle cells. We speculate that altered expression of JPs may underlie some of the phenotypic changes associated with certain muscle diseases and aging.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16603547
In cells undergoing apoptosis, a 22-amino-acid presenilin-2-loop peptide (PS2-LP, amino acids 308-329 in presenilin-2) is generated through cleavage of the carboxyl-terminal fragment of presenilin-2 by caspase-3. The impact of PS2-LP on the progression of apoptosis, however, is not known. Here we show that PS2-LP is a potent inducer of the mitochondrial-dependent cell death pathway when transduced as a fusion protein with HIV-TAT. Biochemical and functional studies demonstrate that TAT-PS2-LP can interact with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and activate Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum. These results indicate that PS2-LP-mediated alteration of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis may be linked to the acceleration of apoptosis. Therefore, targeting the function of PS2-LP could provide a useful therapeutic tool for the treatment of cancer and degenerative diseases.
Butylated Hydroxyanisole Regulates ARE-mediated Gene Expression Via Nrf2 Coupled with ERK and JNK Signaling Pathway in HepG2 Cells
Molecular Carcinogenesis. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16739127
Many natural and synthetic cancer chemopreventive compounds are potent inducers of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant stress responsive genes. The phase II/antioxidant gene expression plays critical role in chemoprevention of carcinogenesis. The antioxidant responsive element (ARE), located on many phase II/antioxidant genes, binds with the transcription factor Nrf2, and is required for the activation of these phase II/antioxidant gene expression induced by many natural and synthetic cancer chemopreventive compounds. In this study, we investigated the potential roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the regulation of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)-induced and Nrf2-dependent ARE transcriptional activity and ARE-mediated endogenous heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression in HepG2 cells. ARE transcriptional activity and HO-1 protein expression were increased dose dependently after treatment with BHA in HepG2 cells. Dose-response and time-course experiments showed that BHA increased the accumulation of Nrf2, and concomitantly decreased the protein level of Keap1. We next examined the phosphorylation of the MAPKs, and found that BHA significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Importantly BHA-induced ARE transcriptional activity was attenuated by the inhibition of ERK and JNK signaling using biochemical inhibitors and their dominant-negative mutants. Using confocal microscopy technique, treatment with BHA showed the release of Nrf2 sequestered by Keap1 in the cytosol, and that Nrf2 translocated into the nucleus. Importantly, cDNA transfections of ERK and JNK signaling pathways similarly released Nrf2 from Keap1 cytosolic sequestration and translocating Nrf2 into the nucleus. Taken together, these results strongly suggested that ERK and JNK signaling pathways played important and positive roles in BHA-induced and Nrf2-dependent regulation of ARE-mediated gene expression, as well as the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in HepG2 cells.
Immunolocalization of the Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) System in the Rat Ovary and the Anti-apoptotic Effect of HGF in Rat Ovarian Granulosa Cells in Vitro
Reproduction (Cambridge, England). Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16885537
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) regulates granulosa cell (GC) steroidogenesis and suppresses apoptosis in non-ovarian cells. The hypothesis was thus developed that intraovarian HGF supports folliculogenesis by mediating steroidogenesis and suppressing apoptosis. To investigate the latter, the anti-apoptotic actions of HGF were tested in GCs and follicles isolated from immature rats. Results showed that HGF suppressed apoptosis in GC and follicle cultures as visualized using apoptosis indicator dye, YO-PRO-1. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the distribution of HGF, c-met, and HGF activator (HGFA) protein during folliculogenesis in equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)-primed rats. Immunoreactive HGF content was the greatest in GCs within preantral follicles. Following eCG, large antral follicles showed elevated HGF staining in theca and interstitial cells when compared with GCs. Intense c-met staining was observed in GCs within non-primed small preantral follicles; following eCG, the level of c-met was diminished in GCs, but increased within theca and interstitial cells. Theca, interstitium, and GCs in non-primed and primed ovaries contained HGFA. Following eCG, HGFA was more apparent in theca cells and the interstitium when compared to that in GCs within large antral follicles. The presence of HGF, c-met, and HGFA in preantral follicles would potentially enable the anti-apoptotic effects of HGF that were observed in vitro to occur in vivo. Advanced folliculogenesis led to a change in the cellular distribution of the HGF, c-met, and HGFA, suggesting that the ovarian HGF system is hormonally regulated in vivo.
