JoVE Behavior documents observational and experimental techniques that seek to understand human and animal behavior. Work in this field includes analysis of genetic causes and physiological responses to internal or external stimuli as well as the implicated brain regions.
1Department of Psychology, McGill University, 2Department of Cognitive Science, McGill University, 3Douglas Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 4Neurology and Neurosurgery Department, McGill University
Using event-related EEG potentials (ERPs), we investigate the effects of antipsychotic medications on abnormal semantic brain activations in healthy individuals with schizotypal traits. We use ERPs to track distinct changes in brain activity, shedding insight into the cognitive processes associated with semantic categorization.
Published November 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Electrical brain activity, Semantic categorization, Event-related brain potentials, Neuroscience, Cognition, Psychiatry, Antipsychotic medication, N400, Schizotypy, Schizophrenia.
1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University
Research on social exclusion has grown tremendously in recent years. As the field expands, it is imperative to develop sophisticated methodologies allowing for the simultaneous measurement of neural and behavioral outcomes during social exclusion. This protocol utilizes event-related brain potentials to record ongoing neural activity during computerized social interactions.
Published November 15, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), Social Exclusion, Neuroscience, N2, P3, Cognitive Control
1Department of Physiology, Midwestern University
Detailed instructions are provided on how to train rats to voluntarily dive underwater through a 5 m long Plexiglas maze. Because the brains of rats have been very well characterized, voluntarily diving rats may help elucidate the central pathways of the mammalian diving response.
Published November 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Rat, Rattus norvegicus, voluntary diving, diving response, diving reflex, autonomic reflex, central integration
1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University
Here we describe a touch-screen visual search paradigm that can be used to study threat detection across the lifespan. The paradigm has already been used in various studies demonstrating that both children and adults detect threatening stimuli like snakes, spiders, and angry faces faster than non-threatening stimuli.
Published October 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Detection, threat, attention, attentional bias, anxiety, visual search
1Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Department of Neurosciences and Center for Neurological Restoration, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University
Patients implanted with intracranial electrodes provide a unique opportunity to record neurological data from multiple areas of the brain while the patient performs behavioral tasks. Here, we present a method of recording from implanted patients that can be reproducible at other institutions with access to this patient population.
Published October 2, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Cognitive neuroscience, Epilepsy, Stereo-electroencephalography, Subdural grids, Behavioral method, Electrophysiology
1Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children's National Medical Center, 2Department of Integrative Systems Biology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences
Open field activity levels are used to assess locomotive and behavioral activity levels. This protocol provides a well-designed, standardized protocol to use in preclinical trials for neuromuscular disorders.
Published September 29, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, open field activity, functional testing, behavioral testing, skeletal muscle, congenital muscular dystrophy, muscular dystrophy
1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH
Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.
Published September 22, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, fMRI, task design, data interpretation, cognitive neuroscience, visual oddball task, target detection
1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University
A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.
Published September 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Behavioral neuroscience, alcoholism, relapse, addiction, Pavlovian conditioning, ethanol, reinstatement, discrimination, conditioned approach
1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.
Published September 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Startle; electromyography; shock; addiction; uncertainty; fear; anxiety; humans; psychophysiology; translational
1The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences & Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
This manuscript describes a protocol that applies comprehensive profiling for analysis of transcriptional programs induced in specific brain nuclei of rodents following behavioral paradigms. Herein, this approach is illustrated in the context of profiling genes induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice following acute cocaine exposure, utilizing microfluidic qPCR arrays.
Published August 26, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Brain, behavior, RNA, transcription, nucleus accumbens, cocaine, high-throughput qPCR, experience-dependent plasticity, gene regulatory networks, microdissection