JoVE Behavior documents observational and experimental techniques that seek to understand human and animal behavior. Work in this field includes analysis of genetic causes and physiological responses to internal or external stimuli as well as the implicated brain regions.
1Cognitive, Perceptual & Brain Sciences, University College London
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique for non-invasively disrupting neural information processing and measuring its effect on behavior. When TMS interferes with a task, it indicates that the stimulated brain region is necessary for normal task performance, allowing one to systematically relate brain regions to cognitive functions.
Published July 18, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual lesion, chronometric, cognition, brain, behavior
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University
We present a novel surgical procedure to implant electrodes in Manduca sexta during its early metamorphic stages. This technique allows mechanically stable and electrically reliable coupling with the neuromuscular tissue to study flight neurophysiology dynamics. We also present a novel magnetic levitation platform for tethered studies of insect yaw.
Published July 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Manduca sexta; telemetry; metamorphosis; bioelectronics; neurophysiology; electrophysiology; neuromuscular
1Discipline of Biomedical Science, University of Sydney, 2The Bosch Institute Animal Behavioural Facility, University of Sydney
Motor control and balance performance are known to deteriorate with age. This paper presents a number of standard noninvasive behavioral tests with the addition of a simple rotary stimulus to challenge the vestibular system and show changes in balance performance in a murine model of aging.
Published July 11, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, vestibular, behavior, balance, rotarod, balance beam, aging
1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University, 2Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria
Mouse models have become increasingly popular in studies of behavioral neuroscience. As models advance, it is important to develop sensitive behavioral measures specific to the mouse. This protocol describes the Pasta Matrix Reaching Task, which is a skilled motor task for use in mouse models of stroke.
Published July 10, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Upper extremity impairment, Murine model, Rehabilitation, Reaching, Non-paretic limb training, Good limb training, Less-affected limb training, Learned non-use, Pasta matrix reaching task
1Departments of Paediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Trinity College
Inchworming is a highly repetitive synchronous digging motion displayed by BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice when placed in a testing cage with sufficient sawdust bedding. The procedure is a modification of the juvenile social interaction protocol and is used here to assess repetitive motor stereotypies relevant to Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Published July 5, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, mice, inbred C57BL, social behavior, animal models, autism, BTBR, motor stereotypy, repetitive
1Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychiatry Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Academic Division of Neonatology, Institute for Women's Health, University College London
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating the cortical sources of scalp measured electrical activity for cognitive neuroscience experiments. This article describes how high density EEG is acquired and how recordings are processed for cortical source estimation in children from the age of 2 years at the London Baby Lab.
Published June 30, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, EEG, electroencephalogram, development, source analysis, pediatric, minimum-norm estimation, cognitive neuroscience, event-related potentials
1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki
This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.
Published June 29, 2014. Keywords: Empty Value, awake, in vivo two-photon microscopy, blood vessels, dendrites, dendritic spines, Ca2+ imaging, intrinsic optical imaging, patch-clamp
1Center for Addiction Research, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch
Dietary fat content influences both energy intake and body fat composition in mammals. By examining rats’ preference for high fat food in a series of choice experiments, it is possible to test genetic differences and pharmacological interventions on their preference for high fat food.
Published June 27, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, obesity, fat, preference, choice, diet, macronutrient, animal model
1Department of Psychology, Boston College, 2Department of Psychology, Wofford College, 3Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame
We present a protocol used to discover an interactive effect between sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation, particularly for negative arousing images. Specifically, the experimental design utilizes eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing – methods that can be used with both healthy and clinical participants.
Published June 18, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, attention, consolidation, cortisol, emotion, encoding, glucocorticoids, memory, sleep, stress
1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception. This article describes how to record motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the lip muscles and how to disrupt the motor lip representation using repetitive TMS.
Published June 14, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, electromyography, motor cortex, motor evoked potential, motor excitability, speech, repetitive TMS, rTMS, virtual lesion, transcranial magnetic stimulation