Immunity. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16901729
Although CD95L is required for T cell receptor (TCR)-induced cell death (TCR-ICD) in T helper 1 cells, the molecular mechanisms mediating TCR-ICD in Th2 cells are unknown. We found that death receptors were not involved in TCR-ICD of Th2 cells because blocking their cognate ligands had no effect on apoptosis of activated Th2 cells. Furthermore, we showed that caspases were not actively involved in TCR-ICD of Th2 cells. However, inhibition of granzyme B (GrB) activity abolished TCR-ICD in Th2 cells but not Th1 cells. Likewise, Th2 cells derived from GrB-deficient mice were resistant to TCR-ICD, and GrB deficiency or inhibition of GrB activity consequently enhanced the production of Th2 cytokines. GrB-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to allergen-induced asthma. Thus, GrB plays a critical role in the TCR-ICD of Th2 cells.
Mechanism of Action of Isothiocyanates: the Induction of ARE-regulated Genes is Associated with Activation of ERK and JNK and the Phosphorylation and Nuclear Translocation of Nrf2
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16928811
The up-regulation of phase II detoxifying and stress-responsive genes is believed to play an important role in cancer prevention, and many natural compounds have been shown to be potent inducers of these genes. Previous studies showed that the antioxidant responsive element (ARE), found in these genes, can be bound by the transcription factor Nrf2, and is responsive to the activation by chemopreventive compounds and by oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK) in the regulation of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)-induced and Nrf2-dependent ARE activity and ARE-driven heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression in PC-3 cells. ARE activity and HO-1 expression were strongly increased after treatment with PEITC. PEITC also increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and caused release of Nrf2 from sequestration by Keap1, and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus. Importantly, Nrf2 was also translocated into the nucleus after transfection with ERK or JNK and that these activated ERK and JNK colocalized with Nrf2 in the nucleus. Activation of ERK and JNK signaling also resulted in the elevation of ARE activity and HO-1 expression. Importantly, PEITC-induced ARE activity was attenuated by inhibition of ERK and JNK signaling. In vitro kinase assays showed that both ERK2 and JNK1 could directly phosphorylate glutathione S-transferase-Nrf2 protein. Taken together, these results strongly suggest a model in which PEITC treatment of PC-3 cells activates ERK and JNK, which, in turn, phosphorylate Nrf2 and induce its translocation to the nucleus. Nuclear Nrf2 activates ARE elements and induces expression of stress-responsive genes, including HO-1.
Muscle Aging is Associated with Compromised Ca2+ Spark Signaling and Segregated Intracellular Ca2+ Release
The Journal of Cell Biology. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16943181
Reduced homeostatic capacity for intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) movement may underlie the progression of sarcopenia and contractile dysfunction during muscle aging. We report two alterations to Ca2+ homeostasis in skeletal muscle that are associated with aging. Ca2+ sparks, which are the elemental units of Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, are silent under resting conditions in young muscle, yet activate in a dynamic manner upon deformation of membrane structures. The dynamic nature of Ca2+ sparks appears to be lost in aged skeletal muscle. Using repetitive voltage stimulation on isolated muscle preparations, we identify a segregated [Ca2+]i reserve that uncouples from the normal excitation-contraction process in aged skeletal muscle. Similar phenotypes are observed in adolescent muscle null for a synaptophysin-family protein named mitsugumin-29 (MG29) that is involved in maintenance of muscle membrane ultrastructure and Ca2+ signaling. This finding, coupled with decreased expression of MG29 in aged skeletal muscle, suggests that MG29 expression is important in maintaining skeletal muscle Ca2+ homeostasis during aging.
Azumolene Inhibits a Component of Store-operated Calcium Entry Coupled to the Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16945924
Dantrolene reduces the elevated myoplasmic Ca(2+) generated during malignant hyperthermia, a pharmacogenetic crisis triggered by volatile anesthetics. Although specific binding of dantrolene to the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the Ca(2+) release channel of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, has been demonstrated, there is little evidence for direct dantrolene inhibition of RyR1 channel function. Recent studies suggest store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) contributes to skeletal muscle function, but the effect of dantrolene on this pathway has not been examined. Here we show that azumolene, an equipotent dantrolene analog, inhibits a component of SOCE coupled to activation of RyR1 by caffeine and ryanodine, whereas the SOCE component induced by thapsigargin is not affected. Our data suggest that azumolene distinguishes between two mechanisms of cellular signaling to SOCE in skeletal muscle, one that is coupled to and one independent from RyR1.
