JoVE Behavior documents observational and experimental techniques that seek to understand human and animal behavior. Work in this field includes analysis of genetic causes and physiological responses to internal or external stimuli as well as the implicated brain regions.
1Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam
Disrupting reconsolidation is a promising approach to dampen the behavioral expression of fear memory in patients with anxiety disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. In a series of human fear conditioning studies we showed that disrupting reconsolidation by the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol is very effective in erasing conditioned fear responding.
Published December 18, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Fear memory, reconsolidation, noradrenergic β-blocker, human fear conditioning, startle potentiation, translational research.
1Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tübingen, 2Department of Psychology, Clemson University
An experimental rotation chair paradigm is used to investigate whether a placebo intervention on motion sickness affects subjective outcome measures only or also affects behavioral and objective measures in a balanced placebo design.
Published December 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, motion sickness, nausea, placebo response, placebo effect, expectancy, electrogastrography, gastric myoelectric activity, rotation tolerance, balanced placebo design
1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge
The goal of the protocol presented here is to describe procedures to expose rats to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal brain development and to quantify resulting alterations in social behavior during adulthood.
Published December 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Aggression, Alcohol Teratogenesis, Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorders, ARND, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, FASD, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, FAS, Social interaction
1Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VAMC, Department of Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Harvard Neurology Residency Program, Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital
Adapted tango has demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. We describe the dissemination of adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and the implementation of adapted tango by the trainees in the community for improving mobility and balance in older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s disease.
Published December 9, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Dance, tango, balance, pedagogy, dissemination, exercise, older adults, Parkinson's Disease, mobility impairments, falls
1Functional and Applied Biomechanics Section, Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health
Monitoring brain activity during upright motor tasks is of great value when investigating the neural source of movement disorders. Here, we demonstrate a protocol that combines functional near infrared spectroscopy with continuous monitoring of muscle and kinematic activity during 4 types of motor tasks.
Published December 5, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, functional near infrared spectroscopy, fNIRS, brain activity, gait, motor tasks, cerebral palsy, coordination
1Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College
This paper describes a novel dual task procedure combined with Rapid Serial Visual Presentation to look at attentional blink at varied stimulus onset asynchronies. This experimental procedure differed from others in that it tested attentional blink for nontargets.
Published December 5, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Dual task, attentional blink, RSVP, target detection, recognition, visual psychophysics
1Department of Psychology, McGill University, 2Department of Cognitive Science, McGill University, 3Douglas Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 4Neurology and Neurosurgery Department, McGill University
Using event-related EEG potentials (ERPs), we investigate the effects of antipsychotic medications on abnormal semantic brain activations in healthy individuals with schizotypal traits. We use ERPs to track distinct changes in brain activity, shedding insight into the cognitive processes associated with semantic categorization.
Published November 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Electrical brain activity, Semantic categorization, Event-related brain potentials, Neuroscience, Cognition, Psychiatry, Antipsychotic medication, N400, Schizotypy, Schizophrenia.
1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University
Research on social exclusion has grown tremendously in recent years. As the field expands, it is imperative to develop sophisticated methodologies allowing for the simultaneous measurement of neural and behavioral outcomes during social exclusion. This protocol utilizes event-related brain potentials to record ongoing neural activity during computerized social interactions.
Published November 15, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), Social Exclusion, Neuroscience, N2, P3, Cognitive Control
1Department of Physiology, Midwestern University
Detailed instructions are provided on how to train rats to voluntarily dive underwater through a 5 m long Plexiglas maze. Because the brains of rats have been very well characterized, voluntarily diving rats may help elucidate the central pathways of the mammalian diving response.
Published November 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Rat, Rattus norvegicus, voluntary diving, diving response, diving reflex, autonomic reflex, central integration
1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University
Here we describe a touch-screen visual search paradigm that can be used to study threat detection across the lifespan. The paradigm has already been used in various studies demonstrating that both children and adults detect threatening stimuli like snakes, spiders, and angry faces faster than non-threatening stimuli.
Published October 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Detection, threat, attention, attentional bias, anxiety, visual search