JoVE Behavior documents observational and experimental techniques that seek to understand human and animal behavior. Work in this field includes analysis of genetic causes and physiological responses to internal or external stimuli as well as the implicated brain regions.
1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University
Here we describe a touch-screen visual search paradigm that can be used to study threat detection across the lifespan. The paradigm has already been used in various studies demonstrating that both children and adults detect threatening stimuli like snakes, spiders, and angry faces faster than non-threatening stimuli.
Published October 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Detection, threat, attention, attentional bias, anxiety, visual search
1Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Department of Neurosciences and Center for Neurological Restoration, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University
Patients implanted with intracranial electrodes provide a unique opportunity to record neurological data from multiple areas of the brain while the patient performs behavioral tasks. Here, we present a method of recording from implanted patients that can be reproducible at other institutions with access to this patient population.
Published October 2, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Cognitive neuroscience, Epilepsy, Stereo-electroencephalography, Subdural grids, Behavioral method, Electrophysiology
1Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children's National Medical Center, 2Department of Integrative Systems Biology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences
Open field activity levels are used to assess locomotive and behavioral activity levels. This protocol provides a well-designed, standardized protocol to use in preclinical trials for neuromuscular disorders.
Published September 29, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, open field activity, functional testing, behavioral testing, skeletal muscle, congenital muscular dystrophy, muscular dystrophy
1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH
Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.
Published September 22, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, fMRI, task design, data interpretation, cognitive neuroscience, visual oddball task, target detection
1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University
A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.
Published September 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Behavioral neuroscience, alcoholism, relapse, addiction, Pavlovian conditioning, ethanol, reinstatement, discrimination, conditioned approach
1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.
Published September 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Startle; electromyography; shock; addiction; uncertainty; fear; anxiety; humans; psychophysiology; translational
1The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences & Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
This manuscript describes a protocol that applies comprehensive profiling for analysis of transcriptional programs induced in specific brain nuclei of rodents following behavioral paradigms. Herein, this approach is illustrated in the context of profiling genes induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice following acute cocaine exposure, utilizing microfluidic qPCR arrays.
Published August 26, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Brain, behavior, RNA, transcription, nucleus accumbens, cocaine, high-throughput qPCR, experience-dependent plasticity, gene regulatory networks, microdissection
1Center for the Study of Children at Risk, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, 2Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, 3University of Massachusetts, Boston
The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. The purpose of this article is to describe the NNNS, provide video examples of the NNNS procedures and discuss the ways in which the exam has been used.
Published August 25, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale, NNNS, High risk infant, Assessment, Evaluation, Prediction, Long term outcome
1Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Exercise may alleviate behavioral impairments associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Studies of the mechanisms underlying exercise-mediated effects have increased in disease models, but the neurobiological background accompanying these diseases, specifically aging, is likely not considered. Here, we illustrate measures to increase the likelihood of a successful exercise paradigm in aged rats.
Published August 22, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Exercise, locomotor, Parkinson’s disease, aging, treadmill, bradykinesia, Parkinsonism
1Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 2Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research, 3Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 4Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Puget Sound Health Care System
A method to assess exercise endurance in laboratory mice without the use of a shock grid is demonstrated. This method is a humane refinement that can decrease the confounding effects of stress on experimental parameters.
Published August 14, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Exercise, Mouse, Treadmill, Endurance, Refinement