Determination of the External Loops and the Cellular Orientation of the N- and the C-termini of the Human Organic Anion Transporter HOAT1
The Biochemical Journal. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17014423
The OAT (organic anion transporter) family mediates the absorption, distribution and excretion of a diverse array of environmental toxins and clinically important drugs. OAT dysfunction significantly contributes to renal, hepatic, neurological and fetal toxicity and disease. As a first step to establish the topological model of hOAT1 (human OAT1), we investigated the external loops and the cellular orientation of the N- and the C-termini of this transporter. Combined approaches of immunofluorescence studies and site-directed chemical labelling were used for such purpose. Immunofluorescence microscopy of Myc-tagged hOAT1 expressed in cultured cells identified that both the N- and the C-termini of the transporter were located in the cytoplasm. Replacement of Lys59 in the predicted extracellular loop I with arginine resulted in a mutant (K59R), which was largely inaccessible for labelling by membrane-impermeable NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimido)-SS (dithio)-biotin present in the extracellular medium. This result suggests that loop I faces outside of the cell membrane. A single lysine residue introduced into putative extracellular loops III, V and VI of mutant K59R, which is devoid of extracellular lysine, reacted readily with membrane-impermeable NHS-SS-biotin, suggesting that these putative extracellular loops are in the extracellular domains of the protein. These studies provided the first experimental evidence on the extracellular loops and the cellular orientation of the N- and the C-termini of hOAT1.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17509612
Junctophilin-2 (JPH2) is a cardiac specific member of the junctophilins, a newly characterized family of junctional membrane complex proteins important in physically approximating the plasmalemmal L-type calcium channel and the sarcoplasmic reticulum ryanodine receptor for calcium-induced calcium release. JPH2 knockout mice showed disrupted calcium transients, altered junctional membrane complex formation, cardiomyopathy, and embryonic lethality. Furthermore, JPH2 gene expression is down-regulated in murine cardiomyopathy models. To this end, we explored JPH2 as a novel candidate gene for the pathogenesis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in humans. Using polymerase chain reaction, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography, and direct DNA sequencing, comprehensive open reading frame/splice site mutational analysis of JPH2 was performed on DNA obtained from 388 unrelated patients with HCM. HCM-associated JPH2 mutations were engineered and functionally characterized using immunocytochemistry, cell morphometry measurements, and live cell confocal calcium imaging. Three novel HCM-susceptibility mutations: S101R, Y141H and S165F, which localize to key functional domains, were discovered in 3/388 unrelated patients with HCM and were absent in 1000 ethnic-matched reference alleles. Functionally, each human mutation caused (i) protein reorganization of junctophilin-2, (ii) perturbations in intracellular calcium signaling, and (iii) marked cardiomyocyte hyperplasia. The molecular and functional evidence implicates defective junctophilin-2 and disrupted calcium signaling as a novel pathogenic mechanism for HCM and establishes HCM as the first human disease associated with genetic defects in JPH2. Whether susceptibility for other cardiomyopathies, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, can be conferred by mutations in JPH2 warrants investigation.
Nature. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17611541
Cell signalling requires efficient Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores through Ca2+ release channels, as well as predicted counter-movement of ions across the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum membrane to balance the transient negative potential generated by Ca2+ release. Ca2+ release channels were cloned more than 15 years ago, whereas the molecular identity of putative counter-ion channels remains unknown. Here we report two TRIC (trimeric intracellular cation) channel subtypes that are differentially expressed on intracellular stores in animal cell types. TRIC subtypes contain three proposed transmembrane segments, and form homo-trimers with a bullet-like structure. Electrophysiological measurements with purified TRIC preparations identify a monovalent cation-selective channel. In TRIC-knockout mice suffering embryonic cardiac failure, mutant cardiac myocytes show severe dysfunction in intracellular Ca2+ handling. The TRIC-deficient skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum shows reduced K+ permeability, as well as altered Ca2+ 'spark' signalling and voltage-induced Ca2+ release. Therefore, TRIC channels are likely to act as counter-ion channels that function in synchronization with Ca2+ release from intracellular stores.
The Tail-anchoring Domain of Bfl1 and HCCS1 Targets Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability to Induce Apoptosis
Journal of Cell Science. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17666431
Many Bcl2 family proteins target intracellular membranes by their C-terminal tail-anchor domain. Bfl1 is a bi-functional Bcl2 family protein with both anti- and pro-apoptotic activities and contains an amphipathic tail-anchoring peptide (ATAP; residues 147-175) with unique properties. Here we show that ATAP targets specifically to mitochondria, and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis that does not require Bax or Bak. Mutagenesis studies revealed that lysine residues flanking the ATAP sequence are involved in targeting of the peptide to the mitochondrial membrane, and charged residues that contribute to the amphipathic nature of ATAP are critical for its pro-apoptotic function. The ATAP sequence is present in another tumor suppressor gene, HCCS1, which contains an additional mitochondria-targeting signal (MTS) close to the ATAP. We propose that both ATAP and MTS could be used as therapeutic peptides to induce cell death in the treatment of cancer cells.
