JoVE Behavior documents observational and experimental techniques that seek to understand human and animal behavior. Work in this field includes analysis of genetic causes and physiological responses to internal or external stimuli as well as the implicated brain regions.
1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University
A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.
Published September 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Behavioral neuroscience, alcoholism, relapse, addiction, Pavlovian conditioning, ethanol, reinstatement, discrimination, conditioned approach
1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.
Published September 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Startle; electromyography; shock; addiction; uncertainty; fear; anxiety; humans; psychophysiology; translational
1The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences & Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
This manuscript describes a protocol that applies comprehensive profiling for analysis of transcriptional programs induced in specific brain nuclei of rodents following behavioral paradigms. Herein, this approach is illustrated in the context of profiling genes induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice following acute cocaine exposure, utilizing microfluidic qPCR arrays.
Published August 26, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Brain, behavior, RNA, transcription, nucleus accumbens, cocaine, high-throughput qPCR, experience-dependent plasticity, gene regulatory networks, microdissection
1Center for the Study of Children at Risk, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, 2Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, 3University of Massachusetts, Boston
The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. The purpose of this article is to describe the NNNS, provide video examples of the NNNS procedures and discuss the ways in which the exam has been used.
Published August 25, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale, NNNS, High risk infant, Assessment, Evaluation, Prediction, Long term outcome
1Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Exercise may alleviate behavioral impairments associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Studies of the mechanisms underlying exercise-mediated effects have increased in disease models, but the neurobiological background accompanying these diseases, specifically aging, is likely not considered. Here, we illustrate measures to increase the likelihood of a successful exercise paradigm in aged rats.
Published August 22, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Exercise, locomotor, Parkinson’s disease, aging, treadmill, bradykinesia, Parkinsonism
1Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 2Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research, 3Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 4Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Puget Sound Health Care System
A method to assess exercise endurance in laboratory mice without the use of a shock grid is demonstrated. This method is a humane refinement that can decrease the confounding effects of stress on experimental parameters.
Published August 14, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Exercise, Mouse, Treadmill, Endurance, Refinement
1Department of Neuroscience, Oberlin College
This protocol describes the 5-choice serial reaction time task, which is an operant based task used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. Test day challenges, which are modifications of the standard task, increase flexibility of the task and can be combined with other manipulations to more fully characterize behavior.
Published August 10, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, attention, impulse control, neuroscience, cognition, rodent
1Cognitive, Perceptual & Brain Sciences, University College London
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique for non-invasively disrupting neural information processing and measuring its effect on behavior. When TMS interferes with a task, it indicates that the stimulated brain region is necessary for normal task performance, allowing one to systematically relate brain regions to cognitive functions.
Published July 18, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual lesion, chronometric, cognition, brain, behavior
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University
We present a novel surgical procedure to implant electrodes in Manduca sexta during its early metamorphic stages. This technique allows mechanically stable and electrically reliable coupling with the neuromuscular tissue to study flight neurophysiology dynamics. We also present a novel magnetic levitation platform for tethered studies of insect yaw.
Published July 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Manduca sexta; telemetry; metamorphosis; bioelectronics; neurophysiology; electrophysiology; neuromuscular
1Discipline of Biomedical Science, University of Sydney, 2The Bosch Institute Animal Behavioural Facility, University of Sydney
Motor control and balance performance are known to deteriorate with age. This paper presents a number of standard noninvasive behavioral tests with the addition of a simple rotary stimulus to challenge the vestibular system and show changes in balance performance in a murine model of aging.
Published July 11, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, vestibular, behavior, balance, rotarod, balance beam, aging