Cell Research. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18040288
Numerous membrane proteins are cleaved by tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE), which causes the release of their ectodomains. An ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family member, TACE contains several noncatalytic domains whose roles in ectodomain shedding have yet to be fully resolved. Here, we have explored the function of the transmembrane domain (TM) of TACE by coupling molecular engineering and functional analysis. A TM-free TACE construct that is anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-binding polypeptide failed to restore shedding of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and L-selectin in cells lacking endogenous TACE activity. Substitution of the TACE TM with that of the prolactin receptor or platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) also resulted in severe loss of TGF-alpha shedding, but had no effects on the cleavage of TNF-alpha and L-selectin. Replacement of the TM in TGF-alpha with that of L-selectin enabled TGF-alpha shedding by the TACE mutants carrying the TM of prolactin receptor and PDGFR. Taken together, our observations suggest that anchorage of TACE to the lipid bilayer through a TM is required for efficient cleavage of a broad spectrum of substrates, and that the amino-acid sequence of TACE TM may play a role in regulatory specificity among TACE substrates.
Overexpression of Bax Induces Down-regulation of Store-operated Calcium Entry in Prostate Cancer Cells
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18247359
Store-operated Ca2+ channels control homeostasis between extracellular Ca2+ reservoir and intracellular Ca2+ storage and play important roles in apoptosis in a wide variety of cells, including prostate epithelia. Recent studies have shown that the acquired apoptosis-resistant nature of androgen-independent prostate cancer is associated with reduced function of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). This study investigates the functional interaction between Bax and SOCE in the apoptosis signaling cascade in prostate cancer. Our previous findings show that NRP-154, an androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line, could sustain overexpression of exogenous Bax without undergoing apoptosis. Here we show that sustained overexpression of Bax in NRP-154 cells leads to down-regulation of SOCE and reduced Ca2+ storage inside the endoplasmic reticulum. While reduced SOCE may represent an adaptive mechanism for cell survival, increased levels of Bax in the latent state enhances the sensitivity of NRP-154 cells to TGF-beta and thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. This enhanced apoptosis can be reduced by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an inhibitor of SOCE, or reversed under conditions where SOCE is only partially activated. Our results demonstrate a functional interaction between Bax and SOCE in apoptosis of prostate cancer, and support the concept that improving this interaction has therapeutic implications for prostate cancer.
Organic Anion Transporter OAT1 Undergoes Constitutive and Protein Kinase C-regulated Trafficking Through a Dynamin- and Clathrin-dependent Pathway
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18818201
Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) mediates the body disposition of a diverse array of environmental toxins and clinically important drugs. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this transporter has profound clinical significance. We previously demonstrate that OAT1 activity was down-regulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC), kinetically revealed as a decrease in the maximum transport velocity V(max) without significant change in the substrate affinity K(m) of the transporter. In the current study, we showed that OAT1 constitutively internalized from and recycled back to the plasma membrane, and PKC activation accelerated OAT1 internalization without affecting OAT1 recycling. We further showed that treatment of OAT1-expressing cells with concanavalin A, depletion of K(+) from the cells, or transfection of dominant negative mutants of dynamin-2 or Eps15 into the cells, all of which block the clathrin-dependent endocytotic pathway, significantly blocked constitutive and PKC-regulated OAT1 internalization. We finally showed that OAT1 colocalized with transferrin, a marker for clathrin-dependent endocytosis, at the cell surface and in the EEA1-positive early endosomes. Together, our findings demonstrated for the first time that (i) OAT1 constitutively traffics between plasma membrane and recycling endosomes, (ii) PKC activation down-regulates OAT1 activity by altering already existent OAT1 trafficking, and (iii) OAT1 internalization occurs partly through a dynamin- and clathrin-dependent pathway.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19029292
Membrane recycling and remodeling contribute to multiple cellular functions, including cell fusion events during myogenesis. We have identified a tripartite motif (TRIM72) family member protein named MG53 and defined its role in mediating the dynamic process of membrane fusion and exocytosis in striated muscle. MG53 is a muscle-specific protein that contains a TRIM motif at the amino terminus and a SPRY motif at the carboxyl terminus. Live cell imaging of green fluorescent protein-MG53 fusion construct in cultured myoblasts showed that although MG53 contains no transmembrane segment it is tightly associated with intracellular vesicles and sarcolemmal membrane. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of MG53 expression impeded myoblast differentiation, whereas overexpression of MG53 enhanced vesicle trafficking to and budding from sarcolemmal membrane. Co-expression studies indicated that MG53 activity is regulated by a functional interaction with caveolin-3. Our data reveal a new function for TRIM family proteins in regulating membrane trafficking and fusion in striated muscles.
Nature Cell Biology. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19043407
Dynamic membrane repair and remodelling is an elemental process that maintains cell integrity and mediates efficient cellular function. Here we report that MG53, a muscle-specific tripartite motif family protein (TRIM72), is a component of the sarcolemmal membrane-repair machinery. MG53 interacts with phosphatidylserine to associate with intracellular vesicles that traffic to and fuse with sarcolemmal membranes. Mice null for MG53 show progressive myopathy and reduced exercise capability, associated with defective membrane-repair capacity. Injury of the sarcolemmal membrane leads to entry of the extracellular oxidative environment and MG53 oligomerization, resulting in recruitment of MG53-containing vesicles to the injury site. After vesicle translocation, entry of extracellular Ca(2+) facilitates vesicle fusion to reseal the membrane. Our data indicate that intracellular vesicle translocation and Ca(2+)-dependent membrane fusion are distinct steps involved in the repair of membrane damage and that MG53 may initiate the assembly of the membrane repair machinery in an oxidation-dependent manner.
The Amino-terminal Peptide of Bax Perturbs Intracellular Ca2+ Homeostasis to Enhance Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19091958
During apoptosis, proteolytic cleavage of Bax at the amino terminus generates a truncated Bax of approximately 18 kDa (p18Bax) and an amino-terminal peptide of approximately 3 kDa (p3Bax). Whereas extensive studies have shown that p18Bax behaves like a BH3 protein with enhanced pro-apoptotic function over that of the full-length Bax (p21Bax), little is known about the function of p3Bax in apoptosis. We have previously shown that Bax and Ca2+ play a synergistic role in amplifying apoptosis signaling and that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) contributes to Bax-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Here we test whether p3Bax can contribute to regulation of Ca2+ signaling during apoptosis through use of a membrane-penetrating peptide to facilitate delivery of recombinant p3Bax into NRP-154 cells, a prostate epithelial cell line with tumorigenic capacity. We find that human immunodefficiency virus transactivator of transcription protein (TAT)-p3Bax fusion peptide can enhance thapsigargin-induced apoptosis in NRP-154 cells, elevate SOCE activity, and increase inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores. Our data indicates that p3Bax can modulate the entry of extracellular Ca2+ and thus regulate the amplification of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
Productive Chlamydia Trachomatis Lymphogranuloma Venereum 434 Infection in Cells with Augmented or Inactivated Autophagic Activities
FEMS Microbiology Letters. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19187200
Autophagy, a eukaryotic cellular activity leading to the degradation of cellular components, serves as a defense mechanism against facultative intracellular bacteria as well as a growth niche for the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. We here demonstrate that the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum strongly induced autophagy in the middle of the chlamydial developmental cycle (24 h after infection), a time point with maximal level of chlamydial replication, but not during the early stages with low overall chlamydial metabolism (before 8 h). No autophagy induction was evident in cells exposed to heat- and UV-inactivated elementary bodies (EBs, the infectious form of Chlamydia) or to inocula from which EBs had been removed before inoculation. Blocking chlamydial development with chloramphenicol also prevented autophagy induction in cells infected with infectious EBs. It appears that autophagy is activated primarily in response to the metabolic stress consequent to chlamydial replication. However, autophagy-defective ATG5(-/-) cells supported chlamydial development as efficiently as autophagy-proficient ATG5(+/+) cells.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19293267
Macular edema contributes to visual impairment, and albuminuria is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These microvascular complications result from increased capillary leakage of plasma proteins whose causation is not completely understood.
Nature. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19387438
Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores represents an important cell signalling process that is regulated, in mammalian cells, by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)), cyclic ADP ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). InsP(3) and cyclic ADP ribose cause the release of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum stores by the activation of InsP(3) and ryanodine receptors (InsP(3)Rs and RyRs). In contrast, the nature of the intracellular stores targeted by NAADP and the molecular identity of the NAADP receptors remain controversial, although evidence indicates that NAADP mobilizes Ca(2+) from lysosome-related acidic compartments. Here we show that two-pore channels (TPCs) comprise a family of NAADP receptors, with human TPC1 (also known as TPCN1) and chicken TPC3 (TPCN3) being expressed on endosomal membranes, and human TPC2 (TPCN2) on lysosomal membranes when expressed in HEK293 cells. Membranes enriched with TPC2 show high affinity NAADP binding, and TPC2 underpins NAADP-induced Ca(2+) release from lysosome-related stores that is subsequently amplified by Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release by InsP(3)Rs. Responses to NAADP were abolished by disrupting the lysosomal proton gradient and by ablating TPC2 expression, but were only attenuated by depleting endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores or by blocking InsP(3)Rs. Thus, TPCs form NAADP receptors that release Ca(2+) from acidic organelles, which can trigger further Ca(2+) signals via sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum. TPCs therefore provide new insights into the regulation and organization of Ca(2+) signals in animal cells, and will advance our understanding of the physiological role of NAADP.
The EMBO Journal. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19387491
Here, we characterize a new K(+) channel-kinase complex that operates in the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans to control learning behaviour. This channel is composed of a pore-forming subunit, dubbed KHT-1 (73% homology to human Kv3.1), and the accessory subunit MPS-1, which shows kinase activity. Genetic, biochemical and electrophysiological evidence show that KHT-1 and MPS-1 form a complex in vitro and in native mechanosensory PLM neurons, and that KHT-1 is a substrate for the kinase activity of MPS-1. Behavioural analysis further shows that the kinase activity of MPS-1 is specifically required for habituation to repetitive mechanical stimulation. Thus, worms bearing an inactive MPS-1 variant (D178N) respond normally to touch on the body but do not habituate to repetitive mechanical stimulation such as tapping on the side of the Petri dish. Hence, the phosphorylation status of KHT-1-MPS-1 seems to be linked to distinct behavioural responses. In the non-phosphorylated state the channel is necessary for the normal function of the touch neurons. In the auto-phosphorylated state the channel acts to induce neuronal adaptation to mechanical stimulation. Taken together, these data establish a new mechanism of dynamic regulation of electrical signalling in the nervous system.
Antibody to Tropomyosin Isoform 5 and Complement Induce the Lysis of Colonocytes in Ulcerative Colitis
The American Journal of Gastroenterology. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19690525
Tropomyosins (TMs) are cytoskeletal microfilament proteins present in all eukaryotic cells. Human TM isoform 5 (hTM5) is the predominant isoform in colonic epithelial cells. Antibodies against hTM5 are found both in the sera and in the mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) but not Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated whether anti-hTM5 autoantibodies are pathogenic.
Regulation of Human Organic Anion Transporter 4 by Protein Kinase C and NHERF-1: Altering the Endocytosis of the Transporter
Pharmaceutical Research. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20140636
Human organic anion transporter 4 (hOAT4) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs. We have previously shown that the activity of hOAT4 was down-regulated by activation of PKC and up-regulated by PDZ protein NHERF-1. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying such regulations.
Involvement of Caveolin-1 in Repair of DNA Damage Through Both Homologous Recombination and Non-homologous End Joining
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20700465
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the major component of caveolae, is a 21-24 kDa integral membrane protein that interacts with a number of signaling molecules. By acting as a scaffolding protein, Cav-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of various physiologic and patho-physiologic processes including oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis, and tumor invasion and metastasis.
TBHQ-induced HO-1 Expression is Mediated by Calcium Through Regulation of Nrf2 Binding to Enhancer and Polymerase II to Promoter Region of HO-1
Chemical Research in Toxicology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21443188
Induction of Nrf2-mediated detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes is an effective strategy for cancer chemoprevention. The goal of this study was to examine the role of calcium [Ca(2+)] in regulating a well-known phenolic chemopreventive compound tertiary-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) activation of Nrf2 and induction of Nrf2 downstream target gene heme-oxygenase (HO-1). tBHQ alone caused Nrf2 nuclear localization and induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting, we showed that tBHQ-induced transcription of HO-1 is Ca(2+)-dependent. Chelation of [Ca(2+)](ext) or [Ca(2+)](intra) by EGTA or BAPTA attenuated tBHQ-induced HO-1. Cotreatment of tBHQ with inhibitors of [Ca(2+)]-sensitive protein kinase C and camodulin kinase did not attenuate HO-1 induction. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 induced by tBHQ was also not affected by treatment of EGTA or BAPTA. Additionally, EGTA and BAPTA treatments decreased basal nuclear phosphorylation of CREB and decreased tBHQ-induced Nrf2-CBP binding and Nrf2 binding to enhancer as well as polymerase II binding to the promoter of HO-1 gene. Furthermore, tBHQ in combination with higher [Ca(2+)](ext) augmented HO-1 induction both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the modulation of [Ca(2+)](int) could be used as an adjuvant to increase the efficacy of chemopreventive agents. Taken together, our results indicated that in addition to tBHQ-induced oxidative stress-mediated Nrf2 translocation, HO-1 induction by tBHQ also appears to be dependent on a series of Ca(2+)-regulated mechanisms.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21494320
Human organic anion transporter hOAT1 plays a critical role in the body disposition of environmental toxins and clinically important drugs including anti-HIV therapeutics, anti-tumor drugs, antibiotics, anti-hypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. In the current study, we investigated the role of dileucine (L6L7) at the amino terminus of hOAT1 in the expression and function of the transporter. We substituted L6L7 with alanine (A) simultaneously. The resulting mutant transporter L6A/L7A showed no transport activity due to its complete loss of expression at the cell surface. Such loss of surface expression of L6A/L7A was consistent with a complete loss of an 80 kDa mature form and a dramatic decrease in a 60 kDa immature form of the mutant transporter in the total cell lysates. Treatment of L6A/L7A-expressing cells with proteasomal inhibitor resulted in a significant increase in the immature form of hOAT1, but not its mature form, whereas treatment of these cells with lysosomal inhibitor had no effect on the expression of the mutant transporters, suggesting that the mutant transporter was degraded through proteasomal pathway. The accumulation of mutant transporter in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was confirmed by coimmunolocalization of L6L7 with calnexin, an ER marker. Furthermore, treatment of L6A/L7A-expressing cells with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) and glycerol, two chemical chaperones, could not promote the exit of the immature form of the mutant transporter from the ER. Our data suggest that L6L7 are critical for the stability and ER export of hOAT1.
Anti-endothelial and Anti-neuronal Effects from Auto-antibodies in Subsets of Adult Diabetes Having a Cluster of Microvascular Complications
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21507498
To test autoantibodies from subsets of diabetes with painful neuropathy, maculopathy and nephropathy for effects in neurons.
A Versatile Single-plasmid System for Tissue-specific and Inducible Control of Gene Expression in Transgenic Mice
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21518849
We describe a novel transgenic system for tissue-specific and inducible control of gene expression in mice. The system employs a tetracycline-responsive CMV promoter that controls transcription of a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) that remains nonfunctional until an interrupting reporter cassette is excised by Cre recombinase. Insertion of Dicer and Drosha RNase processing sites within the shRNA allows generation of siRNA to knock down a target gene efficiently. Tissue-specific shRNA expression is achieved through the use of appropriate inducer mice with tissue-specific expression of Cre. We applied this system to regulate expression of junctophilins (JPs), genes essential for maintenance of membrane ultrastructure and Ca(2+) signaling in muscle. Transgenic mice with skeletal muscle-specific expression of shRNA against JP mRNAs displayed no basal change of JP expression before treatment with doxycycline (Dox), while inducible and reversible knockdown of JPs was achieved by feeding mice with Dox-containing water. Dox-induced knockdown of JPs led to abnormal junctional membrane structure and Ca(2+) signaling in adult muscle fibers, consistent with essential roles of JPs in muscle development and function. This transgenic approach can be applied for inducible and reversible gene knockdown or gene overexpression in many different tissues, thus providing a versatile system for elucidating the physiological gene function in viable animal models.
Store-operated Ca(2+) Entry (SOCE) Contributes to Normal Skeletal Muscle Contractility in Young but Not in Aged Skeletal Muscle
Aging. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21666285
Muscle atrophy alone is insufficient to explain the significant decline in contractile force of skeletal muscle during normal aging. One contributing factor to decreased contractile force in aging skeletal muscle could be compromised excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, without sufficient available Ca(2+) to allow for repetitive muscle contractility, skeletal muscles naturally become weaker. Using biophysical approaches, we previously showed that store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is compromised in aged skeletal muscle but not in young ones. While important, a missing component from previous studies is whether or not SOCE function correlates with contractile function during aging. Here we test the contribution of extracellular Ca(2+) to contractile function of skeletal muscle during aging. First, we demonstrate graded coupling between SR Ca(2+) release channel-mediated Ca(2+) release and activation of SOCE. Inhibition of SOCE produced significant reduction of contractile force in young skeletal muscle, particularly at high frequency stimulation, and such effects were completely absent in aged skeletal muscle. Our data indicate that SOCE contributes to the normal physiological contractile response of young healthy skeletal muscle and that defective extracellular Ca(2+) entry through SOCE contributes to the reduced contractile force characteristic of aged skeletal muscle.
Channels (Austin, Tex.). Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21712647
Ca2+ signaling in skeletal and cardiac muscles is a bi-directional process that involves cross-talk between signaling molecules in the sarcolemmal membrane and Ca2+ release machinery in the intracellular organelles. Maintenance of a junctional membrane structure between the sarcolemmal membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) provides a framework for the conversion of action potential arrived at the sarcolemma into release of Ca2+ from the SR, leading to activation of a variety of physiological processes. Activity-dependent changes in Ca2+ storage inside the SR provides a retrograde signal for the activation of store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOC) on the sarcolemmal membrane, which plays important roles in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in physiology and pathophysiology. Research progress during the last 30 years had advanced our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the control of Ca2+ signaling in muscle and cardiovascular physiology. Here we summarize the functions of three key molecules that are located in the junctional membrane complex of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells: junctophilin as a "glue" that physiologically links the SR membrane to the sarcolemmal membrane for formation of the junctional membrane framework, mitsugumin29 as a muscle-specific synaptophysin family protein that contributes to maintain the coordinated Ca2+ signaling in skeletal muscle, and TRIC as a novel cation-selective channel located on the SR membrane that provides counter-ion current during the rapid process of Ca2+ release from the SR.
Infection and Immunity. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21807906
As arguably the most successful parasite, Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium replicating inside a vacuole of eukaryotic host cells. The chlamydial vacuole does not fuse with the defense cell organelle lysosome. We previously showed that chlamydial infection increases markers of autophagy, an innate antimicrobial activity requiring lysosomal function. However, the work presented here demonstrates that p62, an autophagy protein that is degraded in lysosomes, either remained unchanged or increased in chlamydia-infected human epithelial, mouse fibroblast, and mouse macrophage cell lines. In addition, the activities of three lysosomal enzymes analyzed were diminished in chlamydia-infected macrophages. Bafilomycin A1 (BafA), a specific inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) required for lysosomal function, increased the growth of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (L2) in wild-type murine fibroblasts and macrophages but inhibited growth in the autophagy-deficient ATG5(-/-) fibroblasts. BafA exhibited only slight inhibition or no effect on L2 growth in multiple human genital epithelial cell lines. In contrast to L2, the mouse pathogen Chlamydia muridarum (MoPn) was consistently inhibited by BafA in all cell lines examined, regardless of species origin and autophagy status. Finally, L2 but not MoPn grew more efficiently in the ATG5(-/-) cells than in wild-type cells. These results suggest that there are two types of vATPase-bearing organelles that regulate chlamydial infection: one supports chlamydial infection, while the other plays a defensive role through autophagy when cells are artificially infected with certain chlamydiae that have not been adapted to the host species.
The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22253476
Repair of injury to the plasma membrane is an essential mechanism for maintenance of cellular homeostasis and integrity that involves coordinated movement of intracellular vesicles to membrane injury sites to facilitate patch formation. We have previously identified MG53 as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. In order for MG53 and intracellular vesicles to translocate to membrane injury sites, motor proteins must be involved. Here, we show that nonmuscle myosin type IIA (NM-IIA) interacts with MG53 to regulate vesicle trafficking during cell membrane repair. In cells that are deficient for NM-IIA expression, MG53 cannot translocate to acute injury sites, whereas rescue of NM-IIA expression in these cells can restore MG53-mediated membrane repair. Compromised cell membrane repair is observed in cells with RNAi-mediated knockdown of NM-IIA expression, or following pharmacological alteration of NM-IIA motor function. Together, our data reveal NM-IIA as a key cytoskeleton motor protein that facilitates vesicle trafficking during MG53-mediated cell membrane repair.-Lin, P., Zhu, H., Cai, C., Wang, X., Cao, C., Xiao, R., Pan, Z., Weisleder, N., Takeshima, H., Ma, J. Nonmuscle myosin IIA facilitates vesicle trafficking for MG53-mediated cell membrane